Topic Review
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are generally defined as crystalline substances with a few atoms thickness.Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (2D-TMDs) semiconducting (SC) materials have exhibited unique optical and electrical properties. The layered configuration of the 2D-TMDs materials is at the origin of their strong interaction with light and the relatively high mobility of their charge carriers, which in turn prompted their use in many optoelectronic applications, such as ultra-thin field-effect transistors, photo-detectors, light emitting diode, and solar-cells. Generally, 2D-TMDs form a family of graphite-like layered thin semiconducting structures with the chemical formula of MX2, where M refers to a transition metal atom (Mo, W, etc.) and X is a chalcogen atom (Se, S, etc.). The layered nature of this class of 2D materials induces a strong anisotropy in their electrical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties. In particular, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is the most studied layered 2D-TMD.
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  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
3D Live Cell Imaging Challenges
Relevant samples are described and various problems and challenges—including 3D Challenges of 3D imaging by optical sectioning, light scattering and phototoxicity—are addressed. Furthermore, enhanced methods of wide-field or laser scanning microscopy together with some relevant examples and applications are summarized. In the future one may profit from a continuous increase in microscopic resolution, but also from molecular sensing techniques in the nanometer range using e.g., non-radiative energy transfer (FRET).
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  • 23 Aug 2021
Topic Review
3D Printed Electromagnetic Vibration Harvesters
Energy harvesting is the utilisation of ambient energy in order to power electronics such as wireless sensor nodes (WSN) or wearables without the need of batteries. This allows to operate the node over a much longer time period compared to battery-powered devices along with lower maintenance efforts. Furthermore, the low-maintenance requirements allow to operate these WSNs in environments with limited or no accessibility.
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  • 05 Nov 2021
Topic Review
3D-Printed Silica Glass
Glass technologies for 3D printing can be divided into several categories according to the printing method and the form of pre-treatment for the raw materials. These categories include powder-based, photopolymerization-based, and material extrusion-based 3D printing technology. Among them, fused deposition modeling (FDM), based on material extrusion (MEX), and selective laser sintering/melting (SLS/SLM), based on powder, usually require strict processing conditions and are therefore less suitable for laboratory processing. The most promising processing technologies are stereolithography (SLA), digital light processing (DLP), two-photon polymerization (TPP), sheet lamination (SL), which is based on photopolymerization, and DIW, based on MEX.
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  • 28 Feb 2022
Topic Review
4D Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy
4D scanning transmission electron microscopy (4D STEM) is a subset of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) which utilizes a pixelated electron detector to capture a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern at each scan location. This technique captures a 2 dimensional reciprocal space image associated with each scan point as the beam rasters across a 2 dimensional region in real space, hence the name 4D STEM. Its development was enabled by evolution in STEM detectors and improvements computational power. The technique has applications in visual diffraction imaging, phase orientation and strain mapping, phase contrast analysis, among others. The name 4D STEM is common in literature, however it is known by other names: 4D STEM EELS, ND STEM (N- since the number of dimensions could be higher than 4), position resolved diffraction (PRD), spatial resolved diffractometry, momentum-resolved STEM, "nanobeam precision electron diffraction", scanning electron nano diffraction, nanobeam electron diffraction, or pixelated STEM.
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  • 11 Oct 2022
Topic Review
88 Modern Constellations
In contemporary astronomy, the sky is divided into 88 regions called constellations, generally based on the asterisms (which are also called "constellations") of Greek and Roman mythology. The number of 88, along with the contemporary scientific notion of "constellation", was conventioned in 1922 by the International Astronomical Union in order to establish a universal pattern for professional astronomers, who defined constellations from then on as regions of the sky separated by arcs of right ascensions and declinations and grouped by asterisms of their historically most important stars, which cover the entire celestial sphere. The constellations along the ecliptic are called the zodiac. The ancient Sumerians, and later the Greeks (as recorded by Ptolemy), established most of the northern constellations in international use today. When explorers mapped the stars of the southern skies, European and American astronomers proposed new constellations for that region, as well as ones to fill gaps between the traditional constellations. Not all of these proposals caught on, but in 1922, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) adopted the modern list of 88 constellations. After this, Eugène Joseph Delporte drew up precise boundaries for each constellation, so that every point in the sky belonged to exactly one constellation.
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  • 08 Oct 2022
Topic Review
A discrete quantum momentum operator
We introduce finite-differences derivatives intended to be exact when applied to the real exponential function. We want to recover the known results of continuous calculus with our finite differences derivatives but in a discrete form. The purpose of this work is to have a discrete momentum operator suitable for use as an operator in discrete quantum mechanics theory.
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  • 24 Aug 2021
Topic Review
A Message from Earth (2008)
A Message from Earth (AMFE) is a high-powered digital radio signal that was sent on 9 October 2008 towards Gliese 581c, a large terrestrial extrasolar planet orbiting within the Gliese 581 system. The signal is a digital time capsule containing 501 messages that were selected through a competition on the social networking site Bebo. The message was sent using the RT-70 radar telescope. The signal will reach the planet Gliese 581c in early 2029. More than half a million people including celebrities and politicians participated in the AMFE project, which was the world's first digital time capsule where the content was selected by the public. As of 1 February 2018, the message has traveled 62.43 trillion kilometers of the total 192 trillion kilometers, which is 33.5% of the distance to the Gliese 581 system. On 13 February 2015, scientists (including David Grinspoon, Seth Shostak, and David Brin) at an annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, discussed Active SETI and whether transmitting a message to possible intelligent extraterrestrials in the Cosmos was a good idea; That same week, a statement was released, signed by many in the SETI community, that a "worldwide scientific, political and humanitarian discussion must occur before any message is sent". However neither Frank Drake, nor Seth Shostak signed this appeal. On 28 March 2015, a related essay with some different point of view was written by Seth Shostak and published in The New York Times .
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  • 21 Oct 2022
Topic Review
A Specialty Fiber for Distributed Acoustic Sensing Technology
Specialty fibers have introduced new levels of flexibility and variability in distributed fiber sensing applications. In particular, distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) systems utilized the unique functions of specialty fibers to achieve performance enhancements in various distributed sensing applications. 
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  • 28 Apr 2022
A. S. Osborn
Albert Sherman Osborn, commonly known as A. S. Osborn (1858-1946), was a renowned forensic document examiner who is often referred to as the "Father of Document Examination". His contributions to forensic science and his ground-breaking work in the area of questioned document analysis have earned him recognition. Osborn, who started his career in document analysis in the late 19th century and es
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  • 22 Mar 2023
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