Linoleic Acid: Comparison
Please note this is a comparison between Version 3 by Nicole Yin and Version 2 by Nicole Yin.

The purpose of this entreviewy was to summarize human intervention trials that investigated the effects of linoleic acid consumption on lipid risk markers for CVD in healthy individuals. It also provided mechanistic details, and dietary recommendations for linoleic acid. Future research directions were also discussed. 

  • cardiovascular disease
  • linoleic acid
  • lipoproteins
  • intervention trial

1. Introduction

Linoleic acid (LA), an essential omega-6 (or n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)[1][2][3]. For example, it has been suggested that replacement of saturated fat with LA decreases serum cholesterol, but does not decrease the risk of death from coronary heart disease (CHD)[4]. Additionally, there has been concern that consuming high amounts of LA may increase the risk of inflammation[5].

2. Sources

2.1. Oil Sources 

Table 1. Oil sources of linoleic acid (per 100 g) 1.

Oils

Energy (Kcal)

Total Lipid (g)

Linoleic Acid (g)

Alpha-Linolenic Acid (g)

Total Saturated

Fat (g)

Canola oil

884

100

18.6

9.14

7.37

Corn oil

900

100

53.5

1.16

13.0

Cottonseed oil

884

100

51.9

0.20

25.9

Grapeseed oil

884

100

69.6

0.10

9.60

Olive oil

884

100

9.76

0.76

13.8

Peanut oil

884

100

32.0

0.00

16.9

Safflower oil

884

100

12.7

0.10

7.54

Sesame oil

884

100

41.3

0.30

14.2

Soybean oil

884

100

51.0

6.79

15.7

Sunflower oil

884

100

65.7

0.00

10.3

Walnut oil

884

100

52.9

10.4

9.10

1 Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Data Central[6].

2.2. Food sources

Table 2. Food sources of linoleic acid (per 1 ounce [28.3495 g]) 1.

Food Sources

Energy (Kcal)

Total Lipid (g)

Linoleic Acid (g)

Alpha-Linolenic Acid (g)

Total Saturated Fat (g)

Almonds

164

14.2

3.49

0.001

1.08

Brazil nuts

185

18.8

6.82

0.01

4.52

Cashews

157

12.4

2.21

0.018

2.21

Pecans

196

20.4

5.85

0.28

1.75

Pine nuts

191

19.4

9.4

0.046

1.39

Pistachios

159

12.8

4.0

0.082

1.68

Pumpkin seeds

163

13.9

5.55

0.031

2.42

Sesame seeds

159

13.4

5.78

0.102

1.88

Sunflower seeds

165

14.1

9.29

0.02

1.48

Walnuts

185

18.5

10.8

2.57

1.74

1 Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Data Central[6].

References

  1. Jandacek, R.J. Linoleic acid: A nutritional quandary. Healthcare 2017, 5, 25.
  2. Harris, W.S.; Mozaffarian, D.; Rimm, E.; Kris-Etherton, P.; Rudel, L.L.; Appel, L.J.; Engler, M.M.; Engler, M.B.; Sacks, F. Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: A science advisory from the American heart association nutrition subcommittee of the council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism; council on cardiovascular nursing; and council on epidemiology and prevention. Circulation 2009, 119, 902–907.
  3. Vannice, G.; Rasmussen, H. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: Dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 2014, 114, 136–153.
  4. Christopher E Ramsden; Daisy Zamora; Sharon Majchrzak-Hong; Keturah R Faurot; Steven K Broste; Robert P Frantz; John M Davis; Amit Ringel; Chirayath M Suchindran; Joseph R Hibbeln; et al. Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73). BMJ 2016, 353, 1246, 10.1136/bmj.i1246.
  5. Jay Whelan; Kevin Fritsche; Linoleic Acid1. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal 2013, 4, 311-312, 10.3945/an.113.003772.
  6. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Food Data Central. Available online: https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/ (accessed on 15 June 2020).
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