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Algae Metabolites in Cosmeceutical
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Cosmeceuticals are topical cosmetic-pharmaceutical hybrids which refer to a cosmetic product with active ingredients claiming to have medicinal or drug-like benefits to skin health. Marine algae are rich in bioactive substances that have shown to exhibit strong benefits to the skin, particularly in overcoming rashes, pigmentation, aging, and cancer. 

marine algae cosmeceuticals UV-radiation anti-aging anticancer skin whitening
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Subjects: Dermatology
View Times: 211
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Time: 29 Mar 2022
Table of Contents

    1. Introduction

    1.1. Synthetic Versus Natural Ingredients in Cosmetic Industry

    Cosmeceuticals are topical cosmetic-pharmaceutical hybrids which refer to a cosmetic product with active ingredients claiming to have medicinal or drug-like benefits to skin health [1][2]. Globally, the cosmeceutical industry is growing each year due to the trend of modern lifestyle. More recently, the cosmeceutical industry is progressively shifting to natural bioactive ingredients because of the ineffectiveness of synthetic cosmetics [3].
    Ineffectiveness of synthetic cosmetics includes their side effects and low absorption rate. The low absorption rate of cosmetics could be due to the big size of the molecular compounds. A study by Bos and Marcus [4] asserted that only compounds with the molecular weight lesser than 500 Dalton (Da) could penetrate through the skin. Cyclosporin (MW 1202 Da), a topical immunosuppressant, was not effective against psoriasis and allergic contact dermatitis as a higher molecular weight of the compounds inhibits skin penetration. Still, it was effective in psoriasis treatment when directly injected into the skin. Some of the side effects include irritation and allergic reaction to the users. According to a case study, hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), which are widely used in cosmetic products, has been reported to mimic oestrogen; hence, increasing the incidence of breast cancer and causing the development of malignant melanoma [5].
    In addition, a study on a population conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 97% of 2540 individuals were exposed to phthalates (a component of plastic that appears in cosmetic products; for instance, dibutyl phthalate in nail polish), which could result in DNA damage in human sperm [6]. In 2004, the Environment California, Environmental Working Group, and Friends of the Earth issued reports on cosmetic products containing chemical ingredients that lacked safety data. Some of these chemicals caused adverse effects in animal studies such as male genitalia congenital disabilities, altered pregnancy outcomes, and decreased in sperm counts [6]. As a result, consumers have changed their preference and opted for natural cosmetic products. The global market value for natural cosmetics was about $34.5 billion in 2018, and it is estimated to reach approximately $54.5 billion in 2027 [7]. The ever-expanding market for skincare products and continual search for innovative ingredients has led to the development of a multitude of cosmeceutical products based on natural bioactive ingredients, which include plants, herbs, and even marine algae [8].
    Macroalgae are classified into three major classes, namely Phaeophyceae (brown algae), Rhodophyceae (red algae), and Chlorophyceae (green algae). Based on the total culture production, it is estimated that about 59% of brown algae, 40% of red algae, and less than 1% of green algae are produced worldwide [9]. Marine algae are rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds, which are absent in other taxonomic groups. Algae contain 10 times greater diversity of compounds than terrestrial plants [10] and they have a totally different flavonoid composition from vegetables and fruits. Macroalgae are a rich source of catechins and flavonols [11]. Furthermore, algae-derived phlorotannin possesses a unique structure, which is not found in terrestrial plants and this compound may constitute up to 25% of the dry weight of brown algae [11]. Algae produce a wide array of primary metabolites, such as unsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins, and essential amino acids [12][13]. Additionally, many research findings reported that secondary metabolites derived from algae such as fucoidan, fucoxanthin, sulphated polysaccharide, polyphenol and fucosterol were shown to possess anti-inflammation, antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and anti-aging effects [14][15][16][17][18]. The demand for algae bioactive compounds in cosmeceuticals is rapidly increasing as they contain natural extracts which are considered safe; thus, rendering fewer side effects on humans. In ancient times, marine algae were used as medicine to treat skin-related diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) related disease [12]. In a nutshell, marine algae are a promising resource for the development of cosmeceuticals.
    Marine algae can survive in harsh conditions (i.e., withstand heat, cold, ultra-violet radiation, salinity, and desiccation) [8][9][19] due to their ability to adapt to physiological changes by producing stress tolerant substances. For example, algae produce organic osmolytes during stress conditions, which also act as antioxidants and heat protectants. Algae grow under desiccation by producing specialized spores which remain dormant during stress conditions and revive once the conditions return to normal. The presence of thick cell walls with protective layers of chemical substances and mucilage sheath helps to delay the process of desiccation. Algae that grow in cold desserts can endure the subzero temperature and protect the cells from UV irradiation by producing spores that have thick cell walls and reserve food as lipid and sugars [20]. In addition, marine algae uptake inorganic ions to balance extracellular ion concentration and produce organic osmolytes which protects them from desiccation and UV lights. A study reported that Dunaliella salina has 55 novel membrane-associated proteins that showed changes in the composition and structure of the membranes associated with algae adaptation to salinity [21]. Algae are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites to help them adapt and survive in harsh conditions. Algae could also adapt to desiccation stress by producing specialized spores such as aplanspores, which are rich in astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid that protects the cells from photo-oxidation. Algae exposed to UV radiations will produce UV screening compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA), which acted as antioxidants and involved in osmotic regulations. Furthermore, algae exposed to high solar radiation and low nitrogen concentration produce more β-carotene, such as Dunaliella [20]. Thus, algae that are naturally exposed to oxidative stress develop defense systems that protect them against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals. These compounds could be used in cosmetics to protect the cells against the adverse effects of UV radiation. Some of the environmental benefits of algae include fixation of carbon dioxide. Studies have reported that large cultivation of microalgae capable of uptaking carbon from the atmosphere; for instance, Spirulina platensis with carbon fixation rate of 318 mg/L−1d−1 and Chlorella vulgaris with carbon fixation rate of 251 mg/L−1d−1 [22][23].

