Topic Review
Three Wise Monkeys
The three wise monkeys are a pictorial maxim, embodying the proverbial principle "see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil". The three monkeys are Mizaru, covering his eyes, who sees no evil; Kikazaru, covering his ears, who hears no evil; and Iwazaru, covering his mouth, who speaks no evil. Lafcadio Hearn refers to them as the three mystic apes in his Glimpses of unfamiliar Japan (volume 2, page 127). There are various meanings ascribed to the monkeys and the proverb including associations with being of good mind, speech and action. In the Western world the phrase is often used to refer to those who deal with impropriety by turning a blind eye. Outside Japan the monkeys' names are sometimes given as Mizaru, Mikazaru, and Mazaru, as the last two names were corrupted from the Japanese originals. The monkeys are Japanese macaques, a common species in Japan.
  • 37.5K
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Gender
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, femininity and masculinity. Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex, sex-based social structures (i.e., gender roles), or gender identity. Most cultures use a gender binary, having two genders (boys/men and girls/women); those who exist outside these groups fall under the umbrella term non-binary or genderqueer. Some societies have specific genders besides "man" and "woman", such as the hijras of South Asia; these are often referred to as third genders (and fourth genders, etc.). Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955. Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories. However, Money's meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s, when feminist theory embraced the concept of a distinction between biological sex and the social construct of gender. Today, the distinction is followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences and documents written by the World Health Organization (WHO). In other contexts, including some areas of the social sciences, gender includes sex or replaces it. For instance, in non-human animal research, gender is commonly used to refer to the biological sex of the animals. This change in the meaning of gender can be traced to the 1980s. In 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) started to use gender instead of sex. Later, in 2011, the FDA reversed its position and began using sex as the biological classification and gender as "a person's self representation as male or female, or how that person is responded to by social institutions based on the individual's gender presentation." The social sciences have a branch devoted to gender studies. Other sciences, such as sexology and neuroscience, are also interested in the subject. The social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and gender studies particularly do, while research in the natural sciences investigates whether biological differences in females and males influence the development of gender in humans; both inform debate about how far biological differences influence the formation of gender identity. In some English literature, there is also a trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social gender role. This framework first appeared in a feminist paper on transsexualism in 1978.
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  • 07 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Black Soldier Fly
The black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, is a large Stratiomyidae fly (13-20 mm in size) found worldwide, but it is believed to have originated in the Americas. It is frequently found in the tropics and temperate regions throughout the world. Although adapted primarily to these regions, it can tolerate wide extremes of temperature except when ovipositing. They are considered beneficial insects and non-pests. The adult fly does not have mouthparts, stingers, or digestive organs; thus, they do not bite or sting and do not feed during its short lifespan. They feed only as larvae and are, therefore, not associated with disease transmission. BSF larvae (BSFL) are voracious eaters of a wide range of organic wastes, decomposing and returning nutrients to the soil. Additionally, BSFL is an alternative protein source for aquaculture, pet food, livestock feed, and human nutrition.
  • 32.6K
  • 25 Apr 2023
Topic Review
List of Common Fish Names
This is a list of common fish names. While some common names refer to a single species or family, others have been used for a confusing variety of types; the articles listed here should explain the possibilities if the name is ambiguous.
  • 23.7K
  • 08 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation
Liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) is a thermodynamically-driven, reversible phenomenon consisting in de-mixing into two distinct liquid phases, with different solute concentrations.
  • 17.3K
  • 17 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Omorashi
Omorashi (おもらし / オモラシ / お漏らし), sometimes abbreviated as simply "omo", is a form of fetish subculture originating and predominately recognized in Japan , in which participants experience arousal from having a full bladder or wetting themselves, or from seeing someone else experiencing a full bladder or wetting themselves. Outside Japan, it is not usually distinguished from urolagnia, though they are different things: the Handbook of Clinical Sexuality for Mental Health Professionals specifically defines omorashi as persistent sexual arousal toward a full bladder. Dr. J. Paul Fedoroff acknowledges this distinction, observing that "The theme of taking control of autonomic process is prominent in the paraphilia known as omorashi, which involves sexual arousal associated with the sensation of needing to urinate due to a full bladder." Westerners who make the distinction sometimes use the term "bladder desperation" to do so, though some fetishist communities in the West adopt the more specific Japanese language terminology. The Japanese term "omorashi" means to wet oneself. The word is also occasionally romanized as "omorasi" in the Kunrei-shiki romanization system. In the English speaking BDSM community, the term bathroom use control is used to describe omorashi play in which the dominant controls how and when the submissive is allowed to use the bathroom.
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  • 30 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Fungal Urinary Tract Infection
Fungal urinary tract infections (FUTI) are mainly caused by Candida species. The urine can be an important specimen for the diagnosis of this kind of clinical condition since both the presence of fungi can be identified by urine microscopy and by uroculture and the cells that promotes the immune response against this kind of infectious agent can also be observed. This entry will focus on information related to FUTI and the urinary findings that can be detected during routine urinalysis that can contribute to the identification of this clinical condition.
  • 15.5K
  • 29 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Parasitic Nutrition
Parasitic nutrition is a mode of heterotrophic nutrition where a parasitic organism lives on the body surface or inside the body of another type of organism (a host) and gets nutrition directly from the body of the host. Since these parasites derive nourishment from their host, this symbiotic interaction is often harmful to the host. Parasites depend on their host for survival, since the host provides nutrition and protection. As a result of this dependence, parasites have considerable modifications to optimise parasitic nutrition and therefore their survival. Parasites are divided into two groups: endoparasites and ectoparasites. Endoparasites are parasites that live inside the body of the host, whereas ectoparasites are parasites that live on the outer surface of the host and generally attach themselves during feeding. Due to the different strategies of endoparasites and ectoparasites, they require different adaptations to derive nutrients from their host. Parasites require nutrients to carry out essential functions including reproduction and growth. Essentially, the nutrients required from the host are carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids. Carbohydrates are utilised to generate energy, whilst amino acids and fatty acids are involved in the synthesis of macromolecules and the production of eggs. Most parasites are heterotrophs, so they therefore are unable to synthesise their own 'food' i.e. organic compounds and must acquire these from their host.
  • 13.3K
  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Palm Wine
The reference to palm wine as a drink with many functionalities has increased over the years. However, few empirical tests have been carried out on humans to substantiate the claims. This perspective looks at the biochemical and microbiological reports on palm wine to highlight the constituents that are associated with functional beverages. Based on the constituents of the drink, it may qualify as a multifunctional beverage because several investigators have demonstrated disease risk reduction, improved nutrition and health outcomes in many studies, albeit in rats rather than humans. The constituents found in functional beverages are present in the drink. However, when assessed under European Union regulations, fermented palm wine (from 3% alcohol) cannot be regarded as a functional beverage because beverages that contain over 1.2% alcohol cannot be approved for any claim on health or nutritional benefit. The fresh sap with much lower alcohol may be suitable after it is refined and subjected to scientific examination to determine quantities of the drink that can confer health benefits on humans.
  • 13.2K
  • 10 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Algal Evolution
Phylogenetically algae is regarded as polyphyletic as its origin cannot be traced back to single common hypothetical ancestor. However, genomic studies on algae suggest that algae evolved through endosymbiosis giving rise to at least eight to nine phyla over a period of time.
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  • 25 Nov 2020
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