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Metaverse as a Learning Environment
The metaverse is unavoidable in an increasingly digitalized society and will potentially have a profound influence on what is understood as teaching and learning in its formal and informal dimensions, both in initial and continuing education.
06 Feb 2023
Digitainability and Smart Education
Smart education, with its multidimensional interdisciplinarity, allows the promotion of a learning process that is simultaneously efficient and effective, enhancing digitainability and, consequently, more proactive attitudes in shaping a Sustainable Digital Society.
03 Dec 2022
Society 5.0. has for finality to strengthen the potential of cyber-physical-social relations in promoting the improvement of the quality of life of all people through a super smart society.
30 Oct 2020
The concept of Industry 4.0 is often associated with the fourth industrial revolution industrial, given the profound implications for the productive paradigm. But what exactly is Industry 4.0? Industry 4.0 emerged in Germany in 2011, with the aim of increasing the competitiveness of German industry. In short, it applied digital technologies to production, in a close association between economy and digital technology, resulting in innovation through the integration between the real and the virtual world (Cyber-Physical Systems) in industrial activity and production.
15 Feb 2022
Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument
Questionnaire is one of the most widely used tools to collect data in especially social science research. The main objective of questionnaire in research is to obtain relevant information in most reliable and valid manner. Thus the accuracy and consistency of survey/questionnaire forms a significant aspect of research methodology which are known as validity and reliability. Often new researchers are confused with selection and conducting of proper validity type to test their research instrument (questionnaire/survey).
15 Mar 2022
Current State of Bestiality Law in the US
Laws punishing individuals who have sex with nonhuman animals have existed since the earliest written legal codes. In the United States, bestiality has long been prohibited. The rationale for criminalizing sex acts with animals has changed over time and has included moral condemnation, considerations of animal rights and animal welfare, and most recently, a concern about the relationship between animal cruelty and interpersonal violence, colloquially known as the Link. There exist important differences in language, specificity, and potential punishments for offenders depending on the jurisdiction.
16 Jun 2022
Two-Nation Theory (Pakistan)
The two-nation theory (Urdu: دو قومی نظریہ do qaumī nazariya) is the basis of the creation of Pakistan . According to this theory Muslims and Hindus are two separate nations by definition; Muslims have their own customs, religion, and tradition, and from social and moral points of view, Muslims are different from Hindus; and therefore, Muslims should be able to have their own separate homeland in which Islam is the dominant religion, being segregated from Hindus. The two-nation theory advocated by the All India Muslim League is the founding principle of the Pakistan Movement (i.e. the ideology of Pakistan as a Muslim nation-state in the northwestern and eastern regions of India) through the partition of India in 1947. There are varying interpretations of the two-nation theory, based on whether the two postulated nationalities can coexist in one territory or not, with radically different implications. One interpretation argued for sovereign autonomy, including the right to secede, for Muslim-majority areas of colonial India, but without any transfer of populations (i.e. Hindus and Muslims would continue to live together). A different interpretation contends that Hindus and Muslims constitute "two distinct and frequently antagonistic ways of life and that therefore they cannot coexist in one nation." In this version, a transfer of populations (i.e. the total removal of Hindus from Muslim-majority areas and the total removal of Muslims from Hindu-majority areas) is a desirable step towards a complete separation of two incompatible nations that "cannot coexist in a harmonious relationship". Opposition to the two-nation theory came from both nationalist Muslims and Hindus, being based on two concepts. The first is the concept of a single Indian nation, of which Hindus and Muslims are two intertwined communities. The second source of opposition is the concept that while Indians are not one nation, neither are the Muslims or Hindus of India, and it is instead the relatively homogeneous provincial units of the Indian subcontinent which are true nations and deserving of sovereignty; this view has been presented by the Baloch, Sindhi, Bengali, and Pashtun sub-nationalities of Pakistan, with Bengalis seceding from Pakistan after the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971 and other separatist movements in Pakistan are currently in-place. The state of India officially rejected the two-nation theory and chose to be a secular state, enshrining the concepts of religious pluralism and composite nationalism in its constitution; however, in response to the separatist tendencies of the All India Muslim League, many Hindu nationalist organisations worked to try to give Hinduism a privileged position within the country.
02 Dec 2022
Organizational culture may be considered as the shared way of being, thinking and acting in a collective of coordinated people with reciprocal expectations; it is shaped, disseminated, learned and changed over time, providing some predictability in every organization.
30 Oct 2020
Sustainability is an increasingly central concept, both in social practice and in scientific, economic and even political fields. The promotion of sustainability literacy is critical in enabling informed civic participation.
04 Apr 2021
MDPI is a pioneer in scholarly open access publishing, supporting academic communities since 1996. Based in Basel, Switzerland, MDPI’s mission is to foster open scientific exchange in all forms, across all disciplines. Its 283 diverse, peer-reviewed, open access journals are supported by more than 35,500 academic editors. MDPI serves scholars from around the world to ensure that the latest research is freely available, and all content is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
17 Jan 2022
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of COVID-19
Encyclopedia of Fungi
Luis V. Lopez-Llorca
Encyclopedia of Digital Society, Industry 5.0 and Smart City
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