    1.2. Current Applications of Algae-Derived Metabolites in Cosmeceutical Industrial

    The transition from synthetic compounds to natural products such as marine algae have been attracting the attention of many researchers since algae possess a wide range of pharmacological activities with negligible cytotoxicity effects in human cells [24]. Marine algae are used for different purposes in food, pharmaceutical, biofuel, agriculture, and cosmetic industries. Industries, such as Cyanotech, Fuji Chemical Seambiotic, and Mera Pharmaceuticals are producers of microalgae biomass contributing to products in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and nutritious feed [25]. Interestingly, phycocyanin (usually found in red algae and cyanobacteria) is accepted as a natural color additive in food and cosmetics by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to its non-toxic, natural, and biodegradable properties. Accordingly, it becomes the major target of the market in the United States [26].
    Meanwhile, carotenoid such as astaxanthin plays a crucial role in scavenging free radicals in the human body and it is considered a strong antioxidant; hence, its popularity as a human dietary supplement. Leading cosmeceutical industries, such as Unilever, L’Oreal, Henkel, and Beiersdorf are expected to improve the growth of carotenoid market value in the European market [27]. The market value for carotenoids is expected to reach about $1.53 billion by 2021 [27][28].
    Furthermore, red algae Gracilaria account for most of the raw material for the agar extraction. It is reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations that more than 80% of the agar were produced from Gracilaria species, which are mainly produced by China and Indonesia [29]. Gracilaria species have been widely used in cosmetics due to their stabilizing, thickening, and gelling characters. Commercially available products from Gracilaria species include hydrogel soap by Sea Laria®, facial mask by Balinique®, and hydrating cream by Thalasso® [29].
    A number of algae-based skin products have been marketed, such as Algenist (an anti-aging moisturizer containing microalgae oil and alguronic acid from algae) [30], Helionori® by Gelyma and Helioguard365® (a sunscreen product containing MAAs from red seaweed Porphyra umbilicalis) [31], Protulines® by Exsymol S.A.M., Monaco (an anti-aging agent from protein-rich extract of Arthrospira), and Dermochlorella by Codif, St. Malo, France (an anti-wrinkling agent from Chlorella vulgaris extract) [32]. Therefore, bioactive compounds derived from algae could be considered a potential cosmeceutical agent for skincare.

