Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry related to this topic through the link below:
Check Note
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1724 2022-06-06 14:55:39 |
2 Format correction -49 word(s) 1675 2022-06-07 03:27:10 |
Plant-Based Antioxidants
Upload a video

Antioxidants are compounds that normally prevent lipid and protein oxidation. They play a major role in preventing many adverse conditions in the human body, including inflammation and cancer. Synthetic antioxidants are widely used in the food industry to prevent the production of adverse compounds that harm humans. However, plant and animal-based antioxidants are more appealing to consumers than synthetic antioxidants. Plant-based antioxidants are mainly phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and vitamins, while animal-based antioxidants are mainly whole protein or the peptides of meat, fish, egg, milk, and plant proteins. Plant-based antioxidants mainly consist of aromatic rings, while animal-based antioxidants mainly consist of amino acids. The phenolic compounds and peptides act differently in preventing oxidation and can use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, compared with the animal-based antioxidants, plant-based compounds are more practical in the food industry. 

plant-based antioxidants phenolic compounds natural antioxidants flavonoids
View Times: 468
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 07 Jun 2022
Table of Contents

    1. Introduction

    Plants contain many natural compounds that have antioxidant activity. These compounds can be categorized into vitamins (Vitamin C and E), polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes, lignans), and terpenoid groups. Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of vitamin C and E. Among the fruits are the family Rosaceae (sour cherry, strawberry, blackberry), Empetraceae (cowberry), Ticaceae (blueberry), Asteraceae (sunflower seed), and Punicaceae (pomegranate), which are rich sources of these vitamins. Broccoli, brussels sprouts, green cabbage, tomatoes, cauliflowers, lettuce, and leeks are vegetable groups with high vitamin C and E. Vitamins in plants act as primary antioxidant substances [1]: Vitamin E acts as an essential lipid-soluble antioxidant, while vitamin C protects against oxidative stress-induced cellular damages [2][3]. Both vitamin E and vitamin C are used as antioxidants in foods, but the effect of vitamin C is marginal.
    Polyphenols are the major plant antioxidants with various structural and functional characteristics and biological properties [4][5][6]. Phenolic compounds synthesize from phenylalanine or tyrosine through the shikimic acid pathway. They can vary from simple compounds to conjugated complex substances. These compounds vary from 500 to 4000 Da molecular weight, and over 12 phenolic hydroxyl groups are found among the phenolic compounds [7][8]. They can be subcategorized into phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, and lignans [9][10]. They are found in plant foods such as fruits, cereals, seeds, berries, and plant-based products such as wine, tea, and vegetable oils [11][12]

    2. Phenolic Acids

    Phenolic acids are the derivatives of benzoic acids and cinnamic acids, and salicylic acid, gentisic acid, p-Hydoxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and sinapic acid are among the most common phenolic compounds present in the food plants and common phenolic acid compounds illustrated in Figure 1.
    Figure 1. Common phenolic acids found in food plants.
    The antioxidant activities of those phenolic acids are confirmed by several antioxidant assays, including the DPPH radical scavenging assay, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene assay [13]. The radical scavenging activities of these phenolic acids mainly depend on the hydroxy moieties attached to the phenyl rings of benzoic and cinnamic acids [14][15].

    3. Flavonoids

    Flavonoids consist of two outer aromatic rings with three carbon rings. These flavonoids include flavone, flavanol, flavanone, flavanonol, flavonone, flavononol, flavanol (catechin), isoflavone, and anthocyanidin (Figure 2) [9]. The derivatives of the flavonoids have inhibitory properties against acetylcholinesterase [16].
    Figure 2. Chemical structures of common flavonoids.

