Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 5693 2023-07-20 14:20:37 |
2 format change + 1 word(s) 5694 2023-07-21 08:45:27 | |
3 added tables 3, 4 and 5 + 2075 word(s) 7769 2023-07-21 10:13:23 | |
4 duplicated content removed -22 word(s) 7747 2023-07-23 08:45:49 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Nicu, R.; Ciolacu, F.; Ciolacu, D.E. Functional Materials Based on Nanocellulose for Pharmaceutical/Medical Applications. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/47049 (accessed on 17 June 2024).
Nicu R, Ciolacu F, Ciolacu DE. Functional Materials Based on Nanocellulose for Pharmaceutical/Medical Applications. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/47049. Accessed June 17, 2024.
Nicu, Raluca, Florin Ciolacu, Diana E. Ciolacu. "Functional Materials Based on Nanocellulose for Pharmaceutical/Medical Applications" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/47049 (accessed June 17, 2024).
Nicu, R., Ciolacu, F., & Ciolacu, D.E. (2023, July 20). Functional Materials Based on Nanocellulose for Pharmaceutical/Medical Applications. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/47049
Nicu, Raluca, et al. "Functional Materials Based on Nanocellulose for Pharmaceutical/Medical Applications." Encyclopedia. Web. 20 July, 2023.
Functional Materials Based on Nanocellulose for Pharmaceutical/Medical Applications
Edit

Nanocelluloses (NCs), with their remarkable characteristics, have proven to be one of the most promising “green” materials of our times and have received special attention from researchers in nanomaterials. A diversity of new functional materials with a wide range of biomedical applications has been designed based on the most desirable properties of NCs, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and their special physicochemical properties.

nanocellulose nanocrystalline cellulose nanofibrillated cellulose bacterial cellulose hydrogels nanogels nanocomposites drug delivery wound healing tissue engineering

1. Introduction

Science and technology continue to move toward the use of renewable raw materials, more environmentally friendly and sustainable resources as a result of their potential to manufacture numerous high-value products with low environmental impact [1][2][3].
Nanocellulosic materials derived from abundant and inexhaustible cellulose are an important component of this vital movement [4][5]. The immense interest generated by these nanomaterials during several decades is mainly related to their exciting properties and possibilities of producing from a multitude of sustainable resources [6].
Generally, cellulose nanomaterials include all cellulose-based materials that are at least one size in nanometer scale, with various shapes, physical properties, or surface chemistry. Depending on the origin of the cellulose, the processing conditions, and the methods of their preparation, nanocelluloses are classified into three main categories (Figure 1): (i) cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), which are short and rigid; (ii) cellulose nanofibers (CNF), long and flexible; and (iii) bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), with high purity and very crystalline [1][7][8][9][10]. Even though these types of nanocelluloses have a relatively similar chemical composition, there are major differences in their degrees of crystallinity and particle size, as well as in their morphological characteristics [11].
Figure 1. Preparation scheme and dimensions of different types of nanocelluloses: nanocrystalline cellulose, nanofibrilar cellulose, and bacterial nanocellulose.
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), also known as nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW), or cellulose crystallites, are obtained by acid hydrolysis of wood or various non-wood materials (cotton, hemp, flax, wheat straw, mulberry bark, ramie, Avicel, tunicin, algae or bacteria), which consists in the chemical removal of lignin, hemicellulose and of amorphous regions within cellulose [12]. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), also called microfibrillated cellulose, nanofibrils, and microfibrils, or nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), are extracted from wood, sugar beet, potato tuber, hemp, flax by delamination of pulp by mechanical pressure before and/or after chemical or enzymatic treatment [9]. Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) or microbial cellulose is produced by some bacterial genera, such as Gram-negative bacteria: Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, etc. or Gram-positive bacteria: Sarcina ventriculi, in fermentation processes of sugars and vegetable carbohydrates. This has a large specific surface area, higher water retention value, is considered chemically pure cellulose, and does not contain lignin or hemicellulose [13].
All types of nanocelluloses (NCs) are chemically similar but have different organizational forms and consequently different physical characteristics. As entities, CNFs are micrometer-long fibrils having highly entangled networks of nanofibers with both crystalline and amorphous domains. CNCs are stiffer and highly crystalline rods (ca. 90%), while BNCs are secreted as a ribbon-shaped fibril composed of a bundle of much finer nanofibers.
Beyond possessing the advantageous performances of nanomaterials, the natural nanocellulose (NC) is low cost, completely renewable, highly biocompatible, having low ecological toxicity risk and low cytotoxicity to a range of animal and human cell types compared to the synthetic ones [14][15]. These excellent properties provide NCs an important place in interdisciplinary studies and an increased interest in their applications as biomedical materials.
To date, there has been a strong focus of researchers on the design, manufacture, and processing of nanocellulose-based materials for their potential use in biomedicine, as well as a tremendous increase in the number of scientific publications, from 2015 to 2020, with topic keywords “tissue engineering”, “drug delivery”, and “wound healing”, respectively [16][17].

2. Advanced Functional Materials Based on Nanocellulose—General Characteristics

2.1. Hydrogels

With the progress of nanotechnology, hydrogels have received much more attention due to their particular and excellent characteristics. Hydrogels were the first biomaterials to be conceived for use in humans. They have moved forward to now mimic basic physiological processes and are essentials as bioactive implants in the sense of “in vivo” scaffolds.
The use of hydrogels as biomaterials is strongly related to their properties. Hydrogels are three-dimensional network colloidal gels from hydrophilic polymer crosslinked able by swelling to absorb and retain large volumes of water in an aqueous environment [18][19][20][21][22][23]. In the swollen state, they have a soft and rubbery structure that mimics the behavior of extracellular matrix (ECM) in biological tissues [24]. Furthermore, hydrogels are conformable to different kinds of surfaces on which they are placed. These properties, in combination with their mucoadhesive nature, elasticity, swelling, and deswelling characteristics in response to environmental stimuli, make hydrogels potential candidates for biomedical applications [18][25]. Thus, hydrogels have found applications to produce different types of materials such as contact lenses [26], blood-contacting hydrogels [27], wound-healing bioadhesives [28], artificial kidney membranes [29], artificial skin [30], vocal cord replacement [31][32], and artificial tendons [33].
Depending on the size of the obtained particles, hydrogels may be classified as macro-, micro-, or nanogels. When they have particle sizes bigger than 100 m, they are usually called macrogels, while gels with particle sizes up to the micrometer range are called microgels. Finally, if these gels are smaller than 100 nm, they are usually considered nanogels [34][35].

2.2. Nanogels

Nanogels, also called “hydrogel nanoparticles”, “nanoscalar polymer networks”, “gel nanoparticles”, or “nanoscale hydrogels”, are combine the properties of gels with those of colloids [18]. Generally, they have a spherical shape and size between 20 and 200 nm [36].
Hydrogels, at the nanometer scale, have a great potential in the field of biomedical applications, e.g., as drug-delivery systems, as they combine the characteristics of hydrogels with the advantages of nanoparticles [36][37]. Reducing the size of hydrogel particles in the nano range is reflected in increasing the solubility of hydrophobic drugs, improving the accumulation of drugs in tumors, but also by reducing cytotoxic side effects and increasing the stability of therapeutic agents against enzymatic and chemical degradation [34]. The nanogels also possess some desirable properties, such as high drug-loading capacities, chemical stability, and mechanical properties to avoid the disassembly or fracture during transport, and sensitive response behavior to ensure rapid drug release in response to the relevant stimuli [38].
In addition to their excellent applicability in the drug delivery field, nanogels have also found applications in other biomedical fields, such as chemotherapy [39][40], diagnosis of diseases [41], vaccines delivery [42], biocatalysis [43], and generation of bioactive scaffolds in regenerative medicine [34]. They have also been studied for use in diabetes treatments [44] and gene and protein delivery [41][45].
Nanohydrogels prepared from natural sources have drawn huge attention due to their vast applications in pharmacy, medicine, tissue engineering, cancer therapy, and drug delivery [46]. The use of nanocellulosic materials in obtaining hydrogels from renewable materials has been a much-desired goal that has been achieved for many hydrogel types [47][48][49]. Several smart hydrogels such as injectable hydrogels [33][50][51], shape memory [52][53], supramolecular hydrogels [54][55], double-membrane hydrogels [56], temperature-sensitive hydrogels [57], and many other hydrogels types based on nanocellulose with potential for biomedical applications have been developed.
However, on their own, nanocellulose materials do not gel [58]. Different ways are used to perform, for example, for the gelation of CNC suspensions: by simply increasing the concentration of suspension due to a decrease in the electrostatic double-layer distance [59]; by modifying the solvent conditions through ionic strength increase [60]; by addition of polymers [58]; by sonication [61]; and by hydrothermal treatment at elevated temperature [47].
Nanocrystalline cellulose, with their high rigidity and relatively low anisotropy, are well-suited to act as templates for aligned structures (e.g., artificial muscle-like materials) while providing toughness and flexibility. With collagen, for instance, this afforded networks with mechanical properties similar to tendon and ligaments and excellent biocompatibility [62]. Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNFs) is the type of nanocellulose most likely to form hydrogels due to the length of the nanofibrils. CNFs form gels with much higher elasticity than those resulting from CNCs. CNF suspensions exhibit gelation (G′ > G″, G′ ∝ ω0, and G″ ∝ ω0, where, G′ is the storage modulus, G″ is the loss modulus, ω is the frequency) even down to a concentration near to 0.1 wt.%, i.e., the critical gelation concentration, above which the nanofibrils form interconnected networks [63]. CNFs will afford such structures at concentration ranges of 0.05–6 wt.% [62]. The simplest case is offered by pristine CNFs, which spontaneously form hydrogels, probably promoted by their length and interacting entanglements [64].

