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Şengönül, E.; Samet, R.; Abu Al-Haija, Q.; Alqahtani, A.; Alturki, B.; Alsulami, A.A. Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Surveillance Video Anomaly Detection. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/43993 (accessed on 24 June 2024).
Şengönül E, Samet R, Abu Al-Haija Q, Alqahtani A, Alturki B, Alsulami AA. Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Surveillance Video Anomaly Detection. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/43993. Accessed June 24, 2024.
Şengönül, Erkan, Refik Samet, Qasem Abu Al-Haija, Ali Alqahtani, Badraddin Alturki, Abdulaziz A. Alsulami. "Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Surveillance Video Anomaly Detection" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/43993 (accessed June 24, 2024).
Şengönül, E., Samet, R., Abu Al-Haija, Q., Alqahtani, A., Alturki, B., & Alsulami, A.A. (2023, May 08). Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Surveillance Video Anomaly Detection. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/43993
Şengönül, Erkan, et al. "Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Surveillance Video Anomaly Detection." Encyclopedia. Web. 08 May, 2023.
Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Surveillance Video Anomaly Detection
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The Surveillance Video Anomaly Detection (SVAD) system is a sophisticated technology designed to detect unusual or suspicious behavior in video surveillance footage without human intervention. The system operates by analyzing the video frames and identifying deviations from normal patterns of movement or activity. This is achieved through advanced algorithms and machine learning techniques that can detect and analyze the position of pixels in the video frame at the time of an event.

video surveillance abnormal events anomaly detection artificial intelligence

1. Introduction

The taxonomy of surveillance video anomaly detection (SVAD), consisting of two main groups, is described in Table 1.
Table 1. Taxonomy for anomaly detection in video surveillance.

2. Learning

Several Artificial Intelligence (AI) subsets are based on various applications and use cases. This text mainly focused on Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL). DL is a subset of machine learning methods. ML is a powerful technology that can be applied for anomaly detection. The process varies considerably depending on the problem. The performance of an ML algorithm may vary depending on the features selected in the dataset or the weight assigned to each feature, even if the same model runs on two identical datasets [1]. A model may become overfit if it has fewer features that are only sometimes good. To better comprehend and construct a model using available ML techniques and data, reviewing and comparing the current solutions is worthwhile. Machine learning (ML) can be divided into three groups: Supervised Learning (SL), Unsupervised Learning (UL), and Semi-Supervised Learning (SSL).

2.1. Supervised Learning

SL acquires knowledge from pre-existing labeled datasets or “the training set”, then compares the predicted output to the known labels. A high-level training set is always required to build a model that works effectively, but more is needed to ensure that the final product will be satisfactory; the training procedure is also a crucial element in creating a reliable predictor. A classifier model is first developed in SL through training, and after that, it can forecast either discrete or continuous outputs. The ASL model’s performance, such as accuracy, is typically validated before prediction to demonstrate its dependability. Additionally, classification and regression techniques can be used to categorize SL tasks [2].
The training data are first divided into separate categories in the classification technique. It then calculates the probability of test samples falling into each category and chooses the category with the most votes [3]. This probability represents the likelihood that a sample is a class member. Credit scoring and medical imaging are examples of typical applications. The regression technique uses input factors such as temperature changes or variations in electricity demand to forecast continuous responses, often in quantity [4]. Forecasting power load and algorithmic trading are examples of typical applications. While the regression model can calculate the root-mean-squared error, the classification model can quantify the percentage of accurate predictions. Nevertheless, a discrepancy between the expected and actual values is acceptable since the output data are continuous.
Several works have been performed with SL. One of the suggestions in this area is presented by the study [5]. They proposed a unique way to identify fights or violent acts based on learning the temporal and spatial information from consecutive video frames that are evenly spaced. Using the proposed feature fusion approach, features with many levels for two sequential frames are retrieved from the first and last layers of the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and fused to consider the action knowledge. They also suggested a “Wide-Dense Residual Block” to learn the unified spatial data from the two input frames. These learned characteristics are subsequently consolidated and delivered to long-term memory components to store temporal dependencies. Using the domain adaptation strategy, the network may learn to efficiently merge features from the input frames, improving the results’ accuracy. They evaluated their experiments by using four public datasets, namely HockeyFight, Movies, ViolentFlow, and BEHAVE, to show the performance of their model, which was compared with the existing models. There are several important learning techniques in SL, such the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) [6], Support Vector Machine (SVM) [7], Gaussian Regression (GR) [8], CNN [9], Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) [10], and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) [11]. It is clear that each technique has advantages and disadvantages in anomaly detection, and it is impossible to say that one technique can solve all problems efficiently.

