Topic Review
Electronic Circular Dichroism
This entry provides an introduction to the basic concepts of Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy. It describes the fundamental principles, instrumentation, and different approaches for interpreting and predicting ECD spectra. It surveys the most popular modern applications of ECD for the structural analysis of organic compounds.
  • 11576
  • 24 May 2022
Topic Review
MOFs and COFs
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are two innovative classes of porous coordination polymers. MOFs are three-dimensional materials made up of secondary building blocks comprised of metal ions/clusters and organic ligands whereas COFs are 2D or 3D highly porous organic solids made up by light elements (i.e., H, B, C, N, O). Both MOFs and COFs, being highly conjugated scaffolds, are very promising as photoactive materials for applications in photocatalysis and artificial photosynthesis because of their tunable electronic properties, high surface area, remarkable light and thermal stability, easy and relative low-cost synthesis, and structural versatility. 
  • 1301
  • 08 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Ascorbic Acid-Mediated Reactions
Ascorbic acid is a vitamin found in different types of food. It has tremendous medical applications in several different fields such as in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and in organic synthesis. 
  • 1122
  • 25 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Covalent Adaptable Networks
Thermosets are known to be very reliable polymeric materials for high-performance and light-weight applications, due to their retained dimensional stability, chemical inertia and rigidity over a broad range of temperatures. However, once fully cured, they cannot be easily reshaped or reprocessed, thus leaving still unsolved the issues of recycling and the lack of technological flexibility. Vitrimers, introduced by Leibler et al. in 2011, are a valiant step in the direction of bridging the chasm between thermoplastics and thermosets. Owing to their dynamic covalent networks, they can retain mechanical stability and solvent resistance, but can also flow on demand upon heating. More generally, the family of Covalent Adaptable Networks (CANs) is gleaming with astounding potential, thanks to the huge variety of chemistries that may enable bond exchange. Arising from this signature feature, intriguing properties such as self-healing, recyclability and weldability may expand the horizons for thermosets in terms of improved life-span, sustainability and overall enhanced functionality and versatility. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the most promising studies featuring CANs and vitrimers specifically, with particular regard for their industrial applications. Investigations into composites and sustainable vitrimers from epoxy-based and elastomeric networks are covered in detail.
  • 1062
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Copper Catalyst
The applications of Copper-based nanoparticles have received great attention due to the earth-abundant, low toxicity and inexpensive. Due to these characteristics, copper nanoparticles have generated a great deal of interest especially in the field of catalysis. Traditional Ullmann-type couplings suffer from limited substrate scopes and harsh reaction conditions. The introduction of a new copper-based catalyst over the past two decades has totally changed this situation as it enables the reaction promoted in mild condition. The reaction scope has also been greatly expanded, rendering this copper-based cross-coupling attractive for both academia and industry. Transition metal-catalyzed chemical transformation of organic electrophiles and organometallic reagents belong to the most important cross-coupling reaction in organic synthesis. The biaryl ether division is not only popular in natural products and synthetic pharmaceuticals but also widely found in many pesticides, polymers, and ligands. Copper catalyst has received great attention owing to the low toxicity and low cost. The introduction of homogeneous copper catalysts with the presence of bidentate ligands and also heterogeneous copper catalyst over the past two decades has totally changed this situation as these ligands enable the reaction promoted in mild condition. The reaction scope has also been greatly expanded, rendering this copper-based cross-coupling attractive for both academia and industry. This review had been summarized recently advance homogeneous and heterogeneous copper catalyst in Ullmann reaction and its application and natural product and pharmaceutical industry.
  • 1028
  • 09 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Chemical looping
Chemical looping technology in general, is the rising star in chemical technologies, which is capable of low CO2 emissions with applications in the production of heat, fuels, chemicals, and electricity. This entry discusses the technology in general, gives an overview of some pilot scale plants and the different chemical looping processes with focus on the production of heat and chemicals, highlights the importance of the development of oxygen carrier materials with suitable properties, 2.11.0.0 2.11.0.0
  • 967
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Dipole Moment
Synthesis, biological activity and structure-activity relationships of diverse compounds are described. The relationships between dipole moment and biological activities are discussed. Despite the progress of interdisciplinary science, the use of dipole moment values of organic compounds to understand their potent medicinal activities in various diseases remains unexplored.
  • 918
  • 25 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM)
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is an important component of milk lipids that showed several biological properties (such as anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticholesterolemic activities). In this review we analyse the latest results obtained from comparative proteomic studies regarding the variations and the similarities of MFGM proteome across species and lactation stages. Infant formula supplementation with MFGM represents an interesting opportunity to implement the bioactive properties exerted by MFGM, in order to narrow the gap between human breast milk and infant formula. 
  • 842
  • 27 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Methanol Mitigation during Fruit-Spirits Manufacturing
Methanol is a natural ingredient with major occurrence in fruit spirits, such as apple, pear, plum or cherry spirits, but also in spirits made from coffee pulp. The compound is formed during fermentation and the following mash storage by enzymatic hydrolysis of naturally present pectins. Methanol is toxic above certain threshold levels and legal limits have been set in most jurisdictions. Therefore, the methanol content needs to be mitigated and its level must be controlled. This article will review the several factors that influence the methanol content including the pH value of the mash, the addition of various yeast and enzyme preparations, fermentation temperature, mash storage, and most importantly the raw material quality and hygiene
  • 795
  • 10 May 2021
Topic Review
Ascorbic Acid-Induced Reactions
Ascorbic acid is the most well-known vitamin found in different types of food. It has tremendous medical applications in several different fields such as in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and in organic synthesis. Ascorbic acid can be used as a substrate or mediator in organic synthesis. In this review, we report ascorbic acid-catalyzed reactions in organic synthesis. Several examples are included in this review to demonstrate that ascorbic acid is a versatile catalyst for the synthesis of diverse organic compounds. Reactions catalyzed by ascorbic acid are performed in organic or aqueous media. The readily available and easy handling features of ascorbic acid make these procedures highly fascinating.
  • 681
  • 25 Nov 2020
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