    4. Stilbenes

    Stilbenoides/stilbenes are another phenolic compound commonly found in berries, grapevines, and peanuts. Stilbenoids are hydroxylated stilbene derivatives (i.e., resveratrol). The most common stilbenes are piceid, resveratrol, piceatannol, and pterostilbene (Figure 3). However, only resveratrol has antioxidant potential against proteins and lipids [17][18][19]. Endogenous compounds such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione neutralize oxidative stress induced by UV radiation. Stilbenes, such as resveratrol, can increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione S-transferase) and increase the SOD level. In addition, pterostilbenes reduce oxidative damage by activating the endogenous antioxidant enzymes [19].
    Figure 3. Chemical structure of stilbene and its derivatives.

    5. Lignans 

    Lignans are precursors to phytoestrogens and synthesized from phenylalanine with dimerization of substituted cinnamic alcohols. Sesame seeds and flax seeds are the main sources of lignans. Secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, and lariciresinol are the common lignans from flax seeds and sesamin, sesamoiln, sesamolinol, and sesaminol are the common lignans from sesame seeds [20]. Sesamin and sesamolin possess antioxidant, neuroprotective, and anticancer activities, but sesamol, their decomposition product during the roasting process of sesame seeds, is the major antioxidant of the sesame seeds [21][22][23][24]. The common plant-based phenolic antioxidants are summarized in Table 1.
    Table 1. Most common plant-based phenolic antioxidants and their potential applications.

    6. Terpenes and Terpenoids

    Terpenes and terpenoids are also good antioxidants from plant sources. They are the largest secondary metabolites of plants. Terpenes and terpenoids contain a hydrocarbon skeleton with five carbons (isoprene), and two or more isoprene molecules polymerize and form various terpenes. Most of them are non-polar compounds [35]. Plant oils such as pine oil, vegetables such as carrots, and some fruits such as lemon and orange are rich sources of terpenes and terpenoids. These compounds can further classify into monoterpenes (C-10), sesquiterpenes (C-15), diterpenes (C-20), triterpenes (C-30), tetraterpenes (C-40), or carotenoids, polyterpenes, norisopernoids, and sesquatreterpenes (Figure 4). These compounds have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, contributing odor and flavor and other health-promoting properties such as relieving stress and depression, reducing depression and migraines, and antiaging and anticancer properties [25][36].
    Figure 4. Structure of different classes of terpenoids.

    7. Tannins

    Tannins are another group of phenolic antioxidants in plants and can be divided into two main sub-classes: condensed tannins and hydrolyzable tannins. The condensed tannins are biopolymers based on flavan-3-ols, and gallic and ellagic acid derivatives (gallotannins and ellagitannins) are the main components with antioxidant properties [26][29]. Gallotannins are natural polymers formed by the esterification of D-glucose and gallic acid hydroxyl groups. Proanthocyanidins can donate hydrogen atoms/electrons and act as an antioxidant compound. Proanthocyanidins are abundant in green tea and bearberry [14][28]. Tannin extracts from red beans, adzuki beans, lentils, fava beans, and broad beans showed better antioxidant activity than the flavonoids and phenolic acids separated from the same plant materials [27][30][31]. The chemical structure of the tannic acid is shown in Figure 5.
    Figure 5. Structure of Tannic acid.

