Topic Review
Applications of AMPs in Packaging
Antimicrobial Peptides can be defined as the molecules of the innate immune system present in all life forms, ranging from bacteria to human beings. The innate immune system is a defence system working non-specifically against injury or infection in the barrier surface. AMPs are composed of a sequence of amino acid ranging from 5 to 50 chains, usually L-amino acids.
  • 375
  • 13 Aug 2021
Topic Review
‘Helete Güneşi’, a New Walnut Cultivar
‘Helete Güneşi’ was selected among different genotypes obtained from crossing ‘Maraş 18’ × ‘Chandler’ in Turkey. The present study compares phenological and pomological traits of ‘Helete Güneşi’ with those of its parents so as to scale their performances. ‘Helete Güneşi’ staged leaf out on 22 April, whereas its parents, ‘Chandler’ and ‘Maraş 18’, did on 20 and 12 April, respectively. The harvest date of ‘Helete Güneşi’ was as early as 17 September, whereas ‘Chandler’ and ‘Maraş 18’ began to be harvested on 5 October and 15 September, respectively. Defoliation in ‘Helete Güneşi’ occurred about 1 month earlier than ‘Chandler’. The nut weight and kernel percentage of ‘Helete Güneşi’ were 13.41 g and 53.39%, respectively, whereas in ‘Chandler’ the values were 12.73 g and 48.23%, respectively, but were 14.62 g and 53.76% in ‘Maraş 18’. ‘Helete Güneşi’ had a higher yield value compared to its parents. The results demonstrated that ‘Helete Güneşi’ has superior traits in being selected for late leafing date, early harvest date, high yield, and good nut quality. Therefore, it can be considered as a valuable genetic resource in future breeding programs around the world.
  • 358
  • 02 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Lignin as Fermentation Substrate
Lignin is the most abundant material, and it can be used to produce value-added products such as lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial lipids, vanillin, muconic acid, and many others.
  • 348
  • 28 May 2021
Topic Review
Cold Plasma
Plasma is referred to as the fourth state of matter. It is an ionized gas comprising several excited atomic, molecular, ionic, and radical species, co-existing with electrons, positive and negative ions, free radicals, gas atoms, molecules in the ground or excited state, and quanta of electromagnetic radiation (UV photons and visible light).
  • 346
  • 03 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Nanocellulosic Materials for Oil Spill
Modern developments in cellulosic materials for oil spill removal are briefly showcased in this entry. Different types of lignocellulosic textures and different modification techniques and preparation methods are explained. Materials were classified into 3D-materials such as hydrophobic and oleophobic sponges and aerogels, or 2D-materials such as membranes, fabrics, films, and meshes. Majorly, 3D-materials showed clear correlation between porosity and density, and their absorption behavior. Moreover, it was shown that nanocellulosic precursors are not exclusively suitable to attain considerable absorption performance. This finding can lead to developments in cost- and energy-efficient production processes of future cellulosic oil spillage removal solutions.
  • 334
  • 27 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Natural Coagulants for Pharmaceutical Removal from Wastewater
Pharmaceutical contamination threatens both humans and the environment, and several technologies have been adapted for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The coagulation-flocculation process demonstrates a feasible solution for pharmaceutical removal. However, the chemical coagulation process has its drawbacks, such as excessive and toxic sludge production and high production cost. To overcome these shortcomings, the feasibility of natural-based coagulants, due to their biodegradability, safety, and availability, has been investigated by several researchers.
  • 334
  • 30 Jan 2022
Topic Review
MEMS Inertial Switches
An exhaustive summary of the design concept, performance aspects, and fabrication methods of the micro electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial switch is provided. Different MEMS inertial switch studies were reviewed that emphasized acceleration directional and threshold sensitivity, contact characteristics, and their superiorities and disadvantages. Furthermore, the specific fabrication methods offer an applicability reference for the preparation process for the designed inertial switch, including non-silicon surface micromachining technology, standard silicon micromachining technology, and the special fabrication method for the liquid inertial switch. At the end, the main conclusions of the current challenges and prospects about MEMS inertial switches are drawn to assist with the development of research in the field of future engineering applications.
  • 332
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Deep Learning for Image Annotation in Agriculture
The implementation of intelligent technology in agriculture is seriously investigated as a way to increase agriculture production while reducing the amount of human labor. In agriculture, recent technology has seen image annotation utilizing deep learning techniques. Due to the rapid development of image data, image annotation has gained a lot of attention. The use of deep learning in image annotation can extract features from images and has been shown to analyze enormous amounts of data successfully. Deep learning is a type of machine learning method inspired by the structure of the human brain and based on artificial neural network concepts. Through training phases that can label a massive amount of data and connect them up with their corresponding characteristics, deep learning can conclude unlabeled data in image processing. For complicated and ambiguous situations, deep learning technology provides accurate predictions. This technology strives to improve productivity, quality and economy and minimize deficiency rates in the agriculture industry.
  • 324
  • 27 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Food Supply Chain Enchanced by Industry 5.0 Technologies
The consequences of a crisis for a society depend on the level of society preparedness for the crisis, infrastructure in place, and training and skills of people engaged. The technologies (e.g., IoE, CC, blockchain, AI, DT, and 6G) of Industry 5.0 are yet to be fully explored and exploited in ensuring the resilience and sustainability of food systems. Therefore, this research sketches out a complete concept of a food system using Industry 5.0 technologies, and the main focus has been given to the use of 6G, AI, blockchain, and digital twin (DT) at different processes from production to distribution and retail to help optimize the food supply chain and thwart any possible disruption thereof.
  • 314
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
GHDs with Solar Technologies
Greenhouse dryers (GHDs) are simple facilities that can provide large capacities for drying agricultural products. The solar GHDs (SGHDs) are classified as passive and active systems. The passive SGHDs have a heat transfer through natural convection, whereas, SGHDs having a heat transfer through forced convection are called active dryers. Active SGHDs can be integrated with different solar technologies, including photovoltaic (PV), photovoltaic-thermal (PVT), and solar thermal collectors. Additionally, solar-assisted greenhouse dryers (SGHDs) can be integrated with heat pumps and thermal energy storage (TES) units and presented in hybrid configuration considering their integration with other renewable energy sources with the aim of improving the thermal performance.
  • 309
  • 01 Jul 2021
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