    1.3. UV Radiation and Skin-Related Diseases

    Skin is one of the most complex and largest organs that serves as a protective barrier against water losses and environmental stresses, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), pathogens, physical agents, and chemicals [33]. The skin comprises three layers—epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. The presence of keratinocyte cells and melanocyte cells in the epidermis layer plays a vital role in repairing damaged skin and protecting the skin from UV light. The dermis consists of elastin, hyaluronic acid, and collagen which involves tissue repair and stability, whereas hypodermis consists of fats, which involved in body insulation [9]. Several skin-related diseases that have been reported include acne, eczema, dermatitis, hives, psoriasis, and pityriasis rosea which cause rashes [34]. Other skin diseases include pigmentation disorders, such as hypopigmentation due to the absence of melanocytes and hyperpigmentation caused by a metabolic disorder or skin irritation. In addition, one of the biggest concerns is skin cancers (e.g., squamous, basal, and melanoma) with melanoma being the deadliest form in America because of overexposure to UV radiation [35].
    In most cases, humans are exposed to UV radiation due to overexposure to sunlight. UV radiation can produce many adverse effects within the cells, including DNA damage, skin pathologies, such as erythema and inflammation, skin aging, and cancer [36]. There are three main components of UV radiation, namely UVA (315–400 nm), UVB (280–315 nm), and UVC (100–280 nm) [37]. UVA can reach the dermis layer of skin, increasing the level of ROS that indirectly induce DNA mutagenesis, which results in skin aging and wrinkling. UVA can act as a carcinogen by shortening telomere in the DNA strand and it has less ability to stimulate melanin production resulting in redness, sun tanning, and freckles. UVB can penetrate the epidermis layer and damage the DNA in skin cells directly and induce skin cancers. UVC is highly bioactive but humans are not exposed to UVC because it is mostly absorbed by the ozone layer. In addition, UV-induced oxidative stress plays a crucial role in causing aging, inflammation, melanogenesis and even cancer which are shown in Figure 1 [9][12][38][39][40][41].
    Figure 1. Effect of UV radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulation of ROS leads to skin cancer, inflammation, photoaging, wrinkling, and melanogenic through activation of respective signaling pathways.

    2. Marine Algae-Derived Compounds in Cosmeceutical Application

    Based on the evidence from previous studies, brown algae contribute the most in cosmeceuticals. Some bioactive compounds from brown algae exhibit multiple cosmeceutical activities, including phlorotannin, which possesses several activities, such as anti-melanogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-aging [12][42][43][44]. Likewise, fucoidan, a sulphated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae, contributes to anti-inflammation, anti-melanogenic and anticancer [45][46][47]. Fucoxanthin, a carotenoid isolated from brown, red, green and microalgae exhibit anti-melanogenic, anti-aging and antioxidant activities [48][49][50]. Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), which are commonly found in red and green seaweeds, and microalgae also contribute to antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-aging [51][52][53]. Other examples of bioactive compounds derived from algae, their applications and mode of actions in cosmeceuticals are presented in Table 1. The chemical structures of some prominent bioactive compounds are shown in Figure 2.
    /media/item_content/202201/61e913a94bf1fmarinedrugs-18-00323-g004b.png
    Figure 2. Chemical structures of bioactive compounds derived from algae. (1) Eckol, (2) Fucosterol, (3) Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol, (4) Mycosporine-glycine, (5) Eleganonal, (6) Phenol, (7) Ascophyllan, (8) Laurinterol, (9) Fucoidan, (10) Eicosapentaenoic acid, (11) Lutein, (12) Sargachromanol E, (13) Fucoxanthin, (14) Astaxanthin, (15) Zeaxanthin, and (16) Lycopene.
    Table 1. Bioactive compounds derived from algae and their applications in cosmeceuticals.

