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Electric Vehicle Technologies
The vehicle technology is typically divided into four main categories. The sources of energy for a conventional vehicle are petrol or diesel fuel, which are the main contributors of carbon radiation in the environment. Therefore, the carbon emission rate of a hybrid is less than for conventional combustion engine vehicles. The third and fourth types are also known as zero-emission vehicles (measured at the tailpipe) which depend on the hydrogen fuel cell and battery, respectively.
2. Vehicle Technology
2.1. Hybrid Electric Vehicle
- (i) Improved fuel efficiency and performance.
- (ii) Lower fuel consumption costs.
- (iii) Reduce CO2 emission.
- (iv) Recovery of some energy via regenerative braking.
- (v) Use of an existing fuel station.
- (vi) The disadvantage is a higher initial cost due to the battery.
- (i) Start and Low to Mid-range Speeds: During low to mid-range speeds or at the vehicle’s starting, the engine stops, and the vehicle is propelled by the motor alone.
- (ii) Driving Under Normal Conditions: The power split device sends some power to run the generator and the rest of the power to drive the wheels directly. If there is excessive power, then it’s used to charge the battery.
- (iii) Sudden Acceleration: Both the battery and engine provide power during sudden acceleration.
- (iv) Deceleration: The regenerative braking system converts the kinetic energy into electrical energy that is stored in the high-performance battery.
2.2. Electric Vehicle (EV)
- (i) All times: Whenever the vehicle needs to move, the battery propels the vehicle.
- (ii) Deceleration or Braking: When the vehicle decelerates or brakes, the vehicle recaptures the kinetic energy into the battery using regenerative technology.
2.3. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
- (i) Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle.
- (ii) Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCHEV).
The entry is from 10.3390/electronics10161910
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