Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 457 2023-07-27 07:16:42 |
2 format correction Meta information modification 457 2023-07-27 08:05:26 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Malousis, A.T.; Zefkilis, P.N.; Daglis, T. Employment in the 21st Century: Pre- and Post-COVID-19 Changes. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 17 June 2024).
Malousis AT, Zefkilis PN, Daglis T. Employment in the 21st Century: Pre- and Post-COVID-19 Changes. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 17, 2024.
Malousis, Antonios Th., Panagiotis N. Zefkilis, Theodoros Daglis. "Employment in the 21st Century: Pre- and Post-COVID-19 Changes" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 17, 2024).
Malousis, A.T., Zefkilis, P.N., & Daglis, T. (2023, July 27). Employment in the 21st Century: Pre- and Post-COVID-19 Changes. In Encyclopedia.
Malousis, Antonios Th., et al. "Employment in the 21st Century: Pre- and Post-COVID-19 Changes." Encyclopedia. Web. 27 July, 2023.
Peer Reviewed
Employment in the 21st Century: Pre- and Post-COVID-19 Changes

In the 21st century, prior to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous transformations were already underway in the field of employment. However, this unprecedented global health crisis has had a profound influence on employment worldwide, yielding both positive and negative outcomes across various labor aspects. Consequently, while certain effects are anticipated to be temporary, others are likely to instigate enduring changes in employment practices.

employment 21st century COVID-19
COVID-19 was an unprecedented event that caused many problems on a global scale for many sectors and industries [1]. Many questions have been posed regarding the impact of COVID-19 on employment [2]. However, some of these are already answered, while others are not.
Crises in general, and more precisely COVID-19, can provoke many repercussions on financial instability and its perception, while self-employed people cite increased financial worry due to the instability of this type of employment [3][4][5].
Society, the economy, and the environment were heavily affected by the COVID-19 pandemic [6], transforming public policy since governments had to cooperate with major sectors of society [7]. An intense impact was evidenced in various sectors, including healthcare [8], tourism [1][9][10], and many others.
COVID-19 caused many changes in global and local labor markets; however, most of the changes were scattered irregularly and heterogeneously [11]. Unemployment increased [12], while many changes in employment were associated with negative health-related behaviors [13]. Apart from that, people with disabilities and workers in sensitive sectors were even more exposed to dangers and economic problems [14].
However, there is a consensus that COVID-19 broadened inequalities that already existed in the past in the working place, and that an indispensable issue has arisen from the unique possibilities of telecommuting [15]. Consequently, the pandemic increased many inequalities worldwide, such as those regarding health, because the working class had limited access [16], and lower social groups faced more difficult conditions [17].
More positively, with the emergence of communication technologies, the performance of several jobs outside the workplace has been made easier and more widespread [18]. As a result, during COVID-19, the Internet was an important factor in the movement of the economy [19] and working from home was extensively embraced; however, empirical evidence before the pandemic is lacking [18]. Generally, individuals with busy schedules can benefit from working in flexible conditions [18]. The economic and health sectors can be affected in the future by the development of the digital labor market; however, this favors high specialization [16].
To confront such difficult conditions, governments and policymakers should aim to assist all individuals, with a focus on specific social groups that are more vulnerable to such harsh crises (i.e., pandemics) and on those who face the socio-economic challenges of COVID-19-like crises [20].
The remainder of this work describes the changes that COVID-19 caused in employment, depicts the global research interest for the keyword “employment”, and finally provides a conclusion.