2.2. Unsupervised Learning

UL groups data by identifying hidden patterns or intrinsic structures. Data input is necessary, but there are no predetermined output variables. There is neither labeled input data nor a training technique, in contrast to SL. As a result, it operates independently, and its performance could be more measurable. Although some researchers use the UL model’s pre-existing labeled data to verify its results, this is only sometimes possible in practice. To conduct an external evaluation, specialists may need to analyze the results manually.
UL is mostly used for reducing dimensionality and clustering. UL is used in dimensionality reduction to find the dataset’s linked features so that redundant data can be removed to reduce noise. Using clustering techniques, the clustering problem allows for the possibility of a sample belonging to more than one cluster or just one. Market research and object identification are common applications [12].
One proposed approach in UL is that of [13]. They provided a technique for detecting anomalies in surveillance missions, including UAV-acquired footage. They combined an unsupervised classification technique called One-Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM) with a deep feature extraction technique utilizing a pre-trained CNN. Their quantitative findings demonstrated that their proposed strategy produces positive outcomes for the dataset studied. The authors in [14] extended their previous work by using mobile cameras to assist UAVs when acquiring videos. They added two feature extraction methods, the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and HOG3D. They used the same UL method, which was OCSVM [15]. They obtained good results based on the used video-obtained datasets. There are many techniques under UL; PCA [16] and GANs [17] are examples of them.

2.3. Semi-Supervised Learning

SSL is a machine learning method that utilizes labeled and unlabeled data to create a classifier. This approach is particularly useful in situations with a limited amount of labeled data available. The SSL algorithm utilizes the training procedure described in Supervised Learning (SL) to create a predictor with a small amount of labeled data. The predictor then categorizes unlabeled samples and assigns each pseudo-labeled sample a confidence rating. This confidence rating informs the administrator of the prediction’s certainty level. Once all data have been labeled, confident examples are added to the new training set to update the classifier.
Certain assumptions must be made before training unlabeled examples, such as smoothness and clustering. This is because unlabeled data are randomly labeled in the prediction process [18]. The anomaly detection (AE) model [19] is an important SSL model, as it utilizes labeled and unlabeled data to detect and identify anomalies in a given dataset. Overall, SSL is an effective method for creating a classifier with a limited amount of labeled data while leveraging the information present in unlabeled data to improve the accuracy of the classifier.

2.4. Supervised vs. Unsupervised vs. Semi-Supervised

Supervised learning techniques for SVAD offer several advantages, including the ability to accurately identify and classify anomalies using labeled data and the ability to identify specific types of anomalies. These techniques are also useful for detecting anomalies in surveillance and security applications. However, a significant amount of labeled data is required, and these techniques can be sensitive to environmental changes, affecting their accuracy.
Unsupervised learning techniques for SVAD offer advantages such as not requiring labeled data and the ability to detect anomalies in real-time. These techniques can also be used to identify patterns in the data that deviate from the norm and classify them as anomalies. However, unsupervised learning techniques are not able to identify specific types of anomalies and can also be sensitive to changes in the environment.
Semi-supervised learning techniques for SVAD can use labeled and unlabeled data, allowing for accurate identification and classification of anomalies. These techniques can also be used to identify specific types of anomalies and detect anomalies in real-time. However, semi-supervised learning techniques require significant labeled data and can also be sensitive to environmental changes.
In conclusion, supervised, unsupervised, and semi-supervised learning techniques each offer advantages and disadvantages when it comes to anomaly detection in SVAD. Each technique has its limitations, and the accuracy of the results can be affected by changes in the environment. Therefore, the choice of technique will depend on the specific needs of the application and the availability of labeled data.