    Algae Species

    Bioactive Compound/Extract

    Beneficial Activity

    Mechanism of Action

    Experimental Model

    Reference

    Brown algae

    Ascophyllum nodosum

    Ascophyllan

    Anticancer

    Inhibit MMP expression

    B16 melanoma cells

    [54]

    Bifurcaria bifurcata

    Eleganonal

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition

    In vitro

    [55]

    Chnoospora implexa

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pyogenes

    [56]

    Chnoospora minima

    Fucoidan

    Anti-inflammation

    Inhibition of LPS-induced NO production, iNOS, COX-2, and PGE2 levels

    RAW macrophages

    [47]

    Cladosiphon okamuranus

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition

    In vitro

    [49]

    Colpomenia sinuosa

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Cystoseira barbata

    Fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoids

    Antioxidant

    High fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid content

    In vitro

    [57]

    Cystoseira foeniculacea

    Polyphenol

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition (EC50 = 5.27 mg/mL)

    In vitro

    [58]

    Cystoseira hakodatensis

    Phenol and fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    High total phenolic and fucoxanthin content

    In vitro

    [59]

    Cystoseira osmundacea

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Dictyopteris delicatula

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Dictyota dichotoma

    Algae extract

    Antimicrobial

    Inhibit the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls

    Penicillium purpurescens, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus

    [60]

    Ecklonia cava

    Dieckol

    Anti-inflammation

    Suppression of iNOS and COX-2

    Murine BV2 microglia

    [61]

    Phlorotannin

    Anti-melanogenic

    Inhibit melanin production

    B16F10 melanoma cells

    [44]

    Phlorotannin

    Antioxidant

    ROS scavenging potential

    Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4)

    [62]

    Ecklonia kurome

    Phlorotannin

    Anti-inflammation

    Inhibit hyaluronidase

    Assay of HAase (In vitro)

    [42]

    Ecklonia Stolonifera

    Phlorotannin

    Anti-aging

    Inhibit MMP expression

    Human dermal fibroblast cell

    [43]

    Phlorofucofuroeckol A and B

    Anti-inflammation

    Inhibition of NO production by downregulating iNOS and prostaglandin E2

    LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells

    [63]

    Eisenia arborea

    Phlorotannin

    Anti-inflammation

    Inhibit release of histamine

    Rat basophile leukemia cells (RBL-2HE)

    [64]

    Eisenia bicyclis

    Phlorotannin

    Anti-inflammation

    Inhibit hyaluronidase

    Assay of HAase (In vitro)

    [42]

    Fucus evanescens

    Fucoidan

    Anticancer

    Inhibit cell proliferation

    Human malignant melanoma cells

    [45]

    Fucus vesiculosus

    Extract

    Anti-aging

    Stimulate collagen production

    N/A

    [8]

    Fucoidan

    Anti-melanogenic

    Inhibit tyrosinase and melanin

    B16 murine melanoma cells

    [46]

    Fucoidan

    Anticancer

    Decrease melanoma growth

    Mice

    [65]

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    Prevent oxidation formation

    In vitro, RAW 264.7 macrophage, Mouse (ex vivo)

    [66]

    Halopteris scoparia

    Ethanol extract

    Anti-inflammation

    COX-2 inhibition

    COX inhibitory screening assay kit

    [67]

    Himanthalia elongota

    Fatty acid and Phenol

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus

    [68]

    Hizikia fusiformis

    Fucosterol

    Anti-aging

    Inhibit MMP expression

    Human dermal fibroblast

    [18]