2.3. Nanocomposites

Currently, research is also progressing in the field of nanocomposite hydrogels, including functionalized nanomaterials [18]. In general, in order to improve or modify certain properties, polymeric matrices of nanocomposites are reinforced with nanoparticles/nanofillers [65]. In particular, hydrogels are reinforced with nanoscale materials to obtain nanocomposites with high mechanical strength characteristics or are combined with nanoparticles that confer antibacterial or magnetic properties [34].

2.3.1. Nanocellulose Materials as “Reinforcing Agents” into Polymer Matrices

Over the past decade, composite materials have attracted a great deal of interest, and particular attention has been focused on the use of nanocellulose as an alternative to inorganic reinforcing agents in polymer matrices for the production of fully “green” composites [66][67][68]. Nanocellulose, owing to its exceptionally high mechanical properties (high specific strength and modulus), high surface area, high aspect ratio, and low environmental impact, has greater advantages as reinforcing filler in comparison to glass fibers, silica, carbon black, and other expensive nanosized fillers [65]. Thus, composite materials with natural fillers have not only met the environmental appeal but also contributed to developing low-density materials with improved properties [69].
Hydrogels entirely made of biopolymers and reinforced with nanocellulose can be classified as “green” nanocomposite materials because of their renewable and biodegradable design [70]. The design of cellulose-based biocomposites is a pathway with many alternatives due to the wide variety of cellulose fibers with specific geometries, the diversity of polymers and manufacturing processes, the multitude of types of reinforcements, and the possibilities of orientation and arrangement of fibers [17].
Nanocrystalline cellulose has been investigated as reinforcing agents for a variety of polymeric systems due to their large aspect ratio, high specific strength and modulus, low density, high surface area, and unique optical properties [51][62][65][71][72]. CNCs have been used as reinforcing agents in a wide range of polymer matrices, from the most common to the most unusual, such as: poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(oxyethylene), polyethylene glycol, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), starch, natural rubber, or polyurethane [67][73][74][75][76].
Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has excellent properties for mechanical reinforcement due to its special morphology that combines the advantages of the length of the fibers in the micrometers range with those of their width in the nanometers range [69]. The use of CNF networks as reinforcing elements together with a suitable matrix polymer is an efficient reinforcement solution for high-quality, specialized applications of bio-based composites. The combination of nanofiber flexibility, aspect ratio, and strength is the main advantage of CNFs in various applications [77]. For instance, comparing the reinforcement capacity of CNC and NFC (at the same addition) using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as the polymer matrix, Xu and coworkers [75] reported that the nanocomposites reinforced with NFC demonstrated higher-strength and elastic modulus than nanocomposites with CNC. However, CNC-based nanocomposites presented a higher strain of failure. The higher strength values of NFC-based nanocomposites are the effect of their high aspect ratio of cellulose nanofibrils that favors more entanglement and network percolation.
By comparison, bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), having the highest purity of all nanocellulose materials, doubled by high crystallinity and excellent biological affinity, is the ideal reinforcing component for biopolymer composites [78].

2.3.2. Nanocellulose Materials as “Matrices” for Different Reinforcing Agents

The inclusion of biocompatible and/or bioactive compounds as components of the composite is the proper way to overcome certain limitations of nanocellulose materials, improving their biocompatibility, antimicrobial activity, or water-holding capacity [79].
Generally, nanocellulose can be reinforced with different polymers with specific properties, obtaining a material with different characteristics from those of starting materials [65]. Nanocellulose can also be used as a substrate for the incorporation of inorganic nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide to obtain hydrogels with antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, magnetic, electrical, and mechanical properties. The high specific surface area, the presence of reducing functional groups, and the ability to form aqueous suspensions are the main arguments for the use of nanocelluloses as a support for metal/metal oxide nanoparticles [80]. The process of composite formation is performed through physicochemical interactions or by mechanical capture of nanoparticles in the structural matrix of nanocellulose [81].
Nanocellulose-based compounds have found applications in various biomedical areas, from dressings to drug administration and even as a basis for scaffolding in regenerative medicine [82]. Silver particles have been used as potential agents with a broad antibacterial activity and low presumed toxicity to coat cellulosic materials for biomedical applications. The composite was prepared by immersing BNC in a silver ammonium solution and showed to be effective as dressing in wound-healing applications by decreasing inflammation and promoting wound-healing [30]. The silver nanoparticles were incorporated in crystalline nanocellulose by microwave-assisted synthesis, and the composites proved to have high antibacterial properties against E. coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and S. aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) [83]. Barua and coworkers [84] prepare copper-copper oxide nanoparticles (Cu–CuO) NP-coated CNFs through a green reductive technique, which exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungal species.

3. Nanocellulose-Based Materials in Pharmaceutical/Medical Applications

The nanocellulose materials, used as independent functional material or as reinforcement units in composite materials, have received tremendous attention in a wide variety of applications, including foods, packaging, cosmetics, biomedical implants, optics, water filtration, hygienic applications, and so forth [3][14][17]. However, especially in biomedical fields, they appear to have significant advantages due to their intrinsic biodegradability and biocompatibility [14]. However, other interesting features should also be considered, such as mechanical properties, low risk of cytotoxicity, its three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous network, and last but not least, its natural source [62][85][86].

3.1. Nanocellulose-Based Materials in Drug-Delivery Systems (DDS)

An ideal drug carrier should be nontoxic, non-immunogenic, biocompatible, and biodegradable; enhance drug solubility and stability and have high drug-loading capacity; and be capable of reaching correct concentrations at a proper rate determined by an optimal [36]. Other equally important criteria to be met are related to its size and surface characteristics because these two parameters control the residence time in the bloodstream and the target site. More exactly, the size needs to be sufficiently large enough to prevent rapid penetration into fenestrated blood vessels, yet sufficiently small to avoid phagocytosis. The surface nature also decides the duration and destination of the drug carrier in the circulatory system. For instance, a hydrophilic surface will most likely make the carrier avoid phagocytosis by macrophages, and this hydrophilicity can be accomplished either by covering the surface with a hydrophilic polymer (i.e., PEG) or by using block copolymers with hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas [62].
Being a natural nanosized material, nanocellulose features meet the necessary criteria mentioned above regarding its function as a vehicle for DDS: its horizontal measurements extend from 5 to 20 nm, and the longitudinal measurement ranges from 10 nm to a few microns; each of its monomers bears three hydroxyl groups with the ability to form hydrogen bonds, which plays a major role in the surface hydrophilicity. Of course, the nanocellulose unique properties should not be overlooked because they make this material play an important role among drug-delivery vectors, such as high crystallinity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, high surface area, unique mechanical and rheological properties, liquid absorption capacity, and porosity [36][85][87][88].
The three types of nanocellulose are quite similar to each other, yet there are distinct differences that set them apart. These differences make each type of nanocellulose better suited for a certain drug-delivery system compared to the others [87]. The researchers summarize the recent reports on nanocellulose-based drug-delivery systems in Table 1.
Table 1. Nanocellulose hydrogels/nanocomposites in drug-delivery applications.

