Topic Review
Non-alcoholic Fraction of Beer
The present review focuses on the effects of non-alcoholic components of beer on abdominal fat, osteoporosis and body hydration in women, conditions selected for their relevance to health and aging. Although beer drinking is commonly believed to cause abdominal fat deposition, the available literature indicates this outcome is inconsistent in women. Additionally, the non-alcoholic beer fraction might improve bone health in postmenopausal women, and the effects of beer on body hydration, although still unconfirmed seem promising. Most of the health benefits of beer are due to its bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols, which are the most studied. As alcohol-free beer also contains these compounds, it may well offer a healthy alternative to beer consumers.
  • 432
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Games for Diabetes Control
Finding methods to improve people’s diabetes control and management is important to prevent its complications and maintain the quality of life. The aim of this review was to assess the effect of games on the blood glucose level (glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)). A systematic review and meta-analysis were made. Pubmed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases were consulted in July of 2020. Ten studies were selected as a final sample, most of them being clinical trials using games to improve diabetes control. Half of the studies had samples between 8 and 14.9 years old and the other half between 57 and 65 years old. The studies informed about using applications/games for mobile phones, game consoles, and board games for diabetes education and management. The meta-analysis was performed with 4 studies showing a mean difference of 0.12 (CI 95% 0.57, 0.33) of HbA1c in favor of the intervention group with p > 0.05. Games are positive for diabetes health education and promoting healthier lifestyle, but their impact on HbA1c is low.
  • 379
  • 23 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Augmented Reality
Research shows the beneficial effects of applying Augmented Reality technology to improve different abilities in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: cognitive and emotional processes, social communication, theory of mind, attention, and functional and motor outcomes.
  • 372
  • 02 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Pulse Wave Velocity
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a simple, reproducible and non-invasive technique to assess arterial stiffness. It estimates the velocity of arterial wave propagation to travel a known distance between two anatomic sites within the arterial system [1]. PWV has been established as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and is consequently used for diagnosis and prognosis in patients at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [2]; however, PWV's significance relies on the fact that arterial stiffness, specially of muscular arteries can be modified by interventions that improve endothelial function such as exercise training, which makes PWV an important tool for cardiovascular risk management [3].
  • 371
  • 24 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Probiotics and Synbiotics on Hirsutism
Probiotics and synbiotics are known to have beneficial effects on human health and disease. Hirsutism, a disorder that is characterised by the presence of coarse terminal hairs in a male-like pattern, is usually caused by elevated androgen levels in blood plasma. This disorder is usually ob-served in PCOS women and it is linked to insulin resistance (IR). Although idiopathic hirsutism (IH) is not shown to have excess androgen production from the ovarian and adrenal glands, in-creased 5α-reductase in peripheral tissues and insulin resistance are common observations.
  • 368
  • 27 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Belching is defined as “an audible escape of air from the esophagus or the stomach into the pharynx”.
  • 355
  • 26 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Future of Work and OSH
Rapid and profound changes anticipated in the future of work will have significant implications for the education and training of occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals and the workforce. As the nature of the workplace, work, and the workforce change, the OSH field must expand its focus to include existing and new hazards (some yet unknown), consider how to protect the health and well-being of a diverse workforce, and understand and mitigate the safety implications of new work arrangements. Preparing for these changes is critical to developing proactive systems that can protect workers, prevent injury and illness, and promote worker well-being. An in-person workshop held on February 3–4, 2020 at The University of Texas Health Science Center (UTHealth) School of Public Health in Houston, Texas, USA, examined some of the challenges and opportunities OSH education will face in both academic and industry settings. The onslaught of the COVID-19 global pandemic reached the United States one month after this workshop and greatly accelerated the pace of change.
  • 347
  • 23 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Lignin-Based Sunscreens
In light of recent research, a vast majority of the commonly-used broad-range sunscreens fail to provide adequate protection against portions of sunlight that age and otherwise damage the skin, including visual light. In addition, many of their UV-active synthetic components that easily pass through effluent wastewater treatment plants have been linked to coral bleaching and other negative effects on marine ecosystems. These compounds may also penetrate the skin and are suspected of causing allergies and acting as hormone disruptors. Technical lignins are phenolic biopolymers obtained in large quantities as by-products of chemical pulping and biomass refinery processes that have been found to be of low toxicity to normal mammalian cells. Because of their polymeric nature, they should be much easier to remove from wastewater than the small synthetic UV-active compounds used in chemical sunscreens. Provided that they have the right chemical structure and are converted to nanoparticles, they display significant absorbance in the UV- and visual wavelength areas of sunlight. Most commercial sunscreens are whitish because of perceived consumer preference and for this reason, contain only compounds that have insignificant absorbance in the visual region of sunlight. Coupled with their ability to act as antioxidants and preservatives, lignin-based sunscreens offer themselves as a bio-based and safe multi-functional additive for high-SPF (Sun Protection Factor) sunscreens and cosmetics. This review addresses the state-of-the art of lignin-based sunscreens.
  • 333
  • 19 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Vitamin E and cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cause about 1/3 of global deaths. Therefore, new strategies for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular events are highly sought-after. Vitamin E is known for significant antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and has been studied in the prevention of CVD, supported by findings that vitamin E deficiency is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, randomized controlled trials in humans reveal conflicting and ultimately disappointing results regarding the reduction of cardiovascular events with vitamin E supplementation. As we discuss in detail, this outcome is strongly affected by study design, cohort selection, co-morbidities, genetic variations, age, and gender. For effective chronic primary and secondary prevention by vitamin E, oxidative and inflammatory status might not have been sufficiently antagonized. In contrast, acute administration of vitamin E may be more translatable into positive clinical outcomes. In patients with myocardial infarction (MI), which is associated with severe oxidative and inflammatory reactions, decreased plasma levels of vitamin E have been found. The offsetting of this acute vitamin E deficiency via short-term treatment in MI has shown promising results, and, thus, acute medication, rather than chronic supplementation, with vitamin E might revitalize vitamin E therapy and even provide positive clinical outcomes.
  • 304
  • 13 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Saliva Sensor
The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers saliva contact the lead transmission mean of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Saliva droplets or aerosols expelled by sneezing, coughing, breathing, and talking may carry this virus. People in close distance may be exposed directly to these droplets or indirectly when touching the droplets that fall on surrounding surfaces and ending up contracting COVID-19 after touching the mucosa tissue of their faces. It is of great interest to quickly and effectively detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in an environment, but the existing methods only work in laboratory settings, to the best of our knowledge. However, it may be possible to detect the presence of saliva in the environment and proceed with prevention measures. However, detecting saliva itself has not been documented in the literature. On the other hand, many sensors that detect different organic components in saliva to monitor a person’s health and diagnose different diseases, ranging from diabetes to dental health, have been proposed and they may be used to detect the presence of saliva.
  • 293
  • 20 Jan 2021
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