3. Algorithms

3.1. Statistics-Based Algorithms

Two main algorithms are used in video anomaly detection: parametric and non-parametric [20].
Parametric algorithms assume the data follow a specific probability distribution, such as a Gaussian distribution. These algorithms estimate the parameters of the distribution using the data and then use these parameters to calculate the likelihood of new data points. One popular parametric algorithm for video anomaly detection is the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). The GMM is a probabilistic model representing a dataset as a mixture of multiple Gaussian distributions. The algorithm estimates the parameters of the Gaussian distributions using the data and then uses these parameters to calculate the likelihood of new data points. If the likelihood of a new data point is below a certain threshold, it is considered an anomaly.
Non-parametric algorithms do not make any assumptions about the distribution of the data. Instead, these algorithms rely on the empirical distribution of the data, which is estimated using Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) [21]. One popular non-parametric algorithm for video anomaly detection is the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) [22]. The LOF is a density-based algorithm that calculates the local density of a data point by measuring the distance to its k-nearest neighbors. The algorithm then compares a data point’s local density to its neighbors’ density. The data point is considered an anomaly if the ratio is below a certain threshold. Several studies have been conducted on statistical-based algorithms, some of which are listed below: Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), selective histogram of optical flow, Histogram of Magnitude and Momentum (HoMM), Histogram of the oriented Swarm (HoS), Histogram of Gradients (HoG), Bayesian, Fully-Convolutional-Network (FCNs)-based models, and Structural Context Descriptor (SCD). Some statistics-based studies are presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Statistics-based methods.

3.2. Classification-Based Algorithms

One of the most-widely used methods for SVAD is classification-based methods, which involve training a classifier to distinguish between normal and anomalous video frames or segments.
The first step in using classification-based methods for video anomaly detection is to extract features from the video frames. These features can include spatial and temporal information, such as color, texture, motion, and object shape. Several feature extraction techniques have been proposed in the literature, including hand-crafted features, such as the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), as well as in-depth learning-based features, such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs).
Once the features have been extracted, the next step is to train a classifier to distinguish between normal and anomalous video frames or segments. Several classifiers have been proposed in the literature, including traditional machine learning classifiers, such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs), random forests, k-Nearest Neighbors (kNNs), and deep learning-based classifiers: CNNs and RNNs. The choice of the classifier will depend on the specific application and the type of features that have been extracted.
After the classifier has been trained, it can classify new video frames or segments as normal or anomalous. The classifier will output a score or probability for each frame or segment, indicating the likelihood that it is normal or anomalous. A threshold is usually set to make a final decision, and any frames or segments with a score below the threshold are considered anomalous.
One of the main advantages of classification-based methods for video anomaly detection is that they can be fine-tuned to a specific application by selecting appropriate features and classifiers. However, one of the main challenges is that these methods require a large amount of labeled training data to be effective. Additionally, they may be unable to detect anomalous events significantly different from the training data [20].
Several classification algorithms have been proposed in the literature on data science, which can be considered the most common in the field, and they were discussed in detail in [27]. Some commonly used algorithms are summarized as follows.
Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a widely used classification, regression, or other application method. An SVM generates a single hyperplane or a set of hyperplanes in a high or endless space. The goal is to separate the two classes using a hyperplane that reflects the greatest separation or margin. The larger the margin, the smaller the generalization error of the classifier is.
k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) is a non-parametric supervised learning technique, also referred to as a “lazy learning” method. It maintains all occurrences that match the training set in an n-dimensional space, rather than focusing on building a large internal model. kNN uses data and employs similarity metrics to categorize new data points.
Decision Tree (DT) is a popular non-parametric SL approach. Both the classification and regression tasks are performed using DT learning techniques. The DT is a recursive operation; it starts with a single node and branches into a tree structure.
Some classification-based studies are shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Classification-based methods.

3.3. Reconstruction-Based Algorithms

Reconstruction-based methods operate under the presumption that normal data can be integrated into a lower-dimensional domain where normal samples and anomalies are represented in various ways [34].
An Autoencoder (AE) is a feed-forward neural network that includes an encoder and a decoder structure [35]. The objective is to train the network to capture the important parts of the input data and learn a lower-dimensional representation of the higher-dimensional data. The Variational Autoencoder (VAE) is a type of AE that includes an encoder network and a decoder network. The encoder network maps the input data to a low-dimensional latent space, while the decoder network maps the latent space back to the original data space. In this method, the VAE is trained on normal videos. The trained model is then used to reconstruct the input video, and the reconstruction error is calculated. Anomalies are detected by thresholding the reconstruction error. Any frame with a reconstruction error above a certain threshold is considered anomalous. The Convolutional Autoencoder (CAE) is also a type of AE consisting of convolution, deconvolution, pooling, and unpooling layers. The first two layer types may be found in the encoding step, whereas the others may be found in the decoding stage [36]. The Variational Autoencoder (VAE) is another type of AE that incorporates convolution, deconvolution, pooling, and unpooling layers. The first two layer types are used in the encoding step, while the others are used in the decoding stage [36].
Reconstruction-based methods are a variation of adversarial generative methods. Generative-Adversarial-Network (GAN)-based networks consist of two neural networks: a Generator (G) and a Discriminator (D) [35]. The generator network creates new examples in the target domain by mapping examples from the source domain to the target domain. The discriminator network then tries to distinguish between examples created by the generator and examples from the target domain. Through this process, the generator network learns to create examples indistinguishable from examples in the target domain.
In summary, reconstruction-based methods such as AEs and GANs have shown promising results in anomaly detection tasks by mapping normal data into a lower-dimensional domain and identifying anomalies based on the reconstruction error. Variants of AEs, such as Conv AEs and variational AEs, have also been utilized in this domain. These methods are part of a larger field of adversarial generative methods, including generative adversarial networks.
Some reconstruction-based studies are shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Reconstruction-based methods.