References

  1. Mokhena, T.C.; John, M.J. Cellulose nanomaterials: New generation materials for solving global issues. Cellulose 2020, 27, 1149–1194.
  2. Pachuau, L. Application of Nanocellulose for Controlled Drug Delivery. In Nanocellulose and Nanohydrogel Matrices: Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications, 1st ed.; Jawaid, M., Mohammad, F., Eds.; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2017; Chapter 1; pp. 1–19.
  3. Klemm, D.; Kramer, F.; Moritz, S.; Lindström, T.; Ankerfors, M.; Gray, D.; Dorris, A. Nanocelluloses: A New Family of Nature-Based Materials. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 5438–5466.
  4. Raghav, N.; Sharma, M.R.; Kennedy, J.F. Nanocellulose: A mini-review on types and use in drug delivery systems. Carbohydr. Polym. Technol. Appl. 2021, 2, 100031.
  5. Kamel, S.; Khattab, T.A. Recent Advances in Cellulose-Based Biosensors for Medical Diagnosis. Biosensors 2020, 10, 67.
  6. Naderi, A. Nanofibrillated cellulose: Properties reinvestigated. Cellulose 2017, 24, 1933–1945.
  7. Maiuolo, L.; Algieri, V.; Olivito, F.; Tallarida, M.A.; Costanzo, P.; Jiritano, A.; De Nino, A. Chronicle of Nanocelluloses (NCs) for Catalytic Applications: Key Advances. Catalysts 2021, 11, 96.
  8. Mirtaghavi, A.; Luo, J.; Muthuraj, R. Recent Advances in Porous 3D Cellulose Aerogels for Tissue Engineering Applications: A Review. J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4, 152.
  9. Klemm, D.; Cranston, E.D.; Fischer, D.; Gama, M.; Kedzior, S.A.; Kralisch, D.; Kramer, F.; Kondo, T.; Lindström, T.; Nietzsche, S.; et al. Nanocellulose as a natural source for groundbreaking applications in materials science: Today’s state. Mater. Today 2018, 21, 720–748.
  10. Ioelovich, M. Characterization of Various Kinds of Nanocellulose. In Handbook of Nanocellulose and Cellulose Nanocom-Posites, 1st ed.; Kargarzadeh, H., Ahmad, I., Thomas, S., Dufresne, A., Eds.; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2017; Chapter 2; pp. 51–100.
  11. Khalil, H.A.; Adnan, A.; Yahya, E.; Olaiya, N.; Safrida, S.; Hossain, S.; Balakrishnan, V.; Gopakumar, D.; Abdullah, C.; Oyekanmi, A.; et al. A Review on Plant Cellulose Nanofibre-Based Aerogels for Biomedical Applications. Polymers 2020, 12, 1759.
  12. Hamad, W.Y. Cellulose Nanocrystals and Nanofibrils in Advanced Applications. In Handbook of Nanocellulose and Cellulose Nanocomposites, 1st ed.; Kargarzadeh, H., Ahmad, I., Thomas, S., Dufresne, A., Eds.; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2017; Chapter 24; pp. 799–832.
  13. Ludwicka, K.; Kaczmarek, M.; Białkowska, A. Bacterial Nanocellulose—A Biobased Polymer for Active and Intelligent Food Packaging Applications: Recent Advances and Developments. Polymers 2020, 12, 2209.
  14. Xue, Y.; Mou, Z.; Xiao, H. Nanocellulose as a sustainable biomass material: Structure, properties, present status and future prospects in biomedical applications. Nanoscale 2017, 9, 14758–14781.
  15. Ciolacu, D.E.; Nicu, R.; Ciolacu, F. Cellulose-Based Hydrogels as Sustained Drug-Delivery Systems. Materials 2020, 13, 5270.
  16. Jorfi, M.; Foster, E.J. Recent advances in nanocellulose for biomedical applications. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2015, 132, 41719–41737.
  17. Omran, A.A.B.; Mohammed, A.A.B.A.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ilyas, R.A.; Asyraf, M.R.M.; Koloor, S.S.R.; Petrů, M. Micro- and Nanocellulose in Polymer Composite Materials: A Review. Polymers 2021, 13, 231.
  18. Jacob, S.; Nair, A.; Shah, J.; Sreeharsha, N.; Gupta, S.; Shinu, P. Emerging Role of Hydrogels in Drug Delivery Systems, Tissue Engineering and Wound Management. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 357.
  19. Nair, S.K.; Basu, S.; Sen, B.; Lin, M.-H.; Kumar, A.N.; Yuan, Y.; Cullen, P.J.; Sarkar, D. Colloidal Gels with Tunable Mechanomorphology Regulate Endothelial Morphogenesis. Sci. Rep. 2019, 9, 1–17.
  20. Ciolacu, D.; Cazacu, G. New Green Hydrogels Based on Lignin. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2018, 18, 2811–2822.
  21. Del Valle, L.J.; Díaz, A.; Puiggalí, J. Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications: Cellulose, Chitosan, and Protein/Peptide Derivatives. Gels 2017, 3, 27.
  22. Ciolacu, D.; Rudaz, C.; Vasilescu, M.; Budtova, T. Physically and chemically cross-linked cellulose cryogels: Structure, properties and application for controlled release. Carbohydr. Polym. 2016, 151, 392–400.
  23. Ooi, S.Y.; Ahmad, I.; Amin, M.C.I.M. Effect of Cellulose Nanocrystals Content and pH on Swelling Behaviour of Gelatin Based Hydrogel. Sains Malays. 2015, 44, 793–799.
  24. Shojaeiarani, J.; Bajwa, D.; Shirzadifar, A. A review on cellulose nanocrystals as promising biocompounds for the synthesis of nanocomposite hydrogels. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 216, 247–259.
  25. Pandey, M.; Mohamad, N.; Amin, M.C.I.M. Bacterial Cellulose/Acrylamide pH-Sensitive Smart Hydrogel: Development, Characterization, and Toxicity Studies in ICR Mice Model. Mol. Pharm. 2014, 11, 3596–3608.
  26. Tummala, G.K.; Felde, N.; Gustafsson, S.; Bubholz, A.; Schröder, S.; Mihranyan, A. Light scattering in poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels reinforced with nanocellulose for ophthalmic use. Opt. Mater. Express 2017, 7, 2824.
  27. Basu, A.; Lindh, J.; Ålander, E.; Strømme, M.; Ferraz, N. On the use of ion-crosslinked nanocellulose hydrogels for wound healing solutions: Physicochemical properties and application-oriented biocompatibility studies. Carbohydr. Polym. 2017, 174, 299–308.
  28. Li, J.; Yu, F.; Chen, G.; Liu, J.; Li, X.-L.; Cheng, B.; Mo, X.-M.; Chen, C.; Pan, J.-F. Moist-Retaining, Self-Recoverable, Bioadhesive, and Transparent in Situ Forming Hydrogels to Accelerate Wound Healing. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, 12, 2023–2038.
  29. Jansen, K.; Schuurmans, C.C.; Jansen, J.; Masereeuw, R.; Vermonden, T. Hydrogel-Based Cell Therapies for Kidney Regeneration: Current Trends in Biofabrication and In Vivo Repair. Curr. Pharm. Des. 2017, 23, 3845–3857.
  30. Wu, T.; Farnood, R.; O’Kelly, K.; Chen, B. Mechanical behavior of transparent nanofibrillar cellulose–chitosan nanocomposite films in dry and wet conditions. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 2014, 32, 279–286.
  31. Latifi, N.; Asgari, M.; Vali, H.; Mongeau, L. A tissue-mimetic nano-fibrillar hybrid injectable hydrogel for potential soft tissue engineering applications. Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 1–18.
  32. Gaston, J.; Thibeault, S.L. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels for vocal fold wound healing. Biomatter 2013, 3, e23799.
  33. Liu, R.; Zhang, S.; Chen, X. Injectable hydrogels for tendon and ligament tissue engineering. J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 2020, 14, 1333–1348.
  34. De Lima, C.S.A.; Balogh, T.S.; Varca, J.P.R.O.; Varca, G.H.C.; Lugão, A.B.; Camacho-Cruz, L.A.; Bucio, E.; Kadlubowski, S.S. An Updated Review of Macro, Micro, and Nanostructured Hydrogels for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 970.
  35. Rusu, D.; Ciolacu, D.; Simionescu, B.C. Cellulose-Based Hydrogels in Tissue Engineering Applications. Cellul. Chem. Technol. 2019, 53, 907–923.
  36. Moscovici, M.; Hlevca, C.; Casarica, A.; Pavaloiu, R.D. Nanocellulose and Nanogels as Modern Drug Delivery Systems. In Nanocellulose and Nanohydrogel Matrices: Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications, 1st ed.; Jawaid, M., Mo-hammad, F., Eds.; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2017; Chapter 9; pp. 209–269.
  37. Hamidi, M.; Azadi, A.; Rafiei, P. Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 2008, 60, 1638–1649.
  38. Miao, L.; Zhang, M.; Tu, Y.; Lin, S.; Hu, J. Stimuli-Responsive Cellulose-Based Hydrogels. In Cellulose-Based Super-Absorbent Hydrogels, Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series, 1st ed.; Mondal, M.I.H., Ed.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2019; Chapter 9; pp. 269–308.