  1. Daglis, T.; Katsikogianni, M.-A. The repercussions of COVID-19 on the Stock Market of the Tourism Industry. Tour. Anal. 2022, 27, 77–91.
  2. Hite, L.M.; McDonald, K.S. Careers after COVID-19: Challenges and changes. Hum. Resour. Dev. Int. 2020, 23, 427–437.
  3. Clarke, M.; Lewchuk, W.; de Wolff, A.; King, A. ‘This just isn’t sustainable’: Precarious employment, stress and workers’ health. Int. J. Law Psychiatr. 2007, 30, 311–326.
  4. Dalton, P.S.; Nhung, N.; Rechenpohler, J. Worries of the poor: The impact of financial burden on the risk attitudes of micro-entrepreneurs. J. Econ. Psychol. 2019, 79, 102198.
  5. Wolfe Marcus, T.; Patel Pankaj, C. Everybody hurts: Self-employment, financial concerns, mental distress, and well-being during COVID-19. J. Bus. Ventur. Insights 2021, 15, e00231.
  6. Mack, A.E.; Agrawal, S.; Wang, S. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on transportation employment: A comparative analysis. Transp. Res. Interdiscip. Perspect. 2021, 12, 100470.
  7. Whitsel, L.P.; Ajenikoko, F.; Chase, P.J.; Faghy, M.A. Public policy for healthy living: How COVID-19 has changed the landscape. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2023, 76, 49–56.
  8. Müller, K.; Poppele, I.; Ottiger, M.; Zwingmann, K.; Berger, I.; Thomas, A.; Wastlhuber, A.; Ortwein, F.; Schultz, A.-L.; Weghofer, A.; et al. Impact of Rehabilitation on Physical and Neuropsychological Health of Patients Who Acquired COVID-19 in the Workplace. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 1468.
  9. Solnet, D.; Robinson, N.S.R.; Baum, T.; Yan, H. Tourism work, media & COVID-19: A changed narrative? Ann. Tour. Res. 2022, 97, 103492.
  10. Liu, H.; Tan, Q.; Mai, H. Stress-Buffering Effects of Social Support on Tourism Employees during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Moderated Mediation Model. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 2342.
  11. Liao, K.T.; Villarreal, A. Unequal effects of the COVID-19 epidemic on employment: Differences by immigrant status and race/ethnicity. PLoS ONE 2022, 17, e0277005.
  12. Kim, T.A.; Kim, C.; Tuttle, E.S.; Zhang, Y. COVID-19 and the decline in Asian American employment. Res. Soc. Stratif. Mobil. 2021, 71, 100563.
  13. Martin, M.; Lennon, R.; Smith, R.; Myrick, J.; Small, M.; Van Scoy, L. Essential and non-essential US workers’ health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Prev. Med. Rep. 2022, 29, 101889.
  14. Bryan, M.; Bryce, A.; Rice, N.; Roberts, J.; Sechel, C. Exploring mental health disability gaps in the labour market: The UK experience during COVID-19. Labour Econ. 2022, 78, 102253.
  15. Castro, N.R.; Moreira, G.C. Who worked from home in Brazil? Inequalities highlighted by the pandemic. Nova Econ. 2021, 31, 899–927.
  16. Estoce, R.H.Y.; Ngan, O.M.Y.; Calderon, P.E.E. How Do COVID-19 Vaccine Policies Affect the Young Working Class in the Philippines? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 2593.
  17. Kapitsinis, N.; Sykas, G.; Kanelleas, A.; Psarologos, D.; Saroukou, A.; Voulgaris, D.; Gourzis, K.; Gialis, S.; A Brief Overview on the Uneven Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic up Employment, 2020Q2 and 2020Q3. Evidence from Cyprus, France, Spain, Greece, Italy, Malta, Croatia and Portugal. 2021. Available online: (accessed on 15 May 2023).
  18. Arntz, M.; Ben Yahmed, S.; Berlingieri, F. Working from home, hours worked and wages: Heterogeneity by gender and parenthood. Labour Econ. 2022, 76, 102169.
  19. Isley, C.; Low, S. Broadband adoption and availability: Impacts on rural employment during COVID-19. Telecommun. Policy 2022, 46, 102310.
  20. Sun, Y.; Sie, L.; Faturay, F.; Auwalin, I.; Wang, J. Who are vulnerable in a tourism crisis? A tourism employment vulnerability analysis for the COVID-19 management. J. Hosp. Tour. Manag. 2021, 49, 304–308.
Subjects: Social Issues
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , ,
View Times: 877
Online Date: 27 Jul 2023
Video Production Service