Topic Review
γ-Glutamyltransferase in Urologic Neoplasms
γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), a membrane-bound enzyme, contributes to the metabolism of glutathione (GSH), which plays a critical physiological role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. GGT has been proposed as a biomarker of carcinogenesis and tumor progression given that GGT activity is important during both the promotion and invasion phases in cancer cells.
  • 263
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
The Relationship between COVID-19 and Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly heterogeneous disease regarding severity, vulnerability to infection due to comorbidities, and treatment approaches. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis has been identified as one of the most critical endocrine targets of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that might significantly impact outcomes after infection.
  • 258
  • 18 Jul 2022
Topic Review
HRCT of Drug-Induced ILD
Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of pathologies, which may be related to different causes. A low percentage of these lung diseases may be secondary to the administration of drugs or substances. Several different high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) patterns related to pulmonary drug toxicity have been reported in literature, and the most frequent ILDs patterns reported include Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP), Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP), Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP), Organizing Pneumonia (OP), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), and Diffuse Alveolar Damage (DAD). 
  • 252
  • 14 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Syndrome of Undifferentiated Recurrent Fever
Syndrome of undifferentiated recurrent fever (SURF) is a heterogeneous group of autoinflammatory diseases (AID) characterized by self-limiting episodes of systemic inflammation without a confirmed molecular diagnosis, not fulfilling the criteria for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenopathy (PFAPA) syndrome.
  • 251
  • 13 May 2021
Topic Review
The NADPH oxidase Nox4 is a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing enzyme, with the highest expression in the kidney. As the kidney is involved in volume and blood pressure control through sodium handling, we set out to determine the impact of a low sodium diet on these parameters in WT and Nox4-/- mice. Nox4 expression in the murine kidney was restricted to the proximal tubule. Nevertheless, low-sodium-induced weight loss and sodium sparing function was similar in WT and Nox4-/- mice, disputing an important function of renal Nox4 in sodium handling. In contrast, a low sodium diet resulted in a reduction in systolic blood pressure in Nox4-/- as compared to WT mice. This was associated with a selectively lower pressure to heart-rate ratio, as well as heart to body weight ratio. In general, a low sodium diet leads to activation of sympathetic tone and the renin angiotensin system, which subsequently increases peripheral resistance. Our observations suggest that the control by this system is attenuated in Nox4-/- mice, resulting in lower blood pressure in response to low sodium.
  • 249
  • 24 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Polyphenolic Compounds of Seaweed
The disease-preventive and medicinal properties of plant polyphenolic compounds have long been known. As active ingredients, they are used to prevent and treat many noncommunicable diseases. In recent decades, marine macroalgae have attracted the attention of biotechnologists and pharmacologists as a promising and almost inexhaustible source of polyphenols. This heterogeneous group of compounds contains many biopolymers with unique structure and biological properties that exhibit high anti-infective activity. In the present review, the authors focus on the antiviral potential of polyphenolic compounds (phlorotannins) from marine algae and consider the mechanisms of their action as well as other biological properties of these compounds that have effects on the progress and outcome of viral infections. 
  • 247
  • 28 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Pyrimidine Derivatives as Anticancer Agents
In this entry, new pyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized and analyzed in terms of their anticancer properties. The tested compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antitumor activity. The cytotoxic effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) was also determined. According to the results, all the tested compounds exhibited inhibitory activity on the proliferation of all lines of cancer cells (colon adenocarcinoma (LoVo), resistant colon adenocarcinoma (LoVo/DX), breast cancer (MCF-7), lung cancer (A549), cervical cancer (HeLa), human leukemic lymphoblasts (CCRF-CEM) and human monocytic (THP-1)).
  • 240
  • 23 Apr 2021
Topic Review
ENDS, HTP and Lung
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and heated tobacco products (HTP) are sold by the tobacco industry as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes with misleading marketing sustained by studies with conflict of interest. Research on these products found that damage produced by using these devices is involved in pathways related to pulmonary diseases, with  mechanisms previously reported in conventional cigarettes and new mechanisms particular to these devices, which challenges that the tobacco industry’s claims.
  • 236
  • 12 May 2021
Topic Review
Mitochondrial Dysfunction
Mitochondrial dysfunction results in a series of defective cellular events, including decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) output, and altered proteastasis and cellular quality control. An enhanced output of ROS may damage mitochondrial components, such as mitochondrial DNA and elements of the electron transport chain, resulting in the loss of proper electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane and an ensuing shutdown of mitochondrial energy production. Neurons have an increased demand for ATP and oxygen, and thus are more prone to damage induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction, damaged electron transport chains, altered membrane permeability and Ca2+ homeostasis, and impaired mitochondrial defense systems induced by oxidative stress, are pathological changes involved in neurodegenerative disorders. A growing body of evidence suggests that the use of antioxidants could stabilize mitochondria and thus may be suitable for preventing neuronal loss. Numerous natural products exhibit the potential to counter oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction; however, science is still looking for a breakthrough in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. β-caryophyllene is a bicyclic sesquiterpene, and an active principle of essential oils derived from a large number of spices and food plants. As a selective cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist, several studies have reported it as possessing numerous pharmacological activities such as antibacterial (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic (e.g., neuropathic pain), anti-neurodegenerative and anticancer properties. The present review mainly focuses on the potential of β-caryophyllene in reducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and its possible links with neuroprotection. 
  • 235
  • 29 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Traditional Healing Practices in Fiji
Traditional Healing Practices in Fiji means the therapies using ceremonies; plant-, animal-, or mineral-based medicines; energy therapies (also called biofield therapies). They are based on the belief that there are energy fields that flow through and around your body. When energy is flowing freely through your body, you have good emotional, physical and spiritual health. When you are ill, the energy flow is blocked 
  • 233
  • 28 Sep 2021
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