  39. Yallapu, M.M.; Jaggi, M.; Chauhan, S.C. Design and engineering of nanogels for cancer treatment. Drug Discov. Today 2011, 16, 457–463.
  40. Xu, F.; Zhu, J.; Lin, L.; Zhang, C.; Sun, W.; Fan, Y.; Yin, F.; Van Hest, J.C.M.; Wang, H.; Du, L.; et al. Multifunctional PVCL nanogels with redox-responsiveness enable enhanced MR imaging and ultrasound-promoted tumor chemotherapy. Theranostics 2020, 10, 4349–4358.
  41. Sivaram, A.J.; Rajitha, P.; Maya, S.; Jayakumar, R.; Sabitha, M. Nanogels for delivery, imaging and therapy. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 2015, 7, 509–533.
  42. Ferreira, S.A.R.M.; Gama, F.M.; Vilanova, M. Polymeric nanogels as vaccine delivery systems. Nanomed. Nanotechnol. Biol. Med. 2013, 9, 159–173.
  43. Yan, M.; Ge, J.; Liu, Z.; Ouyang, P. Encapsulation of Single Enzyme in Nanogel with Enhanced Biocatalytic Activity and Stability. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 11008–11009.
  44. Chou, H.-S.; Larsson, M.; Hsiao, M.-H.; Chen, Y.-C.; Röding, M.; Nydén, M.; Liu, D.-M. Injectable insulin-lysozyme-loaded nanogels with enzymatically-controlled degradation and release for basal insulin treatment: In vitro characterization and in vivo observation. J. Control. Release 2016, 224, 33–42.
  45. Kandil, R.; Merkel, O.M. Recent progress of polymeric nanogels for gene delivery. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2019, 39, 11–23.
  46. Akram, M.; Hussain, R. Nanohydrogels: History, development, and applications in drug delivery. In Nanocellulose and Nanohydrogel Matrices: Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications, 1st ed.; Jawaid, M., Mohammad, F., Eds.; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2017; Chapter 11; pp. 297–330.
  47. Lewis, L.; Derakhshandeh, M.; Hatzikiriakos, S.G.; Hamad, W.Y.; MacLachlan, M. Hydrothermal Gelation of Aqueous Cellulose Nanocrystal Suspensions. Biomacromolecules 2016, 17, 2747–2754.
  48. Krontiras, P.; Gatenholm, P.; AHägg, D. Adipogenic differentiation of stem cells in three-dimensional porous bacterial nanocellulose scaffolds. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater. 2014, 103, 195–203.
  49. Picheth, G.F.; Pirich, C.; Sierakowski, M.R.; Woehl, M.A.; Sakakibara, C.N.; de Souza, C.F.; Martin, A.A.; da Silva, R.; de Freitas, R.A. Bacterial cellulose in biomedical applications: A review. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2017, 104, 97–106.
  50. Sanandiya, N.D.; Vasudevan, J.; Das, R.; Lim, C.T.; Fernandez, J.G. Stimuli-responsive injectable cellulose thixogel for cell encapsulation. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 130, 1009–1017.
  51. De France, K.; Chan, K.J.W.; Cranston, E.D.; Hoare, T. Enhanced Mechanical Properties in Cellulose Nanocrystal–Poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) Injectable Nanocomposite Hydrogels through Control of Physical and Chemical Cross-Linking. Biomacromolecules 2016, 17, 649–660.
  52. Lu, Y.; Han, J.; Ding, Q.; Yue, Y.; Xia, C.; Ge, S.; Van Le, Q.; Dou, X.; Sonne, C.; Lam, S.S. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers/polyacrylamide hybrid hydrogel with intrinsic self-recovery and shape memory properties. Cellulose 2021, 28, 1469–1488.
  53. Song, K.; Zhu, W.; Li, X.; Yu, Z. A novel mechanical robust, self-healing and shape memory hydrogel based on PVA reinforced by cellulose nanocrystal. Mater. Lett. 2020, 260, 126884–126887.
  54. Liu, S.; Jin, M.; Chen, Y.; Gao, H.; Shi, X.; Cheng, W.; Ren, L.; Wang, Y. High internal phase emulsions stabilised by supramolecular cellulose nanocrystals and their application as cell-adhesive macroporous hydrogel monoliths. J. Mater. Chem. B 2017, 5, 2671–2678.
  55. Masruchin, N.; Park, B.-D.; Causin, V. Influence of sonication treatment on supramolecular cellulose microfibril-based hydrogels induced by ionic interaction. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 2015, 29, 265–272.
  56. Hua, J.; Liu, C.; Ng, P.F.; Fei, B. Bacterial cellulose reinforced double-network hydrogels for shape memory strand. Carbohydr. Polym. 2021, 259, 117737.
  57. McKee, J.R.; Hietala, S.; Seitsonen, J.; Laine, J.; Kontturi, E.; Ikkala, O. Thermoresponsive Nanocellulose Hydrogels with Tunable Mechanical Properties. ACS Macro. Lett. 2014, 3, 266–270.
  58. Talantikite, M.; Beury, N.; Moreau, C.; Cathala, B.; Leray, N. Arabinoxylan/Cellulose Nanocrystal Hydrogels with Tunable Mechanical Properties. Langmuir 2019, 35, 13427–13434.
  59. Sabet, S.S. Shear Rheology of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) Aqueous Suspensions. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia Library, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2013.
  60. Shafiei-Sabet, S.; Hamad, W.Y.; Hatzikiriakos, S.G. Ionic strength effects on the microstructure and shear rheology of cellulose nanocrystal suspensions. Cellulose 2014, 21, 3347–3359.
  61. Heath, L.; Thielemans, W. Cellulose nanowhisker aerogels. Green Chem. 2010, 12, 1448–1453.
  62. Thomas, B.; Raj, M.C.; Athira, K.B.; Rubiah, M.H.; Joy, J.; Moores, A.; Drisko, G.L.; Sanchez, C. Nanocellulose, a Versatile Green Platform: From Biosources to Materials and Their Applications. Chem. Rev. 2018, 118, 11575–11625.
  63. Heise, K.; Kontturi, E.; Allahverdiyeva, Y.; Tammelin, T.; Linder, M.B.; Ikkala, O. Nanocellulose: Recent Fundamental Advances and Emerging Biological and Biomimicking Applications. Adv. Mater. 2021, 33, e2004349.
  64. Kontturi, E.; Laaksonen, P.; Linder, M.; Nonappa, N.; Gröschel, A.H.; Rojas, O.J.; Ikkala, O. Advanced Materials through Assembly of Nanocelluloses. Adv. Mater. 2018, 30, e1703779.
  65. Saba, N.; Jawaid, M. Recent advances in nanocellulose-based polymer nanocomposites. In Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering, Cellulose-Reinforced Nanofibre Composites, 1st ed.; Jawaid, M., Boufi, S., Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., Eds.; Woodhead Publishing: Cambridge, UK, 2017; Chapter 4; pp. 89–112.
  66. Dufresne, A. Cellulose nanomaterial reinforced polymer nanocomposites. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2017, 29, 1–8.
  67. Prusty, K.; Swain, S.K. Cellulose-based nanohydrogels for tissue engineering applications. In Nanocellulose and Nanohydrogel Matrices: Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications, 1st ed.; Jawaid, M., Mohammad, F., Eds.; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2017; Chapter 4; pp. 67–90.
  68. Gonzalez, J.S.; Ludueña, L.N.; Ponce, A.; Alvarez, V.A. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/cellulose nanowhiskers nanocomposite hydrogels for potential wound dressings. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2014, 34, 54–61.
  69. Ferreira, F.V.; Pinheiro, I.F.; De Souza, S.F.; Mei, L.H.I.; Lona, L.M.F. Polymer Composites Reinforced with Natural Fibers and Nanocellulose in the Automotive Industry: A Short Review. J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3, 51.
  70. Nascimento, D.M.D.; Nunes, Y.L.; Figueirêdo, M.C.B.; Azeredo, H.; Aouada, F.; Feitosa, J.P.A.; Rosa, M.F.; Dufresne, A. Nanocellulose nanocomposite hydrogels: Technological and environmental issues. Green Chem. 2018, 20, 2428–2448.
  71. Halib, N.; Perrone, F.; Cemazar, M.; Dapas, B.; Farra, R.; Abrami, M.; Chiarappa, G.; Forte, G.; Zanconati, F.; Pozzato, G.; et al. Potential Applications of Nanocellulose-Containing Materials in the Biomedical Field. Materials 2017, 10, 977.
  72. Chen, Y.; Xu, W.; Liu, W.; Zeng, G. Responsiveness, swelling, and mechanical properties of PNIPA nanocomposite hydrogels reinforced by nanocellulose. J. Mater. Res. 2015, 30, 1797–1807.
  73. Abitbol, T.; Johnstone, T.; Quinn, T.M.; Gray, D.G. Reinforcement with cellulose nanocrystals of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels prepared by cyclic freezing and thawing. Soft Matter 2011, 7, 2373–2379.
  74. Han, J.; Lei, T.; Wu, Q. High-water-content mouldable polyvinyl alcohol-borax hydrogels reinforced by well-dispersed cellulose nanoparticles: Dynamic rheological properties and hydrogel formation mechanism. Carbohydr. Polym. 2014, 102, 306–316.