    Ethyl acetate extract

    Anti-melanogenic

    Inhibit tyrosinase and melanin

    B16F10 mouse melanoma cells

    [69]

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition

    In vitro

    [70]

    Hydroclathrus clathratus

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Ishige foliacea

    Phlorotannin

    Anti-melanogenic

    Downregulation of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis

    B16F10 cells

    Zebrafish embryo

    [71][72]

    Ishige okamurae

    Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol

    Anti-inflammation

    Down-regulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression and NF-κβ activation

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    [73]

    Laminaria japonica

    Fucoxanthin

    Anti-melanogenic

    Suppress tyrosinase activity

    UVB- irradiated guinea pig

    [48]

    Laminaria ochroleuca

    Polyphenol

    Antioxidant

    High total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity

    In vitro

    [74]

    Macrocystis pyrifera

    Phlorotannin

    Antioxidant

    ROS scavenging potential

    In vitro

    [8]

    Hyaluronic acid

    Anti-aging

    Enhance the production of syndecan-4

    N/A

    [75]

    Padina concrescens

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Padina pavonica

    Polyphenol

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    Candida albicans and Mucor ramaniannus

    [17]

    Acetone extract

    Antioxidant

    Free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 691.56 µg L−1)

    In vitro

    [60]

    Padina tetrastromatic

    Diterpenes

    Antioxidant

    DPPH (IC50 = 1.73) & ABTS (IC50 = 2.01) inhibitions

    In vitro

    [76]

    Sulfated polysaccharide

    Anti-inflammation

    COX-2 and iNOS inhibitions

    Paw edema in rats

    [77]

    Petalonia binghamiae

    Ethanol extract

    Anti-melanogenic

    Inhibit tyrosinase and melanin

    B16F10 murine melanoma cells

    [78]

    Aqueous extract

    Antioxidant

    Anti-inflammation

    DPPH inhibition

    COX-2 inhibition

    In vitro

    In vitro

    [67]

    Rosenvingea intrincata

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Saccharina latissima

    Phenol

    Antioxidant

    High total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging activity and FRAP

    In vitro

    [79]

    Sargassum fulvellum

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition

    In vitro

    [70]

    Sargassum furcatum

    Methanol extract

    Antioxidant

    DPPH (EC50 = 0.461) & ABTS (EC50 = 0.266) inhibitions

    In vitro

    [80]

    Sargassum hemiphyllum

    Sulfated polysaccharide

    Anti-inflammation

    Inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory response

    RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    [81]

    Sargassum henslowianum

    Sulfated polysaccharide

    Anticancer

    Activation of caspase-3

    B16 melanoma cells

    [82]

    Sargassum horridum

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Sargassum horneri

    Sargachromanol.E

    Anti-aging

    Inhibit MMP expression

    UVA irradiated dermal fibroblast

    [83]

    Alginic acid

    Anti-inflammation

    Inhibit inflammatory response

    HaCaT cells

    [84]

    Sargassum muticum

    Tetraprenyltoluquinol chromane meroterpenoid

    Anti-aging

    ROS scavenging potential

    Human dermal fibroblast

    [85]

    Sargassum polycystum

    Ethanol extract

    Anti-melanogenic

    Inhibit tyrosinase and melanin production

    B16F10 melanoma cells

    [39]

    Sargassum serratifolium

    Sargachromenol

    Anti-melanogenic

    Downregulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor

    B16F10 melanoma cells

    [39]

    Sargassum siliquastrum

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    Reduced UVB-induced ROS production

    Human fibroblast

    [86]

    Sargassum thunbergi

    Thunbergols

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition

    In vitro

    [87]

    Sargassum vulgare

    Methanol extract

    Antioxidant

    β-carotene bleaching activity

    In vitro

    [88]