    8. Sources of Plant Antioxidants

    Oilseeds, cereal grains, legumes, tea, coffee, tree nuts, fruits, and berries are excellent sources of plant antioxidants. Among the oilseeds, rapeseed and canola seeds have very high levels of phenolic compounds [14][37]. Sinapine (choline esters of sinapic acid) and sinapic acids are the main phenolic compounds in rapeseed [38]. Most cereals contain phenolic compounds, and ferulic acid is the most dominant type. However, some wheat cultivars contain high levels of p-coumaric, sinapic, and caffeic acids. Rice and rice bran contain γ-oryzanol, an ester of triterpene alcohols, and plant sterols [32] with strong antioxidant properties. Legumes also contain high phenolic acid, flavonoids, and tannins. Catechin, epicatechin glucosides, procyanidin dimers, quercetin glucoside, and p-coumaric are the main phenolic compounds in green lentils [14]. The leaves and seeds of legumes are considered a good source of lignans. Lamiaceae is a good source of phenolic acid, rosmarininc and caffeic acid, flavonoids, hispidulin, nepetin, luteolin, and apigenin [33]. Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is another plant that belongs to the family and is rich in phenolic antioxidant compounds such as rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid and flavonoids such as hyperoside and isoquercitrin [34].
    Tea and coffee are also rich sources of natural antioxidant compounds. Different antioxidants are found in green tea and black tea: theaflavin and thearubigin are the main antioxidant compounds in black tea (Figure 6), while the isomers of catechins are the main active antioxidant compounds in green tea (Figure 7). These are polyphenols, and the content varies among cultivars and by the method of processing [39][40][41].
    Figure 6. Structure of Theaflavin and Thearubigin in black tea.
    Figure 7. Different chemical structures of catechins found in green tea.
    Chlorogenic acids and their derivatives, including caffeoylquinic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, feruloyquinic acids, p-coumaroylquinic acids, caffeic acids, and ferulic acids, are the predominant phenolic compounds in coffee beans [42]. However, during heat processing, these phenolic compounds convert to quinolones and melanoidins [43]. Tree nuts are also rich sources of phenolic compounds: catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin 3-gallate, and procyanidins are rich in hazelnut kernels [44], and chlorogenic acid, caftaric acid, ferulic acid, gentisic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, isoquercitrin, rutozid, myricetin, fisetin, quercitrin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, patuletin, hyperoside, and apigenin are rich in walnuts [45].
    Fruits such as apples contain high amounts of polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones [46]. The main antioxidant compounds in plums are gallic acid, rutin, resorcinol, chlorogenic acid, catechin, and ellagic acid [47]. Berries, including strawberry, blackberry, blueberry, and cranberry, are rich in anthocyanins, flavonols, phenolic acids, and hydrolyzable tannins [48].
    Phenolic compounds are mainly extracted using subcritical water. The extraction of phenolic compounds is based on hot water treatments called brewing. The temperature of the water and soaking duration determine the yield of the extracted phenolic compounds [43][49][50]. Solvent extraction is used to separate phenolic compounds from plant materials. Solvents such as methanol, acetone, ethanol, propanol, dimethylformamide, and ethyl acetate are mainly organic solvents. Different percentages of organic solvents separate the phenolic compounds [37]. The solvent and sample extraction time and ratio determine the yield and the purity of the phenolic compounds separated [51][52]. Furthermore, alkaline and acid hydrolysates separate these phenolic compounds [53].
    The separated phenolic compounds incorporated into edible oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids effectively prevented lipid oxidation [54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61]. Combining the plant extracts rich in phenolic compounds, and synthetic antioxidants maintained the quality of many food products during storage [62]. Phenolic compounds are also widely used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products. Among the plant extracts, almond seeds, grape seeds, and rosemary extracts are widely used as a natural preservative in beef and pork-based products [63][64][65]. Incorporating rosemary and green tea extracts into butter effectively prevented lipid oxidation [66]. Other plant extracts are also added to prevent lipid oxidation in seafood-based products [67][68].