  75. Xu, X.; Liu, F.; Jiang, L.; Zhu, J.Y.; Haagenson, D.; Wiesenborn, D.P. Cellulose Nanocrystals vs. Cellulose Nanofibrils: A Comparative Study on Their Microstructures and Effects as Polymer Reinforcing Agents. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2013, 5, 2999–3009.
  76. Yang, J.; Han, C.-R.; Duan, J.-F.; Xu, F.; Sun, R.-C. Mechanical and Viscoelastic Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystals Reinforced Poly(ethylene glycol) Nanocomposite Hydrogels. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2013, 5, 3199–3207.
  77. Jonoobi, M.; Oladi, R.; Davoudpour, Y.; Oksman, K.; Dufresne, A.; Hamzeh, Y.; Davoodi, R. Different preparation methods and properties of nanostructured cellulose from various natural resources and residues: A review. Cellulose 2015, 22, 935–969.
  78. Huang, Y.; Zhu, C.; Yang, J.; Nie, Y.; Chen, C.; Sun, D. Recent advances in bacterial cellulose. Cellulose 2014, 21, 1–30.
  79. Sulaeva, I.; Henniges, U.; Rosenau, T.; Potthast, A. Bacterial cellulose as a material for wound treatment: Properties and modifications. A review. Biotechnol. Adv. 2015, 33, 1547–1571.
  80. Kaushik, M.; Moores, A. Review: Nanocelluloses as versatile supports for metal nanoparticles and their applications in catalysis. Green Chem. 2016, 18, 622–637.
  81. Hu, Z.; Cranston, E.D.; Ng, R.; Pelton, R. Tuning Cellulose Nanocrystal Gelation with Polysaccharides and Surfactants. Langmuir 2014, 30, 2684–2692.
  82. Chinga-Carrasco, G. Potential and Limitations of Nanocelluloses as Components in Biocomposite Inks for Three-Dimensional Bioprinting and for Biomedical Devices. Biomacromolecules 2018, 19, 701–711.
  83. Li, S.-M.; Jia, N.; Ma, M.-G.; Zhang, Z.; Liu, Q.-H.; Sun, R.-C. Cellulose—Silver nanocomposites: Microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization, their thermal stability, and antimicrobial property. Carbohydr. Polym. 2011, 86, 441–447.
  84. Barua, S.; Das, G.; Aidew, L.; Buragohain, A.K.; Karak, N. Copper-copper oxide coated nanofibrillar cellulose: A promising biomaterial. RSC Adv. 2013, 3, 14997–15004.
  85. Kupnik, K.; Primožič, M.; Kokol, V.; Leitgeb, M. Nanocellulose in Drug Delivery and Antimicrobially Active Materials. Polymers 2020, 12, 2825.
  86. Mertaniemi, H.; Escobedo-Lucea, C.; Sanz-Garcia, A.; Gandía, C.; Mäkitie, A.; Partanen, J.; Ikkala, O.; Yliperttula, M. Human stem cell decorated nanocellulose threads for biomedical applications. Biomaterials 2016, 82, 208–220.
  87. Abitbol, T.; Rivkin, A.; Cao, Y.; Nevo, Y.; Abraham, E.; Ben-Shalom, T.; Lapidot, S.; Shoseyov, O. Nanocellulose, a tiny fiber with huge applications. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2016, 39, 76–88.
  88. Salas, C.; Nypelö, T.; Rodriguez-Abreu, C.; Carrillo, C.; Rojas, O. Nanocellulose properties and applications in colloids and interfaces. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2014, 19, 383–396.
  89. Lin, N.; Gèze, A.; Wouessidjewe, D.; Huang, J.; Dufresne, A. Biocompatible Double-Membrane Hydrogels from Cationic Cellulose Nanocrystals and Anionic Alginate as Complexing Drugs Codelivery. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2016, 8, 6880–6889.
  90. Akhlaghi, S.P. Surface Modification and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals for Biomedical Applications. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 2014.
  91. Taheri, A.; Mohammadi, M. The Use of Cellulose Nanocrystals for Potential Application in Topical Delivery of Hydroquinone. Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 2014, 86, 102–106.
  92. Gunathilake, T.M.S.U.; Ching, Y.C.; Chuah, C.H. Enhancement of Curcumin Bioavailability Using Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Hydrogel. Polymers 2017, 9, 64.
  93. You, J.; Cao, J.; Zhao, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, J.; Chen, Y. Improved Mechanical Properties and Sustained Release Behavior of Cationic Cellulose Nanocrystals Reinforeced Cationic Cellulose Injectable Hydrogels. Biomacromolecules 2016, 17, 2839–2848.
  94. Ooi, S.Y.; Ahmad, I.; Amin, M.C.I.M. Cellulose nanocrystals extracted from rice husks as a reinforcing material in gelatin hydrogels for use in controlled drug delivery systems. Ind. Crop. Prod. 2016, 93, 227–234.
  95. Supramaniam, J.; Adnan, R.; Kaus, N.H.M.; Bushra, R. Magnetic nanocellulose alginate hydrogel beads as potential drug delivery system. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2018, 118, 640–648.
  96. Liu, Y.; Sui, Y.; Liu, C.; Liu, C.; Wu, M.; Li, B.; Li, Y. A physically crosslinked polydopamine/nanocellulose hydrogel as potential versatile vehicles for drug delivery and wound healing. Carbohydr. Polym. 2018, 188, 27–36.
  97. Orasugh, J.T.; Saha, N.R.; Rana, D.; Sarkar, G.; Mollick, M.R.; Chattoapadhyay, A.; Mitra, B.C.; Mondal, D.; Ghosh, S.K.; Chattopadhyay, D. Jute cellulose nano-fibrils/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose nanocomposite: A novel material with potential for application in packaging and transdermal drug delivery system. Ind. Crop. Prod. 2018, 112, 633–643.
  98. Guo, T.; Pei, Y.; Tang, K.; He, X.; Huang, J.; Wang, F. Mechanical and drug release properties of alginate beads reinforced with cellulose. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2017, 134, 44495–44503.
  99. Shi, X.; Zheng, Y.; Wang, G.; Lin, Q.; Fan, J. pH- and electro-response characteristics of bacterial cellulose nanofiber/sodium alginate hybrid hydrogels for dual controlled drug delivery. RSC Adv. 2014, 4, 47056–47065.
  100. Shao, W.; Liu, H.; Wang, S.; Wu, J.; Huang, M.; Min, H.; Liu, X. Controlled release and antibacterial activity of tetracycline hydrochloride-loaded bacterial cellulose composite membranes. Carbohydr. Polym. 2016, 145, 114–120.
  101. Moritz, S.; Wiegand, C.; Wesarg, F.; Hessler, N.; Müller, F.A.; Kralisch, D.; Hipler, U.-C.; Fischer, D. Active wound dressings based on bacterial nanocellulose as drug delivery system for octenidine. Int. J. Pharm. 2014, 471, 45–55.
  102. Wiegand, C.; Moritz, S.; Hessler, N.; Kralisch, D.; Wesarg, F.; Müller, F.A.; Fischer, D.; Hipler, U.-C. Antimicrobial functionalization of bacterial nanocellulose by loading with polihexanide and povidone-iodine. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 2015, 26, 1–14.
  103. Bacakova, L.; Pajorova, J.; Bacakova, M.; Skogberg, A.; Kallio, P.; Kolarova, K.; Svorcik, V. Versatile Application of Nanocellulose: From Industry to Skin Tissue Engineering and Wound Healing. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 164.
  104. Hakkarainen, T.; Koivuniemi, R.; Kosonen, M.; Escobedo-Lucea, C.; Sanz-García, A.; Vuola, J.; Valtonen, J.; Tammela, P.; Mäkitie, A.; Luukko, K.; et al. Nanofibrillar cellulose wound dressing in skin graft donor site treatment. J. Control. Release 2016, 244, 292–301.
  105. Cattelaens, J.; Turco, L.; Berclaz, L.M.; Huelsse, B.; Hitzl, W.; Vollkommer, T.; Bodenschatz, K.J. The Impact of a Nanocellulose-Based Wound Dressing in the Management of Thermal Injuries in Children: Results of a Retrospective Evaluation. Life 2020, 10, 212.
  106. Qiu, Y.; Qiu, L.; Cui, J.; Wei, Q. Bacterial cellulose and bacterial cellulose-vaccarin membranes for wound healing. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2016, 59, 303–309.
  107. Mohamad, N.; Amin, M.C.I.M.; Pandey, M.; Ahmad, N.; Rajab, N.F. Bacterial cellulose/acrylic acid hydrogel synthesized via electron beam irradiation: Accelerated burn wound healing in an animal model. Carbohydr. Polym. 2014, 114, 312–320.
  108. Zubik, K.; Singhsa, P.; Wang, Y.; Manuspiya, H.; Narain, R. Thermo-Responsive Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-Cellulose Nanocrystals Hybrid Hydrogels for Wound Dressing. Polymers 2017, 9, 119.
  109. Sanyang, M.L.; Saba, N.; Jawaid, M.; Mohammad, F.; Salit, M.S. Bacterial nanocellulose applications for tissue engineering. In Nanocellulose and Nanohydrogel Matrices: Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications, 1st ed.; Jawaid, M., Mohammad, F., Eds.; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2017; Chapter 3; pp. 47–66.
