Topic Review
Adaptive Reuse of Architectural Heritage
       Significant architectural and historical monuments become an important point of reference for the local population, increasing their sense of security, and act as a factor shaping social identity. An effort to preserve relevant objects in a city is therefore important both for retaining its unique features and for strengthening the local community. A significant role plays here the adaptive reuse of architectural heritage, which allows for the preservation of architectural objects that are important to the local community, promoting the integrity and historical continuity of the city while restoring the objects’ functional and economic value.         The introduction of a new function in architectural heritage is not only an important impulse for the tangible regeneration of urban tissue, but can also help to reconstruct the image and identity of a city. The local cultural and architectural heritage plays a significant role in the process leading to the creation of positive references and elimination of negative connotations related to an economic or social crisis. These remain an important part of the history of a city and, at the same time, its significance may be reimagined and shown in a new context, that relates to the present day. As a result, artefacts of the past gain new meanings, which are subject to a different, contemporary interpretation through the prism of current needs and ideas. Objects or even groups of objects from the past are being consciously taken into consideration in the activities currently undertaken. The contemporary scale of the phenomenon and complexity of the issues concerning the adaptive reuse of architectural heritage are a consequence of the multi-faceted transformations that have taken place in recent decades in the social, cultural and economic spheres, and, consequently, the contemporary understanding of the role and significance of the architectural heritage.
  • 3075
  • 31 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Encyclopedia—A Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Community Project
Encyclopedia (ISSN 2309-3366) is a multidisciplinary open access journal that records high-quality entries in encyclopedia format in all research fields. All submitted entries should be peer reviewed before publication online. 
  • 978
  • 15 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Historic Garden Management
Historic garden management seeks to direct the evolution of complex cultural and natural heritage sites towards best meeting the needs of their owners, visitors and community. This entails balancing the conservation of these delicate socio-ecological systems with  accessibility to the many environmental, economic and socio-cultural benefits that they provide. Thus, historic garden management must be operational, continual and sustainable; it involves multiple stakeholders, and most of all, must be adaptive. That is why it is especially useful to conceive of historic garden management as a cyclical process that loops through a strategic phase, an operational phase and an assessment phase. In order to understand the many facets and challenges of historic garden management, a systematic review was carried out on international academic literature addressing this topic, with special attention regarding the social, economic and environmental aspects of sustainability. Academic studies on this subject come from many different disciplines, making it both stimulating and fragmented. This review seeks to consolidate these interdisciplinary efforts into a clear vision, including a framework of key themes and research methods. An analysis of the reviewed literature shows that research has focused on describing the gardens themselves, with few studies interested in the people sustaining them. Future research should follow recent policy documents’ lead and pay more attention to community value and involvement. 
  • 515
  • 27 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Cultural Additivity
This entry provides the conceptual development of “cultural additivity.” It reviews the three most relevant concepts namely syncretism, cultural hybridity, and creolization, and then makes a case for the usefulness of “cultural additivity” in explaining the adoption and rejection of emerging cultural values. The newly introduced concept utilizes a well-developed theory called mindsponge theory.
  • 505
  • 02 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Serendipity
Serendipity is defined as an ability to notice, evaluate, and take advantage of unexpected information for survival purposes (both natural and social). The concept has been discussed for centuries. Still, it has only caught the attention of academia quite recently due to its strategic advantage in all aspects of life, such as daily life activities, science and technology, business and entrepreneurship, politics and economics, education administration, career choice and development, etc.
  • 501
  • 01 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Three Mothers (2006) by Dina Zvi-Riklis
Dina Zvi-Riklis’ film Three Mothers (2006) reveals a complex approach to the issue of immigration, an issue that is central to both the Jewish religion and Israeli identity. While for both, reaching the land of Israel means arriving in the Promised Land, they are quite dissimilar in that one is a religious command while the other is an ideological imperative. But more than anything, the two approaches share a common imperative to forget the past. However, this imperative does not apply to the heroines of Three Mothers, a film which follows the extraordinary trajectory of triplet sisters, born to a rich Jewish family in Alexandria, who were forced to leave Egypt after King Farouk’s abdication and immigrate to Israel. This article demonstrates that Three Mothers represents an outstanding achievement because it dares to deal with its heroines’ longing for the world left behind and the complexity of integrating the past into the present. Following Nicholas Bourriaud’s Radicant theory, designating an organism that grows roots and adds new ones as it advances, this article will prove that though the heroines of Three Mothers never avow their longing for Egypt, the film’s narrative succeeds in revealing a subversive démarche through which the sisters succeed in integrating Egypt into their present.
  • 381
  • 19 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Luso-Flemish Master of Lourinhã
The Master of Lourinhã masterpieces are the best that Renaissance painting produced in Portugal during the governance of King D. Manuel I, in the Luso-Flemish period. The paintings were commissioned c. 1515 by Queen D. Maria, second wife of King D. Manuel I. Its underdrawing, the fineness of the landscapes and the transparency of chromatic material, reveal the talent of a great artist following Bruges and Antuerpian models.
  • 377
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Holography and Its Potential
In Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes discusses the capacity of the photographic image to represent “flat death.” Documentation of an event, happening, or time is traditionally reliant on the photographic to determine its ephemeral existence and to secure its legacy within history. The event is date and time stamped by the photographic document, which stands as proof of its taking place. However, this type of document is often unsuitable to capture the real essence and experience of the artwork in situ. The depth and varied nuances of the event go largely unrepresented in this type of record. The two-dimensional photographic document resigns the embodied and three-dimensional experience to a flat death. The hologram, with its spatial and three-dimensional realization of an image, offers a potential solution to this problem. In providing a view of the dexterity and depth of an inert object or human body, it creates a more comprehensive photographic document as an act of legacy. Although this cannot fully account or attest to the experience (as that can only occur through active and present observation), the three-dimensional representation within the hologram allows for greater understanding of ‘being there’ at the time of its happening. The hologram therefore can be suggested to be a more suitable means of documentation for the active and first-hand art experience. However, there are issues concerning how this type of photographic document functions within an art context. Appropriateness and suitability is as open for debate with the hologram as with its two-dimensional counterpart, concerning how it successfully operates as a document. Attitudes to methods necessary for artistic production and holography’s place within the art process can be responsible for this problem. The seductive qualities of holography may be attributable to any failure that ensues, but if used precisely the process can be effective to create a document within an art context. The failures and successes of the hologram to be reliable as a document of experience are discussed in this article, together with a suggestion of how it might undergo a transformation and reactivation. When situated as an integral component within a new artwork the hologram exists both as a document of the past and an experience in the present, and the article will offer an example of how this can occur.
  • 358
  • 03 Feb 2021
Topic Review
The SSHPA Project
Social Sciences & Humanities Peer Awards (SSHPA) is an ecosystem of a scientific database and a science communication website. The project was funded by Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under the National Research Grant No. 502.01-2018.19. The SSHPA database was validated by Nature's Scientific Data.
  • 340
  • 30 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Cooperative Learning and Social Learning
Cooperative Learning (CL) has been seen as a student-centered model (SCM) capable of promoting students’ active engagement and improvement. The model has five elements: positive interdependence, appropriate social skills, promotive face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, and group processing, which have been identified as critical and are widely described in the literature. Namely, in Physical Education (PE), CL has been important in the four learning domains, i.e., physical, cognitive, social, and affective. Particularly, from CL, students can improve their ability to listen to others, construct understanding together, and respect, encourage, and support each other to learn.
  • 320
  • 10 Aug 2021
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