Located at the intersection of the geographical coordinates of 46°–47° Northern latitude and 23°–24° Eastern longitude, Târnave vineyards are part of the viticultural zone 1 of Romania. They are situated on the Transylvanian Plateau. The most significant viticultural area of Transylvania, the prestigious Târnave vineyard, named so because most of the vineyards are located on the slopes that delineate the valleys of the rivers Târnava Mare and Târnava Mică, is known and appreciated for its quality wines with a specific flavor and a good sugar/acidity balance.
The evolving overall wine-growing environment represents three facets of the wine world: production, distribution, and wine consumption . The first element of the wine’s evolving environment is its biological and chemical origins . The evolving geography of winemaking refers to the dynamics of localization and distribution of viticulture and enology practices for the last ten millennia . Besides the well-known grapevine growing zones, commercial viticulture is currently also found in the tropics, in higher altitude areas such as Hawaii, Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru . To produce enough sugars for fermentation to yield alcohol, the genus Vitis L. (grapevine) requires cycles of colder temperatures (and high diurnal temperature fluctuations) for grapes maturation and ripening . Today, the wine industry is full of creativity and change, as new grapevine cultivars are created to expand the limits of wine production beyond its known boundaries . The diversification (or rediscovery) of autochthonous grown grapevine cultivars and the consequent global acceleration of wine consumption rates have been balancing the increase of worldwide wine production starting in the 1970s . This growth in the wine industry has also been enabled by globalization, for better or worse .
The importance and demand of viticulture and wine industry products are given by their place of origin, plant cultivars, design, and taste, which is undoubtedly different than every other agricultural outcome worldwide . The characteristics of the grape harvest and, by consequence, of the wine production are mostly dictated by the features of the climate and soil in which particular grape cultivars are produced . The growing season affects the qualities of the harvested grapes, whereas the fermentation stage and the bottling period affect the wine that is crafted from them . Terroir is the most often used (and abused) term in the wine vocabulary and is now a touchstone for the promotion of fine wine .
Thus, the physical environment includes the slope, the soil composition, the depth, the parent materials, mineral quality, texture, humidity content, and the water retention, astronomical, climate, and weather aspects (sun angles and emplacement during the growing period, dawn-day visibility, humidity range and timing, rain, temperature, heating grades, cooling at night, wind speed and direction, the environmental elements that contribute to the seasonal pattern in the atmosphere, timing and intensity of severe weather, such as hail, freezing, and snowfall) during the most biologically active seasons for grapevine . In addition, the biological factors of a vineyard environment—biodiversity of flora and fauna that will increase the good microorganisms and predators of insects, thus lowering the risks of grapevine’s pests and diseases—are the natural components of terroir . While a competent winemaker may claim that good wine is produced irrespective of the geographic location (appellation or denomination) of grape production, modern grapevine growers (usually) agree that “location matters” .
Consequently, the objectives of the paper are: To present the existing types of viticulture practices and to highlight the added value that precision viticulture brings to the current practices, To present the background of the Romanian and, more specifically, Transylvanian viticulture and the impact of the climatic changes in Transylvanian viticulture, To reveal the impact of the Internet of Things solutions in viticulture, To present the Amurg grapevine cultivar, as a cultivar whose cultivation can be extended based on the climatic changes context and IoT technologies, To introduce the Climatic Change Precision Viticulture (CCPV) concept to benefit from climatic changes, decision support systems, and IoT technologies to support the extension of the Amurg cultivar and to increase the sustainability of viticulture, by lowering the energetic inputs: fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and gas, To propose a sustainable CCPV architecture for a smoother adaption of the Amurg cultivar to Transylvania climate conditions, increased grapevine productivity and income, and lowered costs in terms of the resources used, To reveal the improvements brought by the proposed Internet of Things technologies in viticulture.