  110. Sharma, C.; Bhardwaj, N.K. Bacterial nanocellulose: Present status, biomedical applications and future perspectives. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2019, 104, 109963.
  111. Xu, C.; Molino, B.Z.; Wang, X.; Cheng, F.; Xu, W.; Molino, P.; Bacher, M.; Su, D.; Rosenau, T.; Willför, S.; et al. 3D printing of nanocellulose hydrogel scaffolds with tunable mechanical strength towards wound healing application. J. Mater. Chem. B 2018, 6, 7066–7075.
  112. Murizan, N.I.S.; Mustafa, N.S.; Ngadiman, N.H.A.; Yusof, N.M.; Idris, A. Review on Nanocrystalline Cellulose in Bone Tissue Engineering Applications. Polymers 2020, 12, 2818.
  113. Huang, A.; Peng, X.; Geng, L.; Zhang, L.; Huang, K.; Chen, B.; Gu, Z.; Kuang, T. Electrospun poly (butylene succinate)/cellulose nanocrystals bio-nanocomposite scaffolds for tissue engineering: Preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation. Polym. Test. 2018, 71, 101–109.
  114. Subhedar, A.; Bhadauria, S.; Ahankari, S.; Kargarzadeh, H. Nanocellulose in biomedical and biosensing applications: A review. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 166, 587–600.
  115. Ghafari, R.; Jonoobi, M.; Amirabad, L.M.; Oksman, K.; Taheri, A.R. Fabrication and characterization of novel bilayer scaffold from nanocellulose based aerogel for skin tissue engineering applications. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 136, 796–803.
  116. Gorgieva, S.; Girandon, L.; Kokol, V. Mineralization potential of cellulose-nanofibrils reinforced gelatine scaffolds for promoted calcium deposition by mesenchymal stem cells. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2017, 73, 478–489.
  117. Lam, N.T.; Chollakup, R.; Smitthipong, W.; Nimchua, T.; Sukyai, P. Utilizing cellulose from sugarcane bagasse mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication. Ind. Crop. Prod. 2017, 100, 183–197.
  118. Yin, F.; Lin, L.; Zhan, S. Preparation and properties of cellulose nanocrystals, gelatin, hyaluronic acid composite hydrogel as wound dressing. J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 2019, 30, 190–201.
  119. Li, W.; Lan, Y.; Guo, R.; Zhang, Y.; Xue, W.; Zhang, Y. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel collagen/cellulose nanocrystals scaffold for achieving the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor. J. Biomater. Appl. 2015, 29, 882–893.
  120. Zhang, C.; Salick, M.R.; Cordie, T.M.; Ellingham, T.; Dan, Y.; Turng, L.-S. Incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) grafted cellulose nanocrystals in poly(lactic acid) electrospun nanocomposite fibers as potential scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2015, 49, 463–471.
  121. Tummala, G.K. Hydrogels of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and Nanocellulose for Ophthalmic Applications. Synthesis, Characterization, Biocompatibility and Drug Delivery Studies. Ph.D. Thesis, UPPSALA University, Uppsala, Sweden, 2018.
  122. Yang, J.; Han, C. Mechanically Viscoelastic Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystals Skeleton Reinforced Hierarchical Composite Hydrogels. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2016, 8, 25621–25630.
  123. Prince, E.; Alizadehgiashi, M.; Campbell, M.; Khuu, N.; Albulescu, A.; De France, K.; Ratkov, D.; Li, Y.; Hoare, T.; Kumacheva, E. Patterning of Structurally Anisotropic Composite Hydrogel Sheets. Biomacromolecules 2018, 19, 1276–1284.
  124. Tummala, G.K.; Rojas, R.; Mihranyan, A. Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hydrogels Reinforced with Nanocellulose for Ophthalmic Applications: General Characteristics and Optical Properties. J. Phys. Chem. B 2016, 120, 13094–13101.
  125. Martínez Ávila, H.; Schwarz, S.; Feldmann, E.M.; Mantas, A.; von Bomhard, A.; Gatenholm, P.; Rotter, N. Biocompatibility evaluation of densified bacterial nanocellulose hydrogel as an implant material for auricular cartilage regeneration. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2014, 98, 7423–7435.
  126. Yan, H.; Huang, D.; Chen, X.; Liu, H.; Feng, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Dai, Z.; Zhang, X.; Lin, Q. A novel and homogeneous scaffold material: Preparation and evaluation of alginate/bacterial cellulose nanocrystals/collagen composite hydrogel for tissue engineering. Polym. Bull. 2017, 75, 985–1000.
  127. Osorio, M.; Fernández-Morales, P.; Gañán, P.; Zuluaga, R.; Kerguelen, H.; Ortiz, I.; Castro, C. Development of novel three-dimensional scaffolds based on bacterial nanocellulose for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: Effect of processing methods, pore size, and surface area. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A 2019, 107, 348–359.
  128. Zheng, Y.; Wen, X.; Wu, J.; Wang, L.-N.; Yuan, Z.; Peng, J.; Meng, H. Immobilization of collagen peptide on dialdehyde bacterial cellulose nanofibers via covalent bonds for tissue engineering and regeneration. Int. J. Nanomed. 2015, 10, 4623–4637.
  129. Huang, Y.; Wang, J.; Yang, F.; Shao, Y.; Zhang, X.; Dai, K. Modification and evaluation of micro-nano structured porous bacterial cellulose scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2017, 75, 1034–1041.
  130. Saska, S.; Teixeira, L.N.; Raucci, L.M.S.D.C.; Scarel-Caminaga, R.M.; Franchi, L.P.; dos Santos, R.A.; Santagneli, S.H.; Capela, M.V.; de Oliveira, P.T.; Takahashi, C.S.; et al. Nanocellulose-collagen-apatite composite associated with osteogenic growth peptide for bone regeneration. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2017, 103, 467–476.
  131. Park, S.; Park, J.; Jo, I.; Cho, S.-P.; Sung, D.; Ryu, S.; Park, M.; Min, K.-A.; Kim, J.; Hong, S.; et al. In situ hybridization of carbon nanotubes with bacterial cellulose for three-dimensional hybrid bioscaffolds. Biomaterials 2015, 58, 93–102.
  132. Nimeskern, L.; Ávila, H.M.; Sundberg, J.; Gatenholm, P.; Müller, R.; Stok, K.S. Mechanical evaluation of bacterial nanocellulose as an implant material for ear cartilage replacement. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 2013, 22, 12–21.
  133. Martínez Ávila, H.; Feldmann, E.M.; Pleumeekers, M.M.; Nimeskern, L.; Kuo, W.; de Jong, W.C.; Schwarz, S.; Müller, R.; Hendriks, J.; Rotter, N.; et al. Novel bilayer bacterial nanocellulose scaffold supports neocartilage formation in vitro and in vivo. Biomaterials 2015, 44, 122–133.
  134. Li, G.; Nandgaonkar, A.G.; Habibi, Y.; Krause, W.E.; Wei, Q.; Lucia, L.A. An environmentally benign approach to achieving vectorial alignment and high microporosity in bacterial cellulose/chitosan scaffolds. RSC Adv. 2017, 7, 13678–13688.
  135. Catalán, J.; Ilves, M.; Järventaus, H.; Hannukainen, K.-S.; Kontturi, E.; Vanhala, E.; Alenius, H.; Savolainen, K.M.; Norppa, H. Genotoxic and immunotoxic effects of cellulose nanocrystals in vitro. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2015, 56, 171–182.
  136. Hosseinidoust, Z.; Sim, G.; Alam, N.; Tufenkji, N.; Van De Ven, T.G.M. Cellulose nanocrystals with tunable surface charge for nanomedicine. Nanoscale 2015, 7, 16647–16657.
  137. Endes, C.; Mueller, S.; Kinnear, C.; Vanhecke, D.; Foster, E.J.; Petri-Fink, A.; Weder, C.; Clift, M.J.D.; Rothen-Rutishauser, B. Fate of Cellulose Nanocrystal Aerosols Deposited on the Lung Cell Surface In Vitro. Biomacromolecules 2015, 16, 1267–1275.
  138. Menas, A.L.; Yanamala, N.; Farcas, M.; Russo, M.; Friend, S.; Fournier, P.M.; Star, A.; Iavicoli, I.; Shurin, G.V.; Vogel, U.; et al. Fibrillar vs. crystalline nanocellulose pulmonary epithelial cell responses: Cytotoxicity or inflammation? Chemosphere 2017, 171, 671–680.
  139. Erdem, J.S.; Alswady-Hoff, M.; Ervik, T.K.; Skare, Ø.; Ellingsen, D.G.; Zienolddiny, S. Cellulose nanocrystals modulate alveolar macrophage phenotype and phagocytic function. Biomaterials 2019, 203, 31–42.
