Topic Review
Acoustic Metamaterials in Aeronautics
Metamaterials, man-made composites that are scaled smaller than the wavelength, have demonstrated a huge potential for application in acoustics, allowing the production of sub-wavelength acoustic absorbers, acoustic invisibility, perfect acoustic mirrors and acoustic lenses for hyper focusing, and acoustic illusions and enabling new degrees of freedom in the control of the acoustic field. The zero, or even negative, refractive sound index of metamaterials offers possibilities for the control of acoustic patterns and sound at sub-wavelength scales. The potential of metamaterial-based technologies has recently caught the interest of the aeronautics community. Their effect in the presence of realistic flows in the surrounding domains, with boundary layer, turbulence, is currently a hot research topic. The interaction with flow requires a careful design of the metamaterial to avoid detrimental effects and enabling the device maximum capabilities in aeronautics.
  • 503
  • 25 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Acoustic Properties of Natural-fiber-based Composites
Recent advancement in controlling noise through sound absorption provides an opportunity to investigate various porous materials including fiber-based composites. Natural-fiber-based composites exhibit relatively good sound absorption capability due to their porous structure. Surface modification by alkali treatment can enhance the sound absorption performance. These materials can be used in buildings and interiors for efficient sound insulation. Natural-fiber-based composites have advantages such as high abrasive resistance, low emission of toxic fumes with heat, high specific strength, light weight, low cost, and eco-friendliness. Very rapid growth has been observed in the innovations and use of natural-fiber-based materials and composites for acoustic applications.
  • 1258
  • 24 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Acoustical Goos-Hänchen Effect
Goos–Hänchen effect was an important optical phenomenon. When an optical wave propagates from a denser medium to a thinner medium, the total reflection generates coherent interference. The final propagated wave yields a lateral displacement relative to the incidence wave at the interface. Even though optics has a coherent effect on the total reflection of a finite-sized wave and an acoustic wave is incoherent with a non-total reflection of different frequency components, recent research shows that there is an analog Goos–Hänchen effect in acoustics. 
  • 1048
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Action
In physics, action is a numerical value describing how a physical system has changed over time. Action is significant because the equations of motion of the system can be derived through the principle of stationary action. In the simple case of a single particle moving with a specified velocity, the action is the momentum of the particle times the distance it moves, added up along its path, or equivalently, twice its kinetic energy times the length of time for which it has that amount of energy, added up over the period of time under consideration. For more complicated systems, all such quantities are added together. More formally, action is a mathematical functional which takes the trajectory, also called path or history, of the system as its argument and has a real number as its result. Generally, the action takes different values for different paths. Action has dimensions of energy × time or momentum × length, and its SI unit is joule-second (like the Planck constant h).
  • 183
  • 25 Nov 2022
Topic Review
ADM Energy
The ADM formalism (named for its authors Richard Arnowitt, Stanley Deser and Charles W. Misner) is a Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity that plays an important role in canonical quantum gravity and numerical relativity. It was first published in 1959. The comprehensive review of the formalism that the authors published in 1962 has been reprinted in the journal General Relativity and Gravitation, while the original papers can be found in the archives of Physical Review.
  • 86
  • 08 Nov 2022
Topic Review
ADM Formalism
The ADM formalism (named for its authors Richard Arnowitt, Stanley Deser and Charles W. Misner) is a Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity that plays an important role in canonical quantum gravity and numerical relativity. It was first published in 1959. The comprehensive review of the formalism that the authors published in 1962 has been reprinted in the journal General Relativity and Gravitation, while the original papers can be found in the archives of Physical Review.
  • 125
  • 01 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope
The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is an 8– to 16.8–meter UV-optical-NIR space telescope proposed by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). If launched, ATLAST would be a replacement and successor for the HST, with the ability to obtain spectroscopic and imaging observations of astronomical objects in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared wavelengths, but with substantially better resolution than either HST or the planned James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Like JWST, ATLAST would be launched to the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point. ATLAST is envisioned as a flagship mission of the 2025–2035 period, designed to determine whether there is life elsewhere in the galaxy. It would attempt to accomplish this by searching for "biosignatures" (such as molecular oxygen, ozone, water, and methane) in the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets. The backronym that the project currently uses, 'ATLAST', is in fact a pun. It refers to the time taken to decide on a true, visible-light, successor for the Hubble Space Telescope. However, it is expected that, as the project progresses, a new name would be chosen for the mission.
  • 89
  • 25 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics
Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) is an X-ray observatory mission selected by European Space Agency (ESA) within its Cosmic Vision program to address the Hot and Energetic Universe scientific theme. Athena will operate in the energy range of 0.2–12 keV and will offer spectroscopic and imaging capabilities exceeding those of currently operating X-ray astronomy satellites – e.g. the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton – by at least one order of magnitude on several parameter spaces simultaneously.
  • 75
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Aeroelasticity Methods in Turbomachinery
Aeroelastic phenomena in turbomachinery are one of the most challenging problems to model using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) due to their inherent nonlinear nature, the difficulties in simulating fluid–structure interactions and the considerable computational requirements. Nonetheless, accurate modelling of self-sustained flow-induced vibrations, known as flutter, has proved to be crucial in assessing stability boundaries and extending the operative life of turbomachinery. Flutter avoidance and control is becoming more relevant in compressors and fans due to a well-established trend towards lightweight and thinner designs that enhance aerodynamic efficiency.
  • 636
  • 09 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Aether Drag Hypothesis
In the 19th century, the theory of the luminiferous aether as the hypothetical medium for the propagation of light was widely discussed. An important part of this discussion was the question concerning the state of motion of Earth with respect to this medium. The aether drag hypothesis dealt with the question of whether or not the luminiferous aether is dragged by or entrained within moving matter. According to the first variant no relative motion exists between Earth and aether; according to the second one, relative motion exists and thus the speed of light should depend on the speed of this motion ("aether wind"), which should be measurable by instruments at rest on Earth's surface. Specific aether models were invented by Augustin-Jean Fresnel who in 1818 proposed that the aether is partially entrained by matter. The other one was proposed by George Stokes in 1845, in which the aether is completely entrained within or in the vicinity of matter. While Fresnel's almost stationary theory was apparently confirmed by the Fizeau experiment (1851), Stokes' theory was apparently confirmed by the Michelson–Morley experiment (1881, 1887). This contradictory situation was resolved by the works of Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1895, 1904) whose Lorentz ether theory banished any form of aether dragging, and finally with the work of Albert Einstein (1905) whose theory of special relativity does not contain the aether as a mechanical medium at all.
  • 28
  • 04 Nov 2022
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