    1. Jideani, A.I.O.; Silungwe, H.; Takalani, T.; Omolola, A.O.; Udeh, H.O.; Anyashi, T.A. Antioxidant-rich natural fruit and vegetable products and human health. Int. J. Food Prop. 2021, 24, 41–67.
    2. Chen, X.; Touyz, R.M.; Park, J.B.; Schiffrin, E.L. Antioxidant effects of vitamin C and E are associated with altered activation of vascular NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase in stroke-prone SHR. Hypertension 2001, 38, 606–611.
    3. Traber, M.G.; Stevens, J.F. Vitamin C and E: Beneficial effects from a mechanistic perspective. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2011, 51, 1000–1013.
    4. Alshkh, N.; de Camargo, A.D.; Shahidi, F. Phenolics of selected lentil cultivars: Antioxidant activities and inhibition of low-density lipoprotein and DNA damage. J. Funct. Foods 2015, 18, 1022–1038.
    5. Leopoldina, M.; Marino, T.; Russo, N.; Toscano, M. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds: H-atom versus electron transfer mechanism. J. Phys. Chem. A 2004, 108, 4916–4922.
    6. Klein, E.; Lukeš, V. DFT/B3LYP study of the substituent effect on the reaction enthalpies of the individual steps of single-electron transfer-proton transfer and sequential proton loss electron transfer mechanisms of phenols antioxidant action. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 12312–12320.
    7. Zeb, A. Concept, mechanism, and applications of phenolic antioxidants in foods. J. Food Biochem. 2020, 44, e13394.
    8. Abdel-Shafy, H.; Mansour, M.S.M. Polyphenols: Properties, occurrence, Content in food, and potential effects. In Environmental Science and Engineering; Volume 6: Toxicology; Chandra, R., Gurjar, B.R., Govil, J.N., Eds.; Studium Press LLC: Houston, TX, USA, 2017; pp. 232–261.
    9. Abourashed, E.A. Bioavailability of plant-derived antioxidants. Antioxidants 2013, 2, 309–325.
    10. Single, R.K.; Dubey, A.K.; Garg, A.; Sharma, R.K.; Fiorino, M. Natural polyphenols: Chemical Classification, definition of classes, subcategories, and structure. J. AOAC Int. 2019, 102, 1397–1400.
    11. Dimitrios, B. Sources of natural phenolic antioxidants. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2006, 17, 505–512.
    12. Dirimanov, S.; Högger, P. Screening of inhibitory effects of polyphenols on Akt-phosphorylation in endothelial cells and determination of structure-activity features. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 219.
    13. Abeyrathne, E.D.N.S.; Nam, K.C.; Ahn, D.U. Analytical methods for lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity in food systems—A review. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1587.
    14. Amarowicz, R.; Pegg, R.B. Natural antioxidants of plant origin. In Advances in Food and Nutrition Research; Ferreira, I.C.F.R., Barros, L., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, UK, 2019; pp. 1–81.
    15. Kumar, N.; Goel, N. Phenolic acids: Natural versatile molecules with promising therapeutic applications. Biotechnol. Rep. 2019, 24, e00370.
    16. Shan, B.; Cai, Y.Z.; Brooks, J.D.; Corke, H. Antibacterial and antioxidant effects of five spice and herb extracts as natural preservatives of raw pork. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2009, 89, 1879–1885.
    17. Markus, M.A.; Morris, B.J. Resveratrol in prevention and treatment of common clinical conditions of aging. Clin. Interv. Aging 2008, 3, 331–339.
    18. Pandey, K.B.; Rizvi, S.I. Resveratrol may protect plasma proteins from oxidation under conditions of oxidative stress in vitro. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 2010, 21, 909–913.
    19. Nagapan, T.S.; Ghazali, A.R.; Basri, D.F.; Lim, W.N. Photoprotective effect of stilbenes and its derivatives against ultraviolet radiation-induced skin disorders. Biomed. Pharmacol. J. 2018, 11, 1199–1208.
    20. Liu, Z.; Sarrinen, N.M.; Thompson, L.U. Sesamin is one of the major precursors of mammalian lignans in sesame seed (Sesamum indicum), as observed in vitro and in rats. J. Nutr. 2006, 136, 906–912.