  140. Xiao, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Li, M.; Lei, H.; Xu, H. Cellulose nanocrystals prepared from wheat bran: Characterization and cytotoxicity assessment. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 140, 225–233.
  141. Tuerxun, D.; Pulingam, T.; Nordin, N.I.; Chen, Y.W.; Bin Kamaldin, J.; Julkapli, N.B.M.; Lee, H.V.; Leo, B.F.; Bin Johan, M.R. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity studies of nanocrystalline cellulose from the production waste of rubber-wood and kenaf-bast fibers. Eur. Polym. J. 2019, 116, 352–360.
  142. Meschini, S.; Pellegrini, E.; Maestri, C.A.; Condello, M.; Bettotti, P.; Condello, G.; Scarpa, M. In vitro toxicity assessment of hydrogel patches obtained by cation-induced cross-linking of rod-like cellulose nanocrystals. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater. 2020, 108, 687–697.
  143. Li, W.; Lan, Y.; Guo, R.; Zhang, Y.; Xue, W.; Zhang, Y. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel collagen/cellulose nanocrystals scaffold for achieving the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor. J. Biomater. Appl. 2015, 29, 882–893.
  144. Sunasee, R.; Araoye, E.; Pyram, D.; Hemraz, U.D.; Boluk, Y.; Ckless, K. Cellulose nanocrystal cationic derivative induces NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion associated with mitochondrial ROS production. Biochem. Biophys. Rep. 2015, 4, 1–9.
  145. Zhang, C.; Salick, M.R.; Cordie, T.M.; Ellingham, T.; Dan, Y.; Turng, L.-S. Incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) grafted cellulose nanocrystals in poly(lactic acid) electrospun nanocomposite fibers as potential scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2015, 49, 463–471.
  146. Tummala, G.K.; Rojas, R.; Mihranyan, A. Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hydrogels Reinforced with Nanocellulose for Ophthalmic Applications: General Characteristics and Optical Properties. J. Phys. Chem. B 2016, 120, 13094–13101.
  147. Lam, N.T.; Chollakup, R.; Smitthipong, W.; Nimchua, T.; Sukyai, P. Utilizing cellulose from sugarcane bagasse mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication. Ind. Crop. Prod. 2017, 100, 183–197.
  148. Yin, F.; Lin, L.; Zhan, S. Preparation and properties of cellulose nanocrystals, gelatin, hyaluronic acid composite hydrogel as wound dressing. J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 2019, 30, 190–201.
  149. Akhavan-Kharazian, N.; Izadi-Vasafi, H. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/gelatin/nanocrystalline cellulose/calcium peroxide films for potential wound dressing applications. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 133, 881–891.
  150. Tummala, G.K.; Lopes, V.R.; Mihranyan, A.; Ferraz, N. Biocompatibility of Nanocellulose-Reinforced PVA Hydrogel with Human Corneal Epithelial Cells for Ophthalmic Applications. J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10, 35.
  151. Colic, M.; Mihajlović, D.; Mathew, A.P.; Naseri, N.; Kokol, V. Cytocompatibility and immunomodulatory properties of wood based nanofibrillated cellulose. Cellulose 2015, 22, 763–778.
  152. Nordli, H.R.; Chinga-Carrasco, G.; Rokstad, A.M.; Pukstad, B. Producing ultrapure wood cellulose nanofibrils and evaluating the cytotoxicity using human skin cells. Carbohydr. Polym. 2016, 150, 65–73.
  153. Lopes, V.R.; Sanchez-Martinez, C.; Strømme, M.; Ferraz, N. In vitro biological responses to nanofibrillated cellulose by human dermal, lung and immune cells: Surface chemistry aspect. Part. Fibre Toxicol. 2017, 14, 1–13.
  154. Ventura, C.; Lourenço, A.F.; Sousa-Uva, A.; Ferreira, P.J.; Silva, M.J. Evaluating the genotoxicity of cellulose nanofibrils in a co-culture of human lung epithelial cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Toxicol. Lett. 2018, 291, 173–183.
  155. Souza, S.F.; Mariano, M.; Reis, D.; Lombello, C.B.; Ferreira, M.; Sain, M. Cell interactions and cytotoxic studies of cellulose nanofibers from Curauá natural fibers. Carbohydr. Polym. 2018, 201, 87–95.
  156. DeLoid, G.M.; Cao, X.; Molina, R.M.; Silva, D.I.; Bhattacharya, K.; Ng, K.W.; Loo, S.C.J.; Brain, J.D.; Demokritou, P. Toxicological effects of ingested nanocellulose in in vitro intestinal epithelium and in vivo rat models. Environ. Sci. Nano 2019, 6, 2105–2115.
  157. Tibolla, H.; Pelissari, F.; Martins, J.; Lanzoni, E.M.; Vicente, A.; Menegalli, F.; Cunha, R. Banana starch nanocomposite with cellulose nanofibers isolated from banana peel by enzymatic treatment: In vitro cytotoxicity assessment. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 207, 169–179.
  158. Lopes, V.R.; Strømme, M.; Ferraz, N. In Vitro Biological Impact of Nanocellulose Fibers on Human Gut Bacteria and Gastrointestinal Cells. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1159.
  159. Aimonen, K.; Suhonen, S.; Hartikainen, M.; Lopes, V.; Norppa, H.; Ferraz, N.; Catalán, J. Role of Surface Chemistry in the In Vitro Lung Response to Nanofibrillated Cellulose. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 389.
  160. Blasi-Romero, A.; Palo-Nieto, C.; Sandström, C.; Lindh, J.; Strømme, M.; Ferraz, N. In Vitro Investigation of Thiol-Functionalized Cellulose Nanofibrils as a Chronic Wound Environment Modulator. Polymers 2021, 13, 249.
  161. Yanamala, N.; Kisin, E.R.; Menas, A.L.; Farcas, M.; Khaliullin, T.O.; Vogel, U.; Shurin, G.V.; Schwegler-Berry, D.; Fournier, P.M.; Star, A.; et al. In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Lignin-(Un)coated Cellulose Based Nanomaterials on Human A549 and THP-1 Cells. Biomacromolecules 2016, 17, 3464–3473.
  162. Gorgieva, S.; Girandon, L.; Kokol, V. Mineralization potential of cellulose-nanofibrils reinforced gelatine scaffolds for promoted calcium deposition by mesenchymal stem cells. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2017, 73, 478–489.
  163. Basu, A.; Lindh, J.; Ålander, E.; Strømme, M.; Ferraz, N. On the use of ion-crosslinked nanocellulose hydrogels for wound healing solutions: Physicochemical properties and application-oriented biocompatibility studies. Carbohydr. Polym. 2017, 174, 299–308.
  164. Xu, W.; Pranovich, A.; Uppstu, P.; Wang, X.; Kronlund, D.; Hemming, J.; Öblom, H.; Moritz, N.; Preis, M.; Sandler, N.; et al. Novel biorenewable composite of wood polysaccharide and polylactic acid for three dimensional printing. Carbohydr. Polym. 2018, 187, 51–58.
  165. Gao, H.; Zhong, Z.; Xia, H.; Hu, Q.; Ye, Q.; Wang, Y.; Chen, L.; Du, Y.; Shi, X.; Zhang, L. Construction of cellulose nanofibers/quaternized chitin/organic rectorite composites and their application as wound dressing materials. Biomater. Sci. 2019, 7, 2571–2581.
  166. Zang, S.; Zhang, R.; Chen, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhou, J.; Chang, X.; Qiu, G.; Wu, Z.; Yang, G. Investigation on artificial blood vessels prepared from bacterial cellulose. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2015, 46, 111–117.
  167. Moritz, S.; Wiegand, C.; Wesarg, F.; Hessler, N.; Müller, F.A.; Kralisch, D.; Hipler, U.-C.; Fischer, D. Active wound dressings based on bacterial nanocellulose as drug delivery system for octenidine. Int. J. Pharm. 2014, 471, 45–55.
  168. Pinto, F.C.M.; De-Oliveira, A.C.A.; De-Carvalho, R.R.; Gomes-Carneiro, M.R.; Coelho, D.R.; Lima, S.V.C.; Paumgartten, F.J.R.; Aguiar, J.L.A. Acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of a cellulosic exopolysaccharide obtained from sugarcane molasses. Carbohydr. Polym. 2016, 137, 556–560.
  169. Qiu, Y.; Qiu, L.; Cui, J.; Wei, Q. Bacterial cellulose and bacterial cellulose-vaccarin membranes for wound healing. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2016, 59, 303–309.
  170. Junka, A.; Bartoszewicz, M.; Dziadas, M.; Szymczyk, P.; Dydak, K.; Żywicka, A.; Owczarek, A.; Bil-Lula, I.; Czajkowska, J.; Fijałkowski, K. Application of bacterial cellulose experimental dressings saturated with gentamycin for management of bone biofilm in vitro and ex vivo. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater. 2020, 108, 30–37.