    Stoechospermum marginatum

    Spatane diterpenoids

    Anticancer

    Cell growth inhibition

    Murine B16F10 melanoma cells

    [89]

    Turbinaria conoides

    Laminarin, alginate, fucoidan

    Antioxidant

    ROS scavenging potential

    N/A

    [33]

    Turbinaria ornata

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    High FRAP value (>10 µM/µg of extract)

    In vitro

    [90]

    Undaria pinnatifida

    Fucoxanthin

    Anti-aging

    MMP expression reduction, VEGF

    Mouse

    [50]

    Ethyl acetate extract

    Anti-melanogenic

    Down regulate melanin and inhibit tyrosinase

    Mouse B16 melanoma cells

    [91]

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid

    Anti-inflammation

    N/A

    Mouse ear edema and erythema

    [92]

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition

    In vitro

    [70]

    Red algae

    Alsidium corallinum

    Methanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus

    [93]

    Bangia

    Algae extract

    Antioxidant

    Induce peroxidase and superoxide dismutase to reduce oxidative stress

    In vitro

    [94]

    Bryothamnion triquetrum

    Methanol extract

    Antioxidant

    DPPH (EC50 = 0.357) & ABTS (EC50 = 0.370) inhibitions

    In vitro

    [80]

    Ceramium rubrum

    Methanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus

    [93]

    Chondrocanthus acicularis

    Methanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. faecalis, S. aureus

    [93]

    Chondrus canaliculatus

    Polysaccharide

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition

    In vitro

    [95]

    Chondrus crispus

    Aqueous extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    Salmonella Enteritidis

    [96]

    Corallina pilulifera

    Methanol extract

    Anti-aging

    Antioxidant

    Reduce the expression of gelatinase

    Inhibit free radical oxidation

    Human dermal fibroblast

    Human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080)

    [97]

    Corallina vancouverensis

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Ganonema farinosum

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Gelidium crinaale

    Fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoids

    Antioxidant

    High fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid content

    In vitro

    [57]

    Gelidium robustum

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Gracilaria gracilis

    Phenol

    Antioxidant

    ROS scavenging potential

    In vitro

    [98]

    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis

    Sulfated polysaccharide

    Antioxidant

    DPPH, Superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay (EC50 = 2.45 mg/mL)

    In vitro

    [99]

    Gracilaria salicornia

    2H- chromenyl

    Antioxidant

    Anti-inflammation

    DPPH and ABTS inhibitions

    COX-1 inhibition

    In vitro

    [100]

    Jania rubens

    Glycosaminoglycan

    Anti-aging

    Collagen synthesis

    Unknown

    [75]

    Laurencia caspica

    Phenol

    Ethanol extract

    Antioxidant

    Antimicrobial

    DPPH inhibition

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    In vitro

    Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeroginosa

    [101]

    Laurencia luzonensis

    Sesquiterpenes

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    Bacillus megaterium

    [12]

    Laurenicia obtusa

    Polysaccharide

    Antioxidant

    DPPH (IC50 = 24 µg/mL), FRAP (IC50 = 92 µg/mL),

    Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 113 µg/mL)

    In vitro

    [102]

    Laurenicia pacifica

    Laurinterol

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    Staphylococcus aureus

    [9]

    Laurencia rigida

    Sesquiterpenes

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    Bacillus megaterium

    [12]

    Meristotheca dakarensis

    Glycosaminoglycan

    Anti-aging

    Collagen synthesis

    Unknown

    [75]

    Osmundaria obtusilo

    Methanol extract

    Antioxidant

    DPPH (EC50 = 0.041 mg/mL), ABTS (EC50 = 0.031 mg/mL), Metal chelating (EC50 = 0.1 mg/mL), folin ciocalteu (EC50 = 0.128 mg/mL)

    In vitro

    [80]

    Palisada flagellifera

    Methanol extract

    Antioxidant

    β-carotene bleaching activity

    In vitro

    [88]

    Palmaria palmata

    MAA

    Anti-aging

    Collagenase inhibition

    Clostridium histolyticum

    [53]

    Polysiphonia howei

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    High FRAP value

    (>5 µM/µg of extract)

    In vitro

    [90]

    Porphyra haitanensis

    Sulfated Polysaccharide

    Antioxidant

    ROS scavenging potential

    Mice

    [103]

    Porphyra umbilicalis

    MAA

    Anti-aging

    Control expression of MMP

    Human dermal fibroblast

    [16]

    Porphyra sp.