    21. Wanasundara, P.K.J.P.D.; Shahidi, F. Process-induced change in edible oils. In Process-Induced Chemical Changes in Food; Shahidi, F., Ho, C.T., Chuyen, N.V., Eds.; Plenum Publishers: New York, NY, USA, 1998; pp. 135–160.
    22. Kumar, M.C.; Singh, S.A. Bioactive lignans from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.): Evaluation of their antioxidant and antibacterial effects for food applications. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2015, 52, 2934–2941.
    23. Rosalina, R.; Weerapreeyakul, N. An Insight into sesamolin: Physicochemical properties, pharmacological activities, and future research prospects. Molecules 2021, 26, 5849.
    24. Takahashi, M.; Nishizaki, Y.; Sugimoto, N.; Takeuchi, H.; Nakagawa, K.; Akiyama, H.; Sato, K.; Inoue, K. Determination and purification of sesamin and sesamolin in sesame seed oil unsaponified matter using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and tandem mass spectrometry and high-speed counter-current chromatography. J. Sep. Sci. 2016, 39, 3898–3905.
    25. Abdallah, I.I.; Quax, W.J. A Glimpse into the biosynthesis of terpenoids. In NRLS Conference Proceedings, International Conference on Natural Resources and Life Science (2016). KnE Life Sciences; Knoledge E Publisher: Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2017; pp. 81–98.
    26. Hatano, T.; Kusuda, M.; Inada, K.; Ogawa, T.O.; Shiota, S.; Tsuchiya, T.; Yoshida, T. Effects of tannins and related polyphenols on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phytochemistry 2005, 66, 2047–2055.
    27. Amarowicz, R.; Estrella, I.; Hernández, T.; Troszynska, A. Antioxidant activity of extract of adzuki bean and its fractions. J. Food Lipids 2008, 15, 119–136.
    28. Azman, N.A.M.; Gallego, M.G.; Segovia, F.; Abdullah, S.; Md Shaarani, S.; Pablos, M.P.A. Study of the properties of bearberry leaf extract as a natural antioxidant in model foods. Antioxidants 2016, 5, 11.
    29. Jabri, M.-A.; Rtibi, K.; Ben-Said, A.; Aouadhi, C.; Hosni, K.; Sally, M.; Sebai, H. Antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of myrtle berries (Myrtus communis L.) seeds extract. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2016, 68, 264–274.
    30. Amarowicz, R.; Karamać, M.; Dueňas, M.; Pegg, R.B. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of a red bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) extract and its fractions. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2017, 12, 541–544.
    31. Amarowicz, R.; Shahidi, F. Antioxidant activity of Faba bean extract and fractions thereof. J. Food Bioact. 2018, 1, 112–118.
    32. Patel, M.; Naik, S.N. Gamma-oryzanol from rice bran oil—A review. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 2004, 63, 569–578.
    33. Lee, S.H.; Kim, H.W.; Lee, M.K.; Lee, M.K.; Kim, Y.J.; Asamenew, G.; Cha, Y.S.; Kim, J.B. Phenolic profiling and quantitative determination of common sage (Salvia plebeian R. Br.) by UPLC-DAD-QTOF/MS. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2018, 244, 1637–1646.
    34. Oniga, I.; Puşcaş, C.; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, R.; Olah, N.-K.; Sevastre, B.; Marica, R.; Marcus, I.; Sevastre-Berghian, A.C.; Benedec, D.; Pop, C.E.; et al. Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare: Chemical composition and biological studies. Molecules 2018, 23, 2077.
    35. Jaeger, R.; Cuny, E. Terpenoids with special pharmacological significance: A review. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2016, 11, 1373–1390.
    36. Prishtina, E.; Plyusnin, S.; Babak, T.; Lashmanova, E.; Maganova, F.; Koval, L.; Platonova, E.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Moskalev, A. Terpenoids as potential geroprotectors. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 529.
    37. Terpins, P.; Čeh, B.; Ulrich, N.P.; Abramovič, H. Studies of the correlation between antioxidant properties and the total phenolic content of different oil cake extracts. Ind. Crops Prod. 2012, 39, 210–217.
