Topic Review
Iron-Containing Oral Contraceptives
Oral contraceptive use has been associated with decreased menstrual blood losses; thus, can independently reduce the risk of anemia and iron deficiency in women. Manufacturers have recently started to include supplemental iron in the non-hormonal placebo tablets of some contraceptives. 
  • 411
  • 15 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Mobile Mental Health Application
The demand to improve mental quality of life has increased along with the recent increase in interest in and awareness of mental health. Consequently, the concept of mental health services emerged, along with an increased demand to manage mental health using information and communication technology (ICT) such as mobile communication and social network services (SNS).
  • 200
  • 25 Apr 2021
Topic Review
COVID-19 Effect on Supply Chains
The COVID-19 pandemic has generated disruptions in supply chains, traveling, businesses, and a loss of human lives that is being accounted for at least five million diseased. When the pandemic started, uncertainties, the lockdown of countries, and stay-at-home orders generated that millions of people made runs to grocery stores to buy essential products, the most distinctive being hygiene tissue, antibacterial formulations, and hand sanitizers. Then workers in essential processes in the medical, food, and manufacturing industries had to restart work to keep supply chains running. That generated further repercussions due to the infection of workers in multiple facilities, which created more considerable uncertainties. Universities and schools were mandated to close, and work-from-home orders were enacted in most sectors. In this entry, a summary of the essential factors, current situation, and future perspective regarding the effect generated by COVID-19 on the disruptions of supply chains is presented. The strategic sectors summarized are food and produce, transportation, paper products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, medical supplies, automobiles, minerals and technology companies. At two years since the WHO declaration, there are still shockwaves that show some unpredictability. Hence, companies and governments should look for strategical plans for preparing for this kind of event, making supply chains resilient or even immune to pandemics, natural disasters and trade wars.
  • 187
  • 22 Jan 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Digital Mental Health Implementation Challenges
Digital Mental Health is information and communication technology used in mental health services delivered or boosted through the Internet and related technologies, smartphone and wearable technologies as well as immersive solutions (e.g., Virtual Reality and video games). It is predominantly used as self-help services or with the assistance of a (para-)professional and/or artificial intelligence for the provision of mental health promotion as well as mental ill-health identification, prevention and intervention.
  • 183
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Newborn and Child Health
Home-based records are paper or electronic records retained and used by mothers or caregivers to document the health services received for maternal, newborn, and child health. Little has been studied about the roles of these records on newborn and child health outcomes.
  • 162
  • 29 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Asynchronous Environment Assessment
The emergence and global spread of COVID-19 has disrupted the traditional mechanisms of education throughout the world. Institutions of learning were caught unprepared and this jeopardised the face-to-face method of curriculum delivery and assessment. Teaching institutions have shifted to an asynchronous mode whilst attempting to preserve the principles of integrity, equity, inclusiveness, fairness, ethics, and safety. A framework of assessment that enables educators to utilise appropriate methods in measuring a student’s progress is crucial for the success of teaching and learning, especially in health education that demands high standards and comprises consistent scientific content. 
  • 160
  • 30 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Life Satisfaction in New Zealand
One of the three measures of subjective wellbeing used in New Zealand' s Living Standards Framework is life satisfaction. Life satisfaction, or ‘satisfaction with life’, has been defined as a cognitive evaluation of overall satisfaction with an individual’s current life, relative to the individual’s own criteria of what a satisfactory life is. Life satisfaction is widely regarded as a key measure of subjective wellbeing. Prevalence and predictors of life satisfaction in New Zealand (NZ) from a sample of 10,799 participants from NZ, drawn from the Gallup World Poll from 2006 to 2017 are investigated. Prevalence of life satisfaction across time varied little, satisfaction with standards of living predicted life satisfaction regardless of age or gender, and for males across all age groups and females up to age 40 years, positive experiences and satisfaction with household income were important predictors. Being married was an important predictor for males over 40 years and feeling satisfied with their current city was important for females across all ages and for men under 40.
  • 146
  • 13 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Abortion in Times of COVID-19
The COVID-19 health emergency has thrown the health systems of most European countries into a deep crisis, forcing them to call off and postpone all interventions deemed not essential or life-saving in order to focus most resources on the treatment of COVID-19 patients. To facilitate women who are experiencing difficulties in terminating their pregnancies in Italy, the Ministry of Health has adapted to the regulations in force in most European countries and issued new guidelines that allow medical abortion up to 63 days, i.e., 9 weeks of gestational age, without mandatory hospitalization. This decision was met with some controversy, based on the assumption that the abortion pill could “incentivize” women to resort to abortion more easily.
  • 144
  • 19 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Social Determinants of Health and Microbiome in Children
The evolving field of microbiome research offers an excellent opportunity for biomarker identification, understanding drug metabolization disparities, and improving personalized medicine. However, the complexities of host–microbe ecological interactions hinder clinical transferability. Among other factors, the microbiome is deeply influenced by age and social determinants of health, including environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle conditions. In this entry, the bidirectionality of social and host–microorganism interactions in health will be discussed.
  • 127
  • 20 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Telehealth Geriatrics during COVID-19
Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected older people disproportionately. Prior to the pandemic, some studies reported that telehealth was an efficient and effective form of health care delivery, particularly for older people. There has been increased use of telehealth and publication of new literature on this topic during the pandemic, so we conducted a scoping review and evidence synthesis for telehealth use in geriatric care to summarize learning from these new data.
  • 121
  • 25 Mar 2021
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