Topic Review
Woven Natural Fibre Polymer Composites
These woven materials are flexible, able to be tailored to the specific needs and have better mechanical properties due to their weaving structures.
  • 306
  • 03 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Weak Polyelectrolytes for Nanoarchitectonic Design Tools
The ionization degree, charge density, and conformation of weak polyelectrolytes can be adjusted through adjusting the pH and ionic strength stimuli. Such polymers thus offer a range of reversible interactions, including electrostatic complexation, H-bonding, and hydrophobic interactions, which position weak polyelectrolytes as key nano-units for the design of dynamic systems with precise structures, compositions, and responses to stimuli. From surface platforms to colloids and gels, weak polyelectrolytes have enabled the development of a wide range of functional materials owing to their intrinsic response to stimuli, including solvents, temperature, pH, and salt.
  • 98
  • 30 May 2022
Topic Review
Water-Soluble Photoinitiators in Biomedical Applications
Light-initiated polymerization processes are currently an important tool in various industrial fields. The advancement of technology has resulted in the use of photopolymerization in various biomedical applications, such as the production of 3D hydrogel structures, the encapsulation of cells, and in drug delivery systems. The use of photopolymerization processes requires an appropriate initiating system which, in biomedical applications, must meet additional criteria: high water solubility, non-toxicity to cells, and compatibility with visible low-power light sources. This article is a literature review on those compounds that act as photoinitiators of photopolymerization processes in biomedical applications. The division of initiators according to the method of photoinitiation was described and the related mechanisms were discussed. Examples from each group of photoinitiators are presented, and their benefits, limitations and applications are outlined.
  • 1043
  • 10 Jun 2020
Topic Review
Vitreous Substitute
The ideal vitreous substitute should mimic the native vitreous in terms of both structure and function such as transparency, biocom-patibility, elasticity, easy injectability, except for its liquefication and biodegradability with age. Current vitreous substitutes are used in order to maintain certain criterias such as optical and biomechanical properties and intraocular pressure. Therefore, extensive research with biomaterials is underway taking into consideration its composition, structure and physiological properties as well to overcome the downside of the currently used tamponades.
  • 214
  • 15 Jan 2021
Topic Review
VARTM Processed Composite Materials
Fiber-reinforced composite structures are used in different applications due to their excellent strength to weight ratio. Due to cost and tool handling issues in conventional manufacturing processes, like resin transfer molding (RTM) and autoclave, vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is the best choice among industries. VARTM is highly productive and cheap. However, the VARTM process produces complex, lightweight, and bulky structures, suitable for mass and cost-effective production, but the presence of voids and fiber misalignment in the final processed composite influences its strength. Voids are the primary defects, and they cannot be eliminated completely, so a design without considering void defects will entail unreliability. Many conventional failure theories were used for composite design but did not consider the effect of voids defects, thus creating misleading failure characteristics.
  • 1156
  • 07 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Ultraviolet-C for mask disinfection
Change in the title since the subject is more specific 
  • 104
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Ultrasonic Welding
The ultrasonic welding (UW) technique is an ultra-fast joining process used to join thermoplastics, metals and thermoplastic polymer matrix composites.
  • 505
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA) for polymer characterization
Ultrasonic wave propagation has been used for the high frequency dynamic mechanical analysis of polymers with the aim to monitor the changes of viscoelastic properties in polymers associated with glass transition, crystallization, physical or chemical gelation, crosslinking, and curing reactions.
  • 450
  • 11 Jun 2020
Topic Review
Ultra-Heat Treatment on Milk Proteins
Milk contains approximately 3.5% by weight protein, which is a highly complex system. This milk protein is usually divided into two main fractions based on their solubility nature. Casein proteins are about 75% to 80% of the total protein in the milk and precipitate at pH 4.6 at 20 °C, while 20% of the protein remains in the serum.
  • 255
  • 07 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Topical Insulin Delivery
Insulin is one of the cheapest growth factors in the market able to accelerate the re-epithelialization and stimulate angiogenesis and cell migration. However, the effectiveness of topical insulin in wound healing is hampered by the proteases in the wound bed. The encapsulation into nanoparticles improves its stability in the wound, providing adhesion to the mucosal surface and allowing its sustained release. 
  • 153
  • 13 Sep 2021
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