    38. Szydłowska-Czerniak, A. Rapeseed and its products-sources of bioactive compounds: A review of their characteristics and analysis. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2013, 53, 307–330.
    39. Lee, L.S.; Kim, Y.C.; Park, J.D.; Kim, Y.B.; Kim, S.H. Changes in major polyphenolic compounds of tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves during the production of black tea. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2016, 25, 1523–1527.
    40. Koch, W.; Kukula-Koch, W.; Komsta, Ł.; Maezec, Z.; Szwarc, W.; Głowniak, K. Green tea quality evaluation based on its catechins and metals composition in combination with chemometric analysis. Molecules 2018, 23, 1689.
    41. Takemoto, M.; Takemoto, H. Synthesis of theaflavins and their functions. Molecules 2018, 23, 918.
    42. Moreira, A.S.P.; Nunes, F.M.; Domingues, M.R.; Coimbra, M.A. Coffee melanoidins: Structures, mechanisms of formation and potential health impacts. Food Funct. 2012, 3, 903–915.
    43. Farah, A.; Donangelo, C.M. Phenolic compounds in coffee. Braz. J. Plant Biol. 2007, 18, 23–36.
    44. Fanali, C.; Tripodo, G.; Russo, M.; Della Posta, S.; Pasqualetti, V.; de Gara, L. Effect of solvent on the extraction on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of the hazelnut kernel. Electrophoresis 2018, 39, 1683–1691.
    45. Rusu, M.E.; Gheldiu, A.M.; Mocan, A.; Moldovan, C.; Popa, D.S.; Tomita, I.; Vlase, L. Process optimization for improved phenolic compounds recovery from walnut (Juglans regia L.) septum: Phytochemical profile and biological activities. Molecules 2018, 23, 2814.
    46. Vrhovsek, U.; Rigo, A.; Tonon, D.; Mattivi, F. Quantitation of polyphenols in different apple varieties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004, 52, 6532–6538.
    47. Hernández-Ruiz, K.L.; Ruiz-Cruz, S.; Cira-Chávez, L.A.; Gassos-Ortega, L.E.; Ornelas-Paz, J.J.; del-Toro-Sánchez, C.L.; Márquez-Ríos, E.; López-Mata, M.A.; Rodríguez-Félix, F. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity, protective effect on human erythrocytes and phenolic compounds identification in two varieties of plum fruit (Spondias spp.) by UPLC-MS. Molecules 2018, 23, 3200.
    48. Skrovankova, S.; Sumczynski, D.; Macek, J.; Jurikova, T.; Sochor, J. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in different types of berries. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 24673–24706.
    49. Khoshnoudi-Na, S.; Niakosari, M.; Tahiri, Z. Subcritical water technology for extraction phytochemical compound. J. Med. Plants 2017, 9, 94–107.
    50. Marchante, L.; Izquierdo-Caǹas, P.M.; Gómez-Alonso, S.; Alaǹón, S.; García-Romero, M.E.; Pérez-Coello, M.S.; Díaz-Maroto, M. Oenological potential of extracts from winery and cooperage by-products in combination with colloidal silver as natural substitutes to sulphur dioxide. Food Chem. 2019, 276, 485–493.
    51. Nick, M.; Shahidi, F. Phenolics in cereals, fruits, and vegetables: Occurrence, extraction, and analysis. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2006, 41, 1523–1542.
    52. Liang, J.; Zago, E.; Nandasiri, R.; Khattab, R.; Eskin, N.A.M.M.; Eck, P.; Holländer, U.T. Effect of solvent preheating temperature and time on the ultrasonic extraction of phenolic compounds from cold-pressed hempseed cake. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2018, 95, 1319–1327.
    53. Acosta-Estrada, B.A.; Gutierrez-Uribe, J.A.; Serna-Saldívar, S.O. Bound phenolics in foods. A review. Food Chem. 2014, 152, 46–55.
    54. Mullen, W.; Nemzer, B.; Ou, B.; Stalmach, A.; Hunter, J.; Clifford, M.; Combet, E. The antioxidant and chlorogenic acid profiles of whole coffee fruits are influenced by extraction procedures. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011, 59, 3754–3762.