  171. Zikmundova, M.; Vereshaka, M.; Kolarova, K.; Pajorova, J.; Svorcik, V.; Bacakova, L. Effects of Bacterial Nanocellulose Loaded with Curcumin and Its Degradation Products on Human Dermal Fibroblasts. Materials 2020, 13, 4759.
  172. Orlando, I.; Basnett, P.; Nigmatullin, R.; Wang, W.; Knowles, J.C.; Roy, I. Chemical Modification of Bacterial Cellulose for the Development of an Antibacterial Wound Dressing. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2020, 8, 1–19.
  173. Martínez Ávila, H.; Feldmann, E.M.; Pleumeekers, M.M.; Nimeskern, L.; Kuo, W.; de Jong, W.C.; Schwarz, S.; Müller, R.; Hendriks, J.; Rotter, N.; et al. Novel bilayer bacterial nanocellulose scaffold supports neocartilage formation in vitro and in vivo. Biomaterials 2015, 44, 122–133.
  174. Saska, S.; Teixeira, L.N.; Raucci, L.M.S.D.C.; Scarel-Caminaga, R.M.; Franchi, L.P.; dos Santos, R.A.; Santagneli, S.H.; Capela, M.V.; de Oliveira, P.T.; Takahashi, C.S.; et al. Nanocellulose-collagen-apatite composite associated with osteogenic growth peptide for bone regeneration. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2017, 103, 467–476.
  175. Yan, H.; Huang, D.; Chen, X.; Liu, H.; Feng, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Dai, Z.; Zhang, X.; Lin, Q. A novel and homogeneous scaffold material: Preparation and evaluation of alginate/bacterial cellulose nanocrystals/collagen composite hydrogel for tissue engineering. Polym. Bull. 2017, 75, 985–1000.
  176. Hobzova, R.; Hrib, J.; Sirc, J.; Karpushkin, E.; Michálek, J.; Janouskova, O.; Gatenholm, P. Embedding of Bacterial Cellulose Nanofibers within PHEMA Hydrogel Matrices: Tunable Stiffness Composites with Potential for Biomedical Applications. J. Nanomater. 2018, 2018, 5217095.
  177. Noh, Y.K.; Costa, A.D.S.D.; Park, Y.S.; Du, P.; Kim, I.-H.; Park, K. Fabrication of bacterial cellulose-collagen composite scaffolds and their osteogenic effect on human mesenchymal stem cells. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 219, 210–218.
  178. Ye, S.; Jiang, L.; Su, C.; Zhu, Z.; Wen, Y.; Shao, W. Development of gelatin/bacterial cellulose composite sponges as potential natural wound dressings. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 133, 148–155.
  179. Gorgieva, S.; Hribernik, S. Microstructured and Degradable Bacterial Cellulose–Gelatin Composite Membranes: Mineralization Aspects and Biomedical Relevance. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 303.
  180. Cacicedo, M.L.; Pacheco, G.; Islan, G.A.; Alvarez, V.A.; Barud, H.S.; Castro, G.R. Chitosan-bacterial cellulose patch of ciprofloxacin for wound dressing: Preparation and characterization studies. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 147, 1136–1145.
  181. Khan, M.U.A.; Haider, S.; Haider, A.; Razak, S.I.A.; Kadir, M.R.A.; AShah, S.; Javed, A.; Shakir, I.; Al-Zahrani, A.A. Development of porous, antibacterial and biocompatible GO/n-HAp/bacterial cellulose/β-glucan biocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Arab. J. Chem. 2021, 14, 102924.
  182. Queirós, E.; Pinheiro, S.; Pereira, J.; Prada, J.; Pires, I.; Dourado, F.; Parpot, P.; Gama, M. Hemostatic Dressings Made of Oxidized Bacterial Nanocellulose Membranes. Polysaccharides 2021, 2, 6.
  183. Goswami, P.; O’Haire, T. Developments in the use of green (biodegradable), recycled and biopolymer materials in technical nonwovens. In Advances in Technical Nonwovens; Elsevier BV: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2016; Volume 181, pp. 97–114.
  184. Ghalia, M.A.; Dahman, Y. Advanced nanobiomaterials in tissue engineering: Synthesis, properties, and applications. In Nanobiomaterials in Soft Tissue Engineering, 1st ed.; Grumezescu, A.M., Ed.; William Andrew Publishing: Norwich, NY, USA, 2016; Chapter 6; pp. 141–172.
  185. Lin, N.; Dufresne, A. Nanocellulose in biomedicine: Current status and future prospect. Eur. Polym. J. 2014, 59, 302–325.
  186. Singh, G.; Chandoha-Lee, C.; Zhang, W.; Renneckar, S.; Vikesland, P.J.; Pruden, A. Biodegradation of nanocrystalline cellulose by two environmentally-relevant consortia. Water Res. 2016, 104, 137–146.
  187. Shelke, N.B.; James, R.; Laurencin, C.T.; Kumbar, S.G. Polysaccharide biomaterials for drug delivery and regenerative engineering. Polym. Adv. Technol. 2014, 25, 448–460.
  188. Athukoralalage, S.S.; Balu, R.; Dutta, N.K.; Choudhury, N.R. 3D Bioprinted Nanocellulose-Based Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications: A Brief Review. Polymers 2019, 11, 898.
  189. Hu, Y.; Catchmark, J.M. In vitro biodegradability and mechanical properties of bioabsorbable bacterial cellulose incorporating cellulases. Acta Biomater. 2011, 7, 2835–2845.
  190. Luo, H.; Cha, R.; Li, J.; Hao, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, F. Advances in tissue engineering of nanocellulose-based scaffolds: A review. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 224, 115144.
  191. Jacek, P.; Dourado, F.; Gama, M.; Bielecki, S. Molecular aspects of bacterial nanocellulose biosynthesis. Microb. Biotechnol. 2019, 12, 633–649.
  192. Yadav, V.; Paniliatis, B.J.; Shi, H.; Lee, K.; Cebe, P.; Kaplan, D.L. Novel In Vivo-Degradable Cellulose-Chitin Copolymer from Metabolically Engineered Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2010, 76, 6257–6265.
  193. Levanič, J.; Šenk, V.P.; Nadrah, P.; Poljanšek, I.; Oven, P.; Haapala, A. Analyzing TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Fiber Morphology: New Insights into Optimization of the Oxidation Process and Nanocellulose Dispersion Quality. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2020, 8, 17752–17762.
  194. Isogai, A.; Hänninen, T.; Fujisawa, S.; Saito, T. Review: Catalytic oxidation of cellulose with nitroxyl radicals under aqueous conditions. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2018, 86, 122–148.
  195. Yang, H.; Chen, D.; Van De Ven, T.G.M. Preparation and characterization of sterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose obtained by periodate oxidation of cellulose fibers. Cellulose 2015, 22, 1743–1752.
  196. Czaja, W.; Kyryliouk, D.D.; De Paula, C.A.; Buechter, D.D. Oxidation of γ-irradiated microbial cellulose results in bioresorbable, highly conformable biomaterial. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 39995–40006.
  197. Bulut, Y.; Aksit, A. A comparative study on chemical treatment of jute fiber: Potassium dichromate, potassium permanganate and sodium perborate trihydrate. Cellulose 2013, 20, 3155–3164.
  198. Li, J.; Wan, Y.; Li, L.; Liang, H.; Wang, J. Preparation and characterization of 2,3-dialdehyde bacterial cellulose for potential biodegradable tissue engineering scaffolds. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2009, 29, 1635–1642.
  199. Elçin, A.E. In VitroandIn VivoDegradation of Oxidized Acetyl- and Ethyl-Cellulose Sponges. Artif. Cells Blood Substit. Biotechnol. 2006, 34, 407–418.
  200. Potter, M.J.; Chauhan, A.; Rowe, D. Surgicel: An effective tool to avoid free flap pedicle kinking in the head and neck. ANZ J. Surg. 2013, 83, 95–96.
  201. Yuan, H.; Chen, L.; Hong, F.F. A Biodegradable Antibacterial Nanocomposite Based on Oxidized Bacterial Nanocellulose for Rapid Hemostasis and Wound Healing. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, 12, 3382–3392.
  202. Sultana, T.; Van Hai, H.; Abueva, C.; Kang, H.J.; Lee, S.-Y.; Lee, B.-T. TEMPO oxidized nano-cellulose containing thermo-responsive injectable hydrogel for post-surgical peritoneal tissue adhesion prevention. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2019, 102, 12–21.
  203. Song, S.H.; Kim, J.E.; Lee, Y.J.; Kwak, M.H.; Sung, G.Y.; Kwon, S.H.; Son, H.J.; Lee, H.S.; Jung, Y.J.; Hwang, D.Y. Cellulose film regenerated from Styela clava tunics have biodegradability, toxicity and biocompatibility in the skin of SD rats. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 2014, 25, 1519–1530.
More
Information
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , ,
View Times: 308
Revisions: 4 times (View History)
Update Date: 23 Jul 2023
1000/1000
Video Production Service