Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 The additives tested are technically efficient in the immobilization of heavy metals in soils. + 196 word(s) 196 2020-11-10 12:26:00 |
2 The additives tested are technically efficient in the immobilization of heavy metals in soils. + 208 word(s) 208 2020-11-10 13:00:30 | |
3 Roll back entry to make some changes. + 186 word(s) 394 2020-11-11 04:07:57 | |
4 format correct + 1 word(s) 395 2020-11-12 02:36:43 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Correia, A. Additives to immobilize Heavy Metals. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 14 April 2024).
Correia A. Additives to immobilize Heavy Metals. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed April 14, 2024.
Correia, Antonio. "Additives to immobilize Heavy Metals" Encyclopedia, (accessed April 14, 2024).
Correia, A. (2020, November 10). Additives to immobilize Heavy Metals. In Encyclopedia.
Correia, Antonio. "Additives to immobilize Heavy Metals." Encyclopedia. Web. 10 November, 2020.
Additives to immobilize Heavy Metals

This experimental work assessed the efficiency of different additives (MWCNTs, montmorillonite and Portland cement) to immobilize the heavy metals lead, cooper, nickel and zinc in a soil in conditions similar to a real case scenario (percolation tests).


contaminated soil heavy metals montmorillonite carbon nanotubes Portland cement percolation tests

1. Introduction

Since heavy metals (HMs) are not biodegradable and cannot be destroyed through high temperatures or the use of chemicals, ordinary soil remediation techniques are ineffective. One of the most promising techniques to immobilize heavy metals consists of mixing additives with the soil with the objective to reduce the potential migration of HM and thus the risk of contaminating adjacent areas.

2. Experimental procedure

The soil was artificially contaminated with the HMs (lead, copper, nickel and zinc), and suspension adsorption tests were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the additives (CNTs and clay mineral). Percolation tests were then conducted to better evaluate the efficiency of CNTs, clay mineral, and Portland cement to immobilize the HMs tested, in the soil, in conditions similar to a real on-site situation. Leaching tests were also performed in order to verify if CNTs (the nanomaterial used) are not being released in the environment.

3. Results

The results allow to conclude that the additives, carbon nanotubes and montmorillonite , have the potential to minimize HMs mobility in contaminated soils and can be a valid alternative to the usual additive, Portland cement, when tested in conditions similar to a real on-site situation. Moreover, the study revealed that even if the adsorption tests are a valid tool to evaluate the performance of the additives, only percolation tests can take in consideration the influence of the soil’s properties, reproducing in a better way the conditions of a real field situation.

Since all the options studied in this work revealed to be technically efficient in the immobilization of HMs in soils, the designers’ and decision-makers’ choice of the best additive will depend mainly on the environmental-economic compromise.

Figure 1. Results from the adsorption tests. Individual adsorption of lead (a), copper (b), nickel (c) and zinc (d) by the soil, MWCNTs and suspension of soil with the addition of MWCNTs.

Figure 2. Results from the percolation tests. Immobilization of heavy metals by the soil, the soil with Portland cement and the soil with Portland cement with MWCNTs/montmorillonite.

Full text: or Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 7950; doi:10.3390/app10227950

Subjects: Others
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to :
View Times: 528
Revisions: 4 times (View History)
Update Date: 12 Nov 2020