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Interpreters in Medical Education
The use of interpreters in medical education as part of the curriculum is scarce, but students have been trained in how to work with interpreters when interviewing patients to fully develop their skills. This entry discusses about the relevant literature on the use of interpreters in medical and healthcare education.
Medical doctors practice medicine in multicultural societies and are expected to exercise cultural competence, such as working with interpreters in order to provide the best quality of care to their patients . There are many definitions of cultural competence, although it generally refers to knowledge regarding social and cultural factors that affect health and illness and to actions necessary for the provision of quality and accessible care . The need for cultural competence has been recognized in literature as it may reduce health disparities , and doctors can improve their skills and knowledge in this area of practice . Research has shown that cultural competence is associated with increased patient satisfaction and adherence to therapy  and has helped physicians enhance their cultural sensitivity .
Despite these findings, the integration of cultural competence in medical curricula has been underdeveloped . Alizadeh and Chavan  found 18 models of cultural competence, with many training paradigms for medical practitioners revealing a link between cultural competence and enhanced patient satisfaction and adherence to therapy. However, none of these models were specifically tailored for education purposes.  also highlighted the importance of cultural issues and the need to integrate cultural competence in medical curricula.
One aspect of cultural competence is to work effectively with people with limited command of the language spoken by health care professionals and to recruit interpreters to assist with this task. However, Himmelstein, Wright, and Wiederman  explained that there is negligible evidence about medical students working with interpreters within the medical curricula. Third, are undergraduate medical/health care students provided with training on how to use interpreters in health care consultations when they graduate? However, one might say that if students are taught how to use professional interpreters when interviewing patients, they might be able to use the knowledge and skills when they are provided with interpreters at their clinical placements.
Based on a gap identified by Wright and Wiederman  and on the questions above, the research aim of this study focuses on understanding the extent of interpreter utilization in medical education as part of the curriculum and its effects on educational and health outcomes. To address the research aim, this study has conducted a narrative literature review as presented below.
2. Two Overarching Themes
2.1. Use of Interpreters during Undergraduate Medical/Health Care Curricula
The trainee asked the patