Topic Review
Biosensing Applications of PC-12 Cell Line
The immortalized PC-12 cell line demonstrated to be a classical neuronal cell model derived from rat pheochromocytoma with the ability to acquire the sympathetic neurons features in a differentiation process in the presence of nerve growth factor. PC-12 cell line was shown to be the preferred model in neurobiology study using biosensing devices. The analytical achievements and applicability of reported biosensing devices in PC-12 cultures for the detection of ions, neurotransmitters, and cellular events are summarized.
  • 126
  • 18 Jul 2022
Topic Review
PC-12 Cell Line
PC-12 cells have been widely used as a neuronal line study model in many biosensing devices, mainly due to the neurogenic characteristics acquired after differentiation, such as high level of secreted neurotransmitter, neuron morphology characterized by neurite outgrowth, and expression of ion and neurotransmitter receptors. 
  • 95
  • 18 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Untargeted Human Milk Metabolomics
Human milk (HM) is considered the gold standard for infant nutrition. HM contains macro- and micronutrients, as well as a range of bioactive compounds (hormones, growth factors, cell debris, etc.). The analysis of the complex and dynamic composition of HM has been a permanent challenge for researchers. The use of novel, cutting-edge techniques involving different metabolomics platforms has permitted to expand knowledge on the variable composition of HM. Here, the state-of-the-art in untargeted metabolomic studies of HM, with emphasis on sampling, extraction and analysis steps is presented.
  • 170
  • 30 May 2022
Topic Review
Polyphenols in Ruminant Nutrition
Free radical oxygen molecules are formed during aerobic cellular metabolism, containing one or more unpaired electrons. Free radicals can bind to various molecules and damage membranes, nucleic acids, and proteins. In recent years, the plants used in feed have served as sources of different bioactive compounds for animals. In addition, nutrient compounds play a very important role in protecting against the effects of free radicals.
  • 123
  • 20 May 2022
Topic Review
MS-Based Metabolomic Workflows in Marine Natural Products Analysis
Marine natural products are considered one of the main sources of compounds for drug development. Starfish and sea cucumbers are potential sources of natural products of pharmaceutical interest. Among their metabolites, polar steroids, triterpene glycosides, and polar lipids have attracted a great deal of attention.
  • 136
  • 20 May 2022
Topic Review
Sweat as a Biological Fluid of Alcohol Detection
The continued focus on improving the quality of human life has encouraged the development of increasingly efficient, durable, and cost-effective products in healthcare. Over the last decade, there has been substantial development in the field of technical and interactive textiles that combine expertise in electronics, biology, chemistry, and physics. Most recently, the creation of biosensors capable of quantifying biometric data in biological fluids to detect a specific disease or the physical condition of an individual is being studied. The ultimate goal is to provide access to medical diagnosis anytime and anywhere. Presently, alcohol is considered the most commonly used addictive substance worldwide, being one of the main causes of death in road accidents. 
  • 312
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
Structure and Immobilization of Aptamers
Aptamers are synthetically produced via a process known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX).
  • 114
  • 29 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Free Radical
Free radicals can be defined as molecular entities or molecular fragments, capable of independent existence (hence “free”). They contain one or more unpaired electrons in an outer atomic orbital or molecular orbital (hence “radical”). The negative electrical charge of electron(s) may be counterbalanced by the positive nuclear charge of positrons, resulting in a neutral particle; otherwise, having anion or cation radicals.
  • 257
  • 29 Apr 2022
Topic Review
New Horizons in Structural Biology of Membrane Proteins
A third of both pro- and eukaryotic proteomes consist of membrane proteins. Housed in a milieu of hydrophobic molecules, they serve as crucial contacts of communication between the cytoplasm and non-cytosolic environments, making them essential pharmaceutical targets. While membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to investigate at any level, high-resolution structures of these targets only became feasible at the very end of the twentieth century. It was not until robust technological developments in the fields of X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and cryo-EM, that the scientific community at large, finally gained access to an ever-increasing number of atomic resolution structures, and began to rationalize how membrane proteins accommodate their function. As if the lack of structural information wasn’t enough to hamper progress, a higher level of complexity arose from the modern understanding of “one structure—one function” paradigm, a primitive simplification useful at the dawn of the scientific era, that has promptly lost credence to the complex maneuvers of membrane proteins.
  • 158
  • 26 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Cutaneous Flavonoid Delivery System
Flavonoids are one of the vital classes of natural polyphenolic compounds abundantly found in plants. Due to their wide range of therapeutic properties, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, photoprotective, and depigmentation effects, flavonoids have been demonstrated to be promising agents in the treatment of several skin disorders. However, their lipophilic nature and poor water solubility invariably lead to limited oral bioavailability. In addition, they are rapidly degraded and metabolized in the human body, hindering their potential contribution to the prevention and treatment of many disorders. Thus, to overcome these challenges, several cutaneous delivery systems have been extensively studied. Topical drug delivery besides offering an alternative administration route also ensures a sustained release of the active compound at the desired site of action. Incorporation into lipid or polymer-based nanoparticles appears to be a highly effective approach for cutaneous delivery of flavonoids with good encapsulation potential and reduced toxicity.
  • 173
  • 22 Apr 2022
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