    MAA

    Anti-aging

    Collagenases inhibition

    Clostridium histolyticum

    [53]

    Porphyra yezoensis

    MAA

    Polyphenol

    Phycoerythrin

    Antioxidant

    Anticancer

    Anti-inflammation

    ROS scavenging potential and MMP expression

    Induce apoptosis

    Suppression of mast cells

    Human skin fibroblast

    HaCaT cells

    Rat

    [51]

    Pterocladia capillacea

    Sulfated polysaccharide

    Antimicrobial

    N/A

    Staphylococcus aureus

    Escherichia coli

    [104]

    Pyropia columbia

    Phenol

    Antioxidant

    DPPH, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS inhibitions

    Piaractus mesopotamicus

    [105]

    Pyropia yezoensis

    Polysaccharide

    Anti-aging

    Promote collagen synthesis

    Human dermal fibroblast

    [106]

    Rhodomela confervoides

    Polyphenol

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    Candida albicans

    Mucor ramaniannus

    [17]

    Bromophenol

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition

    In vitro

    [107]

    Schizymenia dubyi

    Phenol

    Anti-melanogenic

    Inhibit tyrosinase activity

    In vitro

    [39]

    Green algae

    Bryopsis plumose

    Polysaccharide

    Antioxidant

    ROS scavenging potential

    In vitro

    [108]

    Chaetomorpha antennia

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition (63.77%)

    In vitro

    [109]

    Chlamydomonas hedleyi

    MAA

    Antioxidant

    Anti-aging

    Anti-inflammation

    ROS scavenging potential

    Increase UV-suppressed genes (procollagen C proteinase enhancer and elastin) expression

    Reduce COX-2 and involucrin expression

    In vitro

    HaCaT cells

    HaCaT cells

    [52]

    Cladophora sp.

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Codium amplivesiculatum

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Codium cuneatum

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Codium fragile

    Sterol

    Anti-inflammation

    Reduces the expression of COX-2, iNOS, and TNF-α

    Mice

    [110]

    Codium simulans

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, S. pyogenes

    [56]

    Entromorpha intestinalis

    Chloroform and methanol extract

    Antioxidant

    SOD activity is reduced

    Labidochromis caeruleus

    [111]

    Enteromorpha linza

    Polysaccharide

    Antioxidant

    ROS scavenging potential

    In vitro

    [108]

    Gayralia oxysperma

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    High FRAP value

    (>6 µM/µg of extract)

    In vitro

    [90]

    Ulva dactilifera

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    S. aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes

    [56]

    Ulva fasciata

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition (83.95%)

    In vitro

    [109]

    Ulva lactuca

    Phycocolloids

    Anti-inflammation

    N/A

    N/A

    [75]

    Ulva pertusa

    Polysaccharide

    Antioxidant

    ROS scavenging potential

    In vitro

    [108]

    Ulva prolifera

    Phenol and flavonoid

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition, high phenolic and flavonoid contents

    In vitro

    [112]

    Ulva rigida

    Phenol

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition

    In vitro

    [113]

    Ulva sp.

