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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global public health problem. It is a disease of multifactorial origin, and with this characteristic, having an accurate diagnosis of its incidence is a problem that health personnel face every day. Time is an essential factor when identifying heart problems, specialists look for and develop options to improve this aspect, which requires a thorough analysis of the patient, electrocardiograms being the factor standard for diagnosis and monitoring of patients.
Common but important events physicians track are the arrhythmias, which are any disturbance in rate, regularity, site of origin, or conduction of the heart signal activity. An arrhythmia can be a single aberrant beat or a sustained rhythmic disturbance that can be present through a time period. ECG signal is represented in a waveform graph shape, and it is considered the heart’s primary source of information, as well as the primary source for detection of cardiac irregularities. An arrhythmia may lead to severe heart disease or CVD such as atrial premature contraction (APC), premature ventricular contraction (PVC), right bundle branch block (RBBB), etc. As an example of arrhythmia, there have ventricular extrasystoles, which are a reflection of the activation of the ventricles from a site below the AV node. Its outcome is linked to an underlying disease, and there could be three causes for it: reentry, increased automatism, and triggered activity. The increased automatism suggests an ectopic group of cells in the ventricle. This process is the underlying mechanism of arrhythmias secondary to hyperkalemia. Reentry occurs in patients with underlying scarring ischemic heart disease or myocardial ischemia. This mechanism can produce isolated ectopic beats or trigger ventricular tachycardia and eventually sudden cardiac death. Although ECG signals have been used for diagnosis for over a century, manually tracking these arrhythmias over even a thousand heartbeats is an infeasible task, even for expert physicians, because of the amount of time required to perform such endeavors. These kinds of tasks require automated mechanisms to detect and classify all these events such algorithms based on Artificial Intelligence. On an ECG, rhythm refers to the part of the heart that is controlling the initiation of electrical activity. Under normal circumstances, the sinoatrial node (SAN) initiates electrical activity because it undergoes spontaneous depolarization first at a rate of 60–100 bpm. When a rhythm originates from above the ventricles in the atria, it is termed a supraventricular (SVB) rhythm (narrow QRS or <120 ms), and when a rhythm originates from within the ventricles, it is termed a ventricular (VB) rhythm (broad QRS or >120 ms). A new cause of CVD that is very relevant nowadays is called COVID-19. This cause of CVD begins with respiratory symptoms, but in its natural evolution triggers a generalized systemic inflammation in the host. Although initially identified as a totally respiratory disease, the inflammation affects countless organs and systems, producing a series of damages and sequelae with which surviving patients will have to live .