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1 The main content includes an introduction on linoleic acid consumption and cardiovascular disease, results of human intervention trials, a discussion of the results, mechanistic details, and recommended intakes of linoleic acid. + 221 word(s) 221 2020-08-12 06:17:34 |
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4 Added a sentence to the definition section. Revised introduction. + 54 word(s) 275 2020-09-09 02:16:17 |
Linoleic Acid

The purpose of this entry was to summarize human intervention trials that investigated the effects of linoleic acid consumption on lipid risk markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy individuals. It also provided mechanistic details, and dietary recommendations for linoleic acid. Future research directions were also discussed. The findings from this entry demonstrated that linoleic acid consumption decreases CVD risk markers in healthy individuals.  

  • cardiovascular disease
  • linoleic acid
  • lipoproteins
  • intervention trial

1. Introduction

Linoleic acid (LA) is an essential omega-6 (or n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)[1][2][3]. It has been suggested that replacement of saturated fat with LA decreases serum cholesterol, but does not decrease the risk of death from coronary heart disease (CHD)[4]. Additionally, there has been concern that consuming high amounts of LA may increase the risk of inflammation[5]. Therefore, this entry reviewed human intervention trials in which cardiovascular disease lipid risk markers were analyzed following consumption of LA. The results will provide insights regarding recommendations of LA to decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease. 

2. Sources

2.1. Oil Sources 

Table 1. Oil sources of linoleic acid (per 100 g) 1.

Oils

Energy (Kcal)

Total Lipid (g)

Linoleic Acid (g)

Alpha-Linolenic Acid (g)

Total Saturated

Fat (g)

Canola oil

884

100

18.6

9.14

7.37

Corn oil

900

100

53.5

1.16

13.0

Cottonseed oil

884

100

51.9

0.20

25.9

Grapeseed oil

884

100

69.6

0.10

9.60

Olive oil

884

100

9.76

0.76

13.8

Peanut oil

884

100

32.0

0.00

16.9

Safflower oil

884

100

12.7

0.10

7.54

Sesame oil

884

100

41.3

0.30

14.2

Soybean oil

884

100

51.0

6.79

15.7

Sunflower oil

884

100

65.7

0.00

10.3

Walnut oil

884

100

52.9

10.4

9.10

1 Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Data Central[6].

2.2. Food sources

Table 2. Food sources of linoleic acid (per 1 ounce [28.3495 g]) 1.

Food Sources

Energy (Kcal)

Total Lipid (g)

Linoleic Acid (g)

Alpha-Linolenic Acid (g)

Total Saturated Fat (g)

Almonds

164

14.2

3.49

0.001

1.08

Brazil nuts

185

18.8

6.82

0.01

4.52

Cashews

157

12.4

2.21

0.018

2.21

Pecans

196

20.4

5.85

0.28

1.75

Pine nuts

191

19.4

9.4

0.046

1.39

Pistachios

159

12.8

4.0

0.082

1.68

Pumpkin seeds

163

13.9

5.55

0.031

2.42

Sesame seeds

159

13.4

5.78

0.102

1.88

Sunflower seeds

165

14.1

9.29

0.02

1.48

Walnuts

185

18.5

10.8

2.57

1.74

1 Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Data Central[6].

This entry is adapted from 10.3390/nu12082329

References

  1. Jandacek, R.J. Linoleic acid: A nutritional quandary. Healthcare 2017, 5, 25.
  2. Harris, W.S.; Mozaffarian, D.; Rimm, E.; Kris-Etherton, P.; Rudel, L.L.; Appel, L.J.; Engler, M.M.; Engler, M.B.; Sacks, F. Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: A science advisory from the American heart association nutrition subcommittee of the council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism; council on cardiovascular nursing; and council on epidemiology and prevention. Circulation 2009, 119, 902–907.
  3. Vannice, G.; Rasmussen, H. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: Dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 2014, 114, 136–153.
  4. Christopher E Ramsden; Daisy Zamora; Sharon Majchrzak-Hong; Keturah R Faurot; Steven K Broste; Robert P Frantz; John M Davis; Amit Ringel; Chirayath M Suchindran; Joseph R Hibbeln; et al. Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73). BMJ 2016, 353, 1246, 10.1136/bmj.i1246.
  5. Jay Whelan; Kevin Fritsche; Linoleic Acid1. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal 2013, 4, 311-312, 10.3945/an.113.003772.
  6. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Food Data Central. Available online: https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/ (accessed on 15 June 2020).
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    Froyen, E. Linoleic Acid. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1888 (accessed on 24 May 2022).
    Froyen E. Linoleic Acid. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1888. Accessed May 24, 2022.
    Froyen, Erik. "Linoleic Acid," Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1888 (accessed May 24, 2022).
    Froyen, E. (2020, September 01). Linoleic Acid. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1888
    Froyen, Erik. ''Linoleic Acid.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 01 September, 2020.
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