Our most recent work  aimed to assess the relevance and the benefits of using the Smart Agriculture Xtreme platform from Libelium  in Romanian vineyards. The vineyard monitoring system follows another approach, which is built upon a layered Internet of Things architecture. In this way, the architecture brings the advantage of being scalable, in comparison with other proposed systems . Moreover, the paper revealed that key parameters such as soil oxygen concentration, soil dielectric permittivity, soil, and air temperature and humidity could be monitored in real-time, with benefits in assessing the quality of the soil, and thus, the status of the vineyard. For example, the values obtained in the experimental results in  were compared with reference values of soil quality parameters as found in the literature .
In , a real-time acquisition and monitoring PV system was proposed, having the advantages of low consumption of energy, a low cost of the hardware implementation and the IoT devices, as well as a straightforward process of monitoring the temperature and moisture of the soil and transmitting this information to a base station. The system can also alert at the occurrence of a disease or pest of the plants in the vineyard when a drone is sent to the specific area and takes pictures that are processed afterward when the drone returns to the base station.
In , the SEnviro system was proposed, which is an IoT-based architecture for vineyard monitoring. The system also enables disease prediction, thus leading to an increase in the wine quality and a reduction of the grape losses in the vineyard. The system was implemented in Spain (province Castelló). It consisted of two parts: a node of sensors (SEnviro node) and an IoT software platform capable of managing different sensor nodes (SEnviro connect). Four SEnviro nodes were deployed and installed in the vineyards, and a fifth node was used for tests in a location nearby the laboratory. The collaboration between the SEnviro node and SEnviro connect in the vineyard monitoring enables an autonomous operation and the possibility to send alerts when a disease or another problem is detected in the vineyard.
In , the authors evaluated in an experimental setting in a vineyard in Spain the benefits of using IoT technologies that integrate a wireless sensor network (WSN), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and an engine for the processing and visualization of data. This system can help wine producers to access quickly, with a friendly interface, the data that WSN and UAVs collect from the vineyard.
|Cultivar-Homologation Year||Colour of the Grape’s Skin||Usage||Genetic Ortigin||Characteristics|
|Homologated cultivars developed at SCDVV Blaj|
|Roze Blaj-2020||Rosé||Grape cultivar for white wine||Sexuate intercrossing of two elites 8-33-44 (Iordană × Traminer roz) × 51-19 (Raisin de Saint Pierre × Perla de Csaba).||High richness and yield; suitable for white, dry or semi-dry superior quality wines; high tolerance to drought due to leaf structure; increased tolerance to cryptogamic diseases due to the tight berry skin.|
|Rubin-2007||Red||Grape cultivar for red wine||Sexuate interspecific hybridization between the Traminer roz cultivar and a hybrid descendant (Seyve Villard 12375 × Regina viilor)||High tolerance to diseases and good tolerance to cold; favorable results for economic viticulture, especially for family use and for replacing the direct-producer hybrids; recommended for leisure vineyards.|
|Astra-1995||White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Fetească regală × Pinot gris||High yielding capacity; good potential to accumulate sugars; good tolerance to cold (buds’ dead less than 25% at −20), drought and diseases with respect to other cultivars specific to(Transylvania), preserving its foliar apparatus and grapes in a normal stage. Because of its late bud break, it is more protected against the late spring frosts.|
|Homologated cultivars developed at SCDVV Blaj|
|Selena-1995||Rosé||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Sexuate hybridization between Iordană cultivars × Traminer roz||High fertility and yieldingness; ensures the production of high quality dry and semi-dry white wines; high to very good tolerance to cold and several cryptogamic diseases.|
|Blasius-1994||White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. (Traminer roz × Iordană) × (Raisin de Saint Piere × Perlă de Csaba)||Maturation of the vine ropes is done at a superior level, favoring the cold tolerance increase, while the fertile region is placed at the very base of the cane. The shoot maturation is done at the shoot tip, which favors the tolerance to cold increasing, and the fertile buds are at the base of the cane. Succulent pulp, with a sweet-sour taste, favorable for wine equilibrium sugars/acidity.|
|Radames-1993||Rosé||Grape cultivar for white wine||Interspecific hybrid Traminer roz × (Seyve Villard 12.375)||High tolerance to cold and cryptogamic diseases; high fertility and yieldingness; ensures the production of dry white wines for current consumption or wine-distillates; recommended for leisure farms.|
|Amurg-1989||Dark-red||Grape cultivar for red wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Muscat de Hamburg × Cabernet Sauvignon||Ensures the production of superior, table and sparkling red wines. Recommended in Târnave and Aiud vineyards and other viticultural zones with favorable conditions for producing red wines; medium tolerance to cryptogamic diseases and cold.|
|Brumăriu-1983||White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Interspecific hybrid Saint Emilion × Rayon d’Or||Good tolerance to cryptogamic diseases and cold; recommended for wine-distillate.|
|Homologated clones developed at SCDVV Blaj|
|Pinot gris 11 Bl.
