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Solar PV Monitoring
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) energy is a clean, attractive, and secure source of electricity generation. Due to its expanse usage around the globe, the development of an advanced monitoring method is crucial. PV performance can be affected by various environmental factors such as soiling, temperature, irradiance etc. Thus, solar PV accuracy and performance can be improved by employing an efficient solar PV real-time monitoring system.
A comprehensive explanation of various data processing modules for solar PV monitoring systems is presented in terms of categories, specifications, design implementation, software platforms, results, and limitations.
The categories of the various data transmission modules for wireless communication in solar PV monitoring systems are reported, highlighting topology, data transmission rage, sampling rate, power consumption, and range.
The existing issues and challenges for the monitoring technologies of solar PV applications are covered, emphasizing data handling, security, signal interference, energy efficiency, etc.
Some constructive future recommendations are presented toward the development of an efficient and reliable solar PV monitoring system.
2. Survey Methodology
2.1. Selection Process
In the first search results, a total of 443 articles were found using various platforms including Google scholar, IEEEXplore, MDPI, and the ScienceDirect databases.
In the second screening results, a total of 228 articles were selected based on the appropriate title, keywords, abstract, and content of the paper.
In the third assessment results, the articles were analyzed based on impact factor, review process, and citation. Accordingly, a total of 148 references were finalized for the review paper consisting of journals, conferences proceedings, and recognized webpages.
2.2. Review Results
Monitoring technologies for solar PV systems based on data processing modules were explained.
Further, the monitoring technologies considering various data transmission protocols for solar PV application were discussed.
Key issues and limitations of the solar PV monitoring system based on the presented technology were explored.
Recommendations and future directions for the further improvement of the monitoring technology for solar PV systems were presented.
3. Overview and Taxonomy of Solar PV Monitoring System
|Solar PV System||Parameters|
|Large scale||Irradiance||Array output voltage|
|Array Temperature||Array output current|
|Speed of wind||Grid voltage|
|Humidity||Current to and from grid|
|Air pressure||Grid impedance|
|Small scale||Panel output voltage|
|Irradiance||Panel output current|
|Panel Temperature||Inverter output voltage|
|Humidity||Inverter output current|
|Load output voltage|
|Load output current|
4. Progress of Data Processing Modules for Solar PV Monitoring System
4.1. BeagleBone-Based Module
4.2. Arduino Based Module
4.3. Raspberry Pi-Based Module
4.4. PLC-Based Module
4.5. Microcontroller-Based Module
|Arduino Uno||Raspberry Pi3||PLC (FX1N-14MR)||BeagleBone||ATMEGA 16|
|Communication protocol||4x SPI, 2x I2C, PCM/I2S, 2x UART||1x SPI, 2x I2C, PCM/I2S, 1x UART||Ladder logic, Ethernet, RS-232, RS-422 and RS-485 modules||4x UART, 2x SPI, 2x I2C, 2x CAN BUS||Serial, 12C, SPI|
|Size of Board||69 × 53 mm||85 × 56 mm||110 × 95 × 17 mm||86 × 56 mm||As per Requirement|
|Speed of Clock||16 MHz||1.2 GHz||140–180 MHz||1.0 GHz||0–16 MHz|
|RAM||16 MHz||1 GB LPDDR2||-||512 MB DDR3||1 KB SRAM|
|Supply Voltage||5 V||5 V||24 V||5 V||2.7–5.5 V|
|Storage Memory||32 KB||Micro SD||8 MB||4 GB, micro-SD||16 KB Flash memory, 512 Byte EEPROM|
|USB port||-||4 × USB 2.0||-||1 × USB||-|
|Processor||ATmega328P||Broadcom BCM2837, ARM Cortex- A53 64-b Quad Core||SLC 5/03 CPU||AM335x ARM Cortex-A8||8 bit processor|
|Power consumption||98.53 mA @ 9 V||400 mA @ 5.1 V||400 mA (Approx)||500 mA||1.1 mA @ 3 V|
|Weight (Approx)||30 g||45 g||120 g||39.68 g||20 g|
|Cost (Approx)||USD 30||USD 25–35||USD 45||USD 30||USD 3 (Approx)|
The entry is from 10.3390/su13158120
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