    55. Lee, S.G.; Terrence, M.; Vance, T.M.; Nam, T.G.; Kim, D.O.; Koo, S.I.; Chun, O.K. Contribution of anthocyanin composition of total antioxidant capacity of berries. Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 2005, 25, 523–1527.
    56. Kozłowska, M.; Gruczynska, E. Comparison of the oxidative stability of soybean and sunflower oils enriched with herbal plant extracts. Chem. Pap. 2018, 72, 2607–2615.
    57. Dos Reis, L.C.R.; Facco, E.M.P.; Flôres, S.H.; Rios, A.D.O. Stability of functional compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and pasteurized orange passion fruit (Passiflora caerulea) during cold storage. Food Res. Int. 2018, 106, 481–486.
    58. İnan, Ö.; Özczn, M.M.; Aljuhaimi, F. Effect of location and Citrus species on total phenolic, antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of some Citrus seed and oil. J. Food Process. Preserv. 2018, 42, 1215–1219.
    59. Do Couto, C.A.; de Souza, E.R.B.; Morgado, C.M.A.; Ogata, T.; Cunha Júnior, L.C. Citrus Sinensis cultivars: Alternatives for diversification of Brazilian orchards. Rev. Bras. Food Sci. 2018, 50, 905–991.
    60. Konieczyski, P.; Viapiana, A.; Mark Wesolowski, M. Comparison of infusions from black and green teas (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) and erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil) based on the content of essential elements, secondary metabolites, and antioxidant activity. Food Anal. Methods 2017, 10, 3063–3070.
    61. Liu, Y.-F.; Oey, I.; Bremer, P.; Carne, A.; Silcock, P. Bioactive peptides derived from egg proteins: A review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2018, 58, 2508–2530.
    62. Nowicka, A.; Kucharska, A.Z.; Sokół-Łętowska, A.; Fecka, I. Comparison of polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of strawberry fruit from 90 cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa Duch. Food Chem. 2019, 270, 32–46.
    63. Lourenço, S.C.; Moldão-Martins, M.; Alves, V.D. Antioxidants of natural plant origins: From sources to food industry applications. Molecules 2019, 24, 4132.
    64. Wijeratne, S.S.K.; Amarowicz, R.; Shahidi, F. Antioxidant activity of almonds and their by-products in food model. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2006, 83, 223–230.
    65. Rojas, M.C.; Brewer, M.S. Effect of natural antioxidants on oxidative stability of cooked, refrigerated beef and pork. J. Food Sci. 2007, 72, S282–S288.
    66. Oswell, N.J.; Thippareddi, H.; Pegg, R.B. Practical use of natural antioxidants in meat products in the US. A Review. Meat Sci. 2017, 145, 469–479.
    67. Gramza-Michałowska, A.; Korczak, J.; Reguła, J. Use of plant extracts in summer and winter season butter oxidative stability improvement. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007, 16 (Suppl. 1), 85–88.
    68. Maqsood, S.; Benjakul, S.; Abushelaibi, A.; Alam, A. Phenolic compounds and plant phenolic extracts as natural antioxidants in prevention of lipid oxidation in seafood: A detailed review. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2014, 13, 1125–1140.
    Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , ,
    View Times: 468
    Revisions: 2 times (View History)
    Update Date: 07 Jun 2022
    Table of Contents


      Are you sure you want to delete?

      Video Upload Options

      Do you have a full video?
      If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
      Ahn, D.U.D.; Abeyrathne, S.; Nam, K.C. Plant-Based Antioxidants. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 03 February 2023).
      Ahn DUD, Abeyrathne S, Nam KC. Plant-Based Antioxidants. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed February 03, 2023.
      Ahn, Dong Uk D, Sandun Abeyrathne, Ki Chang Nam. "Plant-Based Antioxidants," Encyclopedia, (accessed February 03, 2023).
      Ahn, D.U.D., Abeyrathne, S., & Nam, K.C. (2022, June 06). Plant-Based Antioxidants. In Encyclopedia.
      Ahn, Dong Uk D, et al. ''Plant-Based Antioxidants.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 06 June, 2022.