    Sulfated polysaccharide

    Anti-aging

    Increase hyaluronan production

    Human dermal fibroblast

    [114]

    Microalgae/Cyanobacteria

    Anabaena vaginicola

    Lycopene

    Antioxidant

    Anti-aging

    N/A

    In vitro

    [115]

    Arthrospira platensis

    Methanol extracts of exopolysaccharides

    Antioxidant

    N/A

    In vitro

    [115]

    Chlorella fusca

    Sporopollenin

    Anti-aging

    Protect cells from UV radiation

    N/A

    [116]

    Chlorella minutissima

    MAA

    Anti-aging

    Protect cells from UV radiation

    N/A

    [116]

    Chlorella sorokiniana

    MAA

    Anti-aging

    Protect cells from UV radiation

    N/A

    [116]

    Lutein

    Anti-aging

    Reduce UV induced damage

    N/A

    [33]

    Chlorella vulgaris

    Hot water extract

    Anti-aging

    Reduced activity of SOD

    Human diploid fibroblast

    [117]

    Anti-inflammation

    Downregulated mRNA expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ

    NC/Nga mice

    [118]

    Dunaliella salina

    β-carotene

    Antioxidant

    Protect against oxidative stress

    Rat

    [119]

    β-cryptoxanthin

    Anti-inflammation

    Reduced the production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, the protein expression of iNOS and COX-2

    LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells

    [120]

    Haematococcus pluvialis

    Astaxanthin (carotenoid)

    Anti-aging

    Inhibit MMP expression

    Mice and human dermal fibroblasts

    [121]

    Anticancer

    ROS scavenging potential

    Mice

    [122]

    Nannochloropsis granulata

    Carotenoid

    Antioxidant

    DPPH inhibition

    In vitro

    [123]

    Nannochloropsis oculata

    Zeaxanthin

    Anti-melanogenic

    Inhibit tyrosinase

    In vitro

    [124]

    Nitzschia sp.

    Fucoxanthin

    Antioxidant

    Reduced oxidative stress

    Human Glioma Cells

    [125]

    Nostoc sp.

    MAA

    Antioxidant

    ROS scavenging potential

    In vitro

    [126]

    Odontella aurita

    EPA

    Antioxidant

    Reduce oxidative stress

    Rat

    [127]

    Planktochlorella nurekis

    Fatty acid

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    Campylobacter jejuni, E. coli, Salmonella enterica var.

    [128]

    Porphyridium sp.

    Sulfated polysaccharide

    Anti-inflammation

    Antioxidant

    Inhibit proinflammatory modulator

    Inhibited oxidative damage

    Unknown

    3T3 cells

    [103]

    Rhodella reticulata

    Sulfated polysaccharide

    Antioxidant

    ROS scavenging potential

    In vitro

    [103]

    Skeletonema marinoi

    Polyunsaturated aldehyde and fatty acid

    Anticancer

    Inhibit cell proliferation

    Human melanoma cells (A2058)

    [129]

    Spirulina platensis

    β-carotene and phycocyanin

    Antioxidant

    Anti-inflammation

    Inhibit lipid peroxidation

    Inhibit TNF-α and IL-6 expressions

    Mouse

    Human dermal fibroblast cells (CCD-986sk)

    [130]

    Ethanol extract

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus niger

    [131]

    Synechocystis spp.

    Fatty acids and phenols

    Antimicrobial

    Bacterial growth inhibition

    E. coli and S. aureus

    [68]

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      Yow, Y.; Thiyagarasaiyar, K. Algae Metabolites in Cosmeceutical. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/18537 (accessed on 29 November 2022).
      Yow Y, Thiyagarasaiyar K. Algae Metabolites in Cosmeceutical. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/18537. Accessed November 29, 2022.
      Yow, Yoon-Yen, Krishnapriya Thiyagarasaiyar. "Algae Metabolites in Cosmeceutical," Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/18537 (accessed November 29, 2022).
      Yow, Y., & Thiyagarasaiyar, K. (2022, January 20). Algae Metabolites in Cosmeceutical. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/18537
      Yow, Yoon-Yen and Krishnapriya Thiyagarasaiyar. ''Algae Metabolites in Cosmeceutical.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 20 January, 2022.
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