Antibodies (Abs) are important immune mediators and powerful diagnostic markers in a wide range of infectious diseases. Understanding the humoral immunity or the development of effective antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 is a prerequisite for limiting disease burden in the community and aids in the development of new diagnostic, therapeutic, and vaccination options. Antibody testing showed the potential in adding important diagnostic value to the routine diagnosis and clinical management of COVID-19. They could also play a critical role in COVID-19 surveillance, allowing for a better understanding of the full scope of the disease. The development of several vaccines and the success of passive immunotherapy suggest that anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies have the potential to be used in the treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Serological testing can help identify who is infected or exposed and who is immune by assuming protective immunity. Accordingly, population-based serological information will be helpful for officials in making decisions about lifting or enforcing any control measures. The potential of this test in determining the accurate number of infected people in a large population has been tested . Population seropositivity indicates that the number of people positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is much higher than that of the reported cases . Population-based serological surveillance has been carried out around the world, including countries in Europe , America , Asia , and Africa . Indeed, healthcare workers are the population most targeted for serological surveillance due to their high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with ELISA being the most commonly used diagnostic tool for detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.