3.4. Prediction-Based Algorithms

Prediction-based techniques can identify anomalies by assessing the difference between a feature descriptor's expected and actual spatiotemporal properties [34]. These models assume that normal activities are predictable, and any deviation from the prediction indicates an anomaly. They typically use a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) to predict the next frame in the sequence, given the previous frames. During training, the model minimizes the difference between the predicted frame and the ground truth. Here are some commonly used algorithms:
Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) is the most widely used neural array model, combining the principles of the forget gate, entry gate, and exit gate and successfully avoiding back-propagation errors caused by vanishing/exploding gradients.
The convolutional LSTM is an LSTM variation that addresses the precipitation nowcasting problem. In contrast to LSTM, convolution operations are employed to calculate the feature maps instead of matrix operations, resulting in a significant decrease in the count of the training parameters of the model [36].
Another prediction-based approach is the Vision Transformer (ViT) [45][46][47]. The ViT model combines CNNs and transformers to extract spatiotemporal features from video data and model the temporal relationships between these features. This approach effectively captures long-term dependencies in the video data and is especially useful for detecting anomalies.
In summary, RNN-based prediction techniques are effective at detecting anomalies by comparing the expected and actual spatiotemporal properties of a feature descriptor. LSTM is the most widely used and successful neural array model, while the convolutional LSTM and ViT are variations that address specific problems.
Some prediction-based studies are shown in Table 5.
Table 5. Prediction-based methods.

3.5. Other Algorithms

Two clustering methods are available. Their argument is based on the idea that normal data are clustered, whereas anomalous data are not [54] connected to any cluster. The second type is predicated on the idea that, whereas anomalies belong to tiny clusters, typical data instances belong to massive or dense clusters. Fuzzy traffic density and flow are built using fuzzy theory to identify abnormalities in complicated traffic videos [55]. Heuristic techniques intuitively make decisions regarding anomalies based on feature values, geographical locations, and contextual data [56]. However, many real-world systems do not rely only on one technology. Using a lightweight CNN and an attention-based LSTM for anomaly detection reduces the time complexity with competitive accuracy.

3.6. Analysis of Algorithms

Statistics-based algorithms assume that normal behavior follows a certain statistical pattern, and any deviation from this pattern is considered an anomaly. They are simple and efficient and can detect real-time anomalies without requiring much training data. However, they may not be effective at detecting novel anomalies or anomalies that do not follow a statistical pattern.
Classification-based algorithms use machine learning techniques to classify behavior or events as normal or abnormal based on labeled training data. They can detect novel anomalies and adapt to changing environments with high accuracy. However, they require a large amount of training data, and the labeling process can be time-consuming and costly.
Reconstruction-based algorithms reconstruct normal behavior or events and compare them to the actual behavior or events to detect subtle anomalies. They do not require labeled training data, but they can be computationally expensive and unsuitable for real-time anomaly detection.
Prediction-based algorithms use machine learning techniques to predict future behavior or events based on past behavior or events. Any deviation from the predicted behavior or events is considered an anomaly. They can detect anomalies before they occur, which can be useful in preventing security threats or safety issues. However, they require a large amount of training data, and the accuracy of the predictions may decrease over time as the environment changes.
In conclusion, the selection of the algorithm depends on the specific application and requirements. Statistics-based algorithms are simple and efficient but may not detect novel anomalies. Classification-based algorithms have a high accuracy rate but require a large amount of training data. Reconstruction-based algorithms can detect subtle anomalies but can be computationally expensive. Prediction-based algorithms can detect anomalies before they occur but require a large amount of training data, and the accuracy of predictions may decrease over time. Table 6 shows an overview of the algorithms.
Table 6. Overview of algorithms.

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