Topic Review
Electronic Circular Dichroism
This entry provides an introduction to the basic concepts of Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy. It describes the fundamental principles, instrumentation, and different approaches for interpreting and predicting ECD spectra. It surveys the most popular modern applications of ECD for the structural analysis of organic compounds.
  • 12261
  • 24 May 2022
Topic Review
Black Soldier Fly
The black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, is a large Stratiomyidae fly (13-20 mm size) found worldwide, but it is believed to have originated in the Americas. It is frequently found in the tropics and temperate regions throughout the world. Although adapted primarily to these regions, it can tolerate wide extremes of temperature except when ovipositing. They are generally considered a beneficial insect and non-pest. The adult fly does not have mouthparts, stingers, or digestive organs; thus, they do not bite or sting and do not feed during its short lifespan. They feed only as larvae and are, therefore, not associated with disease transmission. BSF larvae (BSFL) are voracious eaters of a wide range of organic wastes, decomposing and returning nutrients to the soil. Additionally, BSFL is an alternative  protein source for aquaculture, pet food, livestock feed, and human nutrition.
  • 9010
  • 28 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Geopolymer Concrete
Geopolymer concrete is a type of concrete that is made by reacting aluminate and silicate bearing materials with a caustic activator, such as fly ash or slag from iron and metal production. It can be a suitable substitute for ordinary Portland cement (OPC). 
  • 8583
  • 18 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Extraction Techniques in Sample Preparation
Sample preparation is the most crucial step in the analytical procedure designed for implementation in any analytical application (food analysis, bionalysis, forensics, toxicology, environmental monitoring etc). It is the limiting factor in chemical analysis since it is time consuming and it can potentially introduce errors. No one can doubt that the best approach would be the direct introduction of the sample to the instrument, however this is rarely feasible. Efficient sample pretreatment is inevitably required as the instrument technology has produced highly sophisticated and sensitive analytical equipment. Hence, the analytical scientists have to develop and apply a suitable sample preparation protocol that ensures that the composition of the sample remains unchanged, no impurities are introduced during handling, all interferences have been left back, the analytes’ concentration is not only at detectable levels, but it can also be quantified precisely and accurately and that the matrix of the sample is compatible with the analytical technique. Extraction techniques are the most powerful tool in hands of the analytical chemists and lab practitioners. Either sorbent based or solvent based, extraction techniques provide the necessary tool that can be used to handle the sample in a way that all information in it can be revealed, all advantages in instrumentation have been exploited to the fullest and the lifetime of the instrument is prolonged in a seamless operation mode.
  • 5714
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Two-Dimensional Materials
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are defined as crystalline materials consisting of single- or few-layer atoms, in which the in-plane interatomic interactions are much stronger than those along the stacking direction. Since the success of monolayer graphene exfoliation, 2D materials have been extensively studied due to their unique structures and unprecedented properties. Among these fascinating studies, the most predominant focus has been on their atomic structures, defects, and mechanical behaviors and properties, which serve as the basis for the practical applications of 2D materials.
  • 5381
  • 07 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Tautomerism Detected by NMR
Tautomerism is typically the relocation of a light atom, often hydrogen, at the same time as a rearrangement of the electronic structure.  Typical examples are acetylacetone and acetone. This entry gives a short introduction to how to detect and describe a tautomeric equilibrium using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Typical parameters used are chemical shifts (1H,13C,15N,19F and 17O) one-bond coupling constants and isotope effects on chemical shifts.
  • 5046
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Pearlescent Pigments
Pigments are substances used to modify the colour of a material, which, unlike dyes, are insoluble both in common solvents and binders. Pigments can be either organic or inorganic, though the latest type is the most used and widespread for industry applications.
  • 4660
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Synthetic Dyes
Synthetic dyes are commonly used in food products like soft drinks, vegetable sauces, jellies, etc. Most artificial dyes can cause cancer, therefore it is very important to develop sensors to detect them in food samples.
  • 4411
  • 09 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Monochromatic X-rays
Monochromatic X-ray has a single energy level in contrast to white X-rays used in conventional radiation therapy. Irradiation of high Z elements such as gadolinium, gold and silver with a monochromatic X-ray can result in photoelectric effects that includes the release of the Auger electrons that have strong cell killing effect. To apply this principle to cancer therapy, various nanoparticles loaded with high Z elements have been developed that enabled high Z elements to be delivered to tumor. The recent addition is gadolinium-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle (Gd-MSN). Tumor spheroids have been used as a convenient tumor model to demonstrate that monochromatic X-rays with energy level at or higher than the K-edge energy of gadolinium can destruct tumor mass that has Gd-MSN distributed throughout tumor spheroids.
  • 3383
  • 22 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Anti-COVID-19 potential of Clove phytochemicals
The current COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is enormously affecting the worldwide health and economy. In the wait for an effective global immunization, the development of a specific therapeutic protocol to treat COVID-19 patients is clearly necessary as a short-term solution of the problem. Drug repurposing and herbal medicine represent two of the most explored strategies for an anti-COVID-19 drug discovery. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) is a well-known culinary spice that has been used for centuries in folk medicine in many disorders. Interestingly, traditional medicines have used clove since ancient times to treat respiratory ailments, whilst clove ingredients show antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Other interesting features are the clove antithrombotic, immunostimulatory, and antibacterial effects.
  • 3300
  • 13 May 2021
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