|White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Pinot gris||Superior qualities compared to the parental cultivar population. Better fertility; it does not show millerandage (or shot berries, hens, and chicks and pumpkins and peas) phenomena has resistance to diseases. Ensures the production of high-quality white wines with POD potential.|
|Fetească albă 29 Bl.
|White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Population of the Fetească albă cultivar|
|Iordană 9-1 Bl.
|White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Population of the Iordană cultivar|
|Riesling de Rhin 7-2 Bl.
|White||Grape cultivars for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Population Riesling de Rhin cultivar|
|Muscat Ottonel 12 Bl.
|White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Population of the Muscat Ottonel cultivar|
|White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Population of the Neuburger cultivar|
|Homologated clones developed at SCDVV Blaj|
|Riesling Italian-3 Bl.
|White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Population of the Riesling Italian cultivar||Superior qualities compared to the parental cultivar population. Better fertility; does not show millerandage (or shot berries, hens and chicks and pumpkins and peas) phenomena has resistance to diseases. It ensures the production of high-quality white wines with POD potential.|
|Fetească regală-21 Bl.
|White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Population of the Fetească regală cultivar|
|Traminer roz-60 Bl.
|Pink||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Population of the Traminer roz cultivar|
|Pinot gris-34 Bl.
|White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Population of the Pinot gris cultivar|
|Sauvignon gris-9 Bl.
|White||Grape cultivar for white wine||Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa L. Population of the Sauvignon blanc cultivar|
Amurg cultivar was obtained through the efforts of Csavossy Gheorghe, a researcher at the Research Station for Viticulture and Enology Blaj by intraspecific sexual hybridization between the acclimatized genitors Muscat de Hamburg and Cabernet Sauvignon cultivars with a unique Transylvanian terroir and was homologated in 1989 .
Amurg grapevine cultivar has a white-green, fluffy rosette (vegetative shoots), and its flower is a normal hermaphrodite. The adult leaf is round, large, with 3–5 lobes, and slightly hairy on the underside . The lateral sinuses of the leaf are circularly closed, the petiole sinus is lyre-shaped and the petiole point is reddish . The leaf edge has large, sharp teeth . The grape is medium in size, cylindrical-conical, winged, compact . The berry is ovoid, slightly elongated, red-blue, and has a juicy core .
Amurg is a cultivar of medium to great vigor, with the maturation of the grapes in the 5th epoch  ( Figure 2 ). It shows tolerance to low winter temperatures, up to minus 22 °C and is resistant to both downy mildew and Botrytis .
The fertility of the cultivar is low-medium, it forms only 35–48% fertile shoots ( Figure 2), and the fertility coefficients have average values of 0.8 for the relative one and 1.7 for the absolute one . The average weight of a grape is 260 g, the weight of 100 berries is 261 g, and the potential for sugar accumulation is 178–197 g/L, accompanied by a must acidity of 4.5–5.5 g/L H 2SO 4 . We highlighted in Table 2 that Amurg wine has an acidity of 5.92 g/L H 2SO 4 (Table 2) and is characterized by a content of 12.38% alcohol volume and 21.18 g/L non-reducing dry extract. The grape production obtained is on average 12–15 t/ha, from which a POD wine is obtained that can be used as a raw material for rosé sparkling wines ( Figure 2 ) .
|Alcohol (% vol.)||Inverted Total Sugars (g/L)||Total Acidity (g/L H2SO4)||Volatile Acidity (g/L Acetic Acid)||SO2 Free (mg/L)||SO2 Total (mg/L)||Total Dry Extract (g/L)||Non-Reducing Dry Extract (g/L)||Glucose + Fructose (g/L)|
In Table 6, we present the sensorial characteristics of the Amurg wine.
|Aroma/ Bouquet||floral notes aromas and fresh fruit aromas|
|Taste||pleasant, dry, light raspberry aroma, soft wine, balanced|
Although much of the climate change debate has been centered on temperature effects, other concerns impacting the production of grapes, wines, and their quality include shifting viticulture due to elevated levels of CO 2 in the environment, additional moisture pressures in water-limited areas, as well as changes in the presence or severity of pests and grapevine diseases . Some of the essential qualities of the Amurg cultivar are the resistance to low winter temperatures and the tolerance or even resistance to some diseases like black rot. The resistance or tolerance of grapevine to such diseases represents a critical feature that reflects the sustainability of their cultivation because, in this way, the fungicides treatments are lowered.
Guignardia bidwellii (Ellis) Viala and Ravaz, the pathogen of the grapevine’s black rot, is at the present time one of the most important fungal pathogens found in the vineyards worldwide . The loss of harvest associated with this disease can vary from 5 to 100%, depending on climate, the reserve of pathogen’s inoculum, and sensitivity of cultivated cultivars . Romania’s vineyards had sporadic and economically minor black rot outbreaks by the year 2006 . In recent years, the incidence and severity of the disease in particular in the vineyards of Central Transylvania have been steadily increasing due to climate change, leading to substantial declines in productivity, with direct repercussions for wine quality and grapevine growers’ incomes in the region, . Genetic stamina is the most rational and economical way of controlling this disease, particularly for plantations cultivated in a sustainable system ; although, at present, there are various methods and means of preventing and countering the attack of black rot and other diseases, e.g., smart viticulture .
In this framework, the results of the susceptibility/tolerance at the attack of black rot of cultivars homologated at SCDVV Blaj (for the period 2016–2018) revealed the tolerance of Amurg (Attack Degree = 0.25%) compared with other autochthonous cultivars . A correlation between high rainfall, above 10 mm, high temperatures above 15 °C and infection pressure, incidence and severity of the Guignardia bidwellii attack was noticed in all three years . For example, in June and July of 2016–2018, the attack frequency (F) on the clones Fetească regală-21 Bl. (F = 90%), Fetească albă-29 Bl. (F = 95%), Muscat Ottonel-12 Bl. (F = 90%) and Pinot gris-34 Bl. (F = 85%) increased by average values of 85–90% due to a few weeks with intense daily precipitation combined with high temperatures . The frequency of the attack was below 5% for the cultivars Rubin (F = 2.80%) and Amurg (F = 4.50%) for the same climatic conditions . For the Fetească albă-29 Bl. (I = 37%) and Muscat Ottonel-12 Bl. (I = 43%) clones, the intensity (I) of the black rot attack was especially high, while for the Rubin and Amurg cultivars, the intensity was much lower with an average of 4.80%, and 5.60%, respectively .
Table 3 reviews the results concerning attack frequency and intensity for each of the cultivars involved in the study.
|Cultivar||Attack Frequency (F) (%)||Intensity (I) (%)||Climatic Conditions|
|Fetească regală 21 Bl||90||35||few weeks with intense daily precipitation combined with high temperatures|
|Fetească albă 29 Bl||95||37|
|Muscat Ottonel 12 Bl||90||43|
|Pinot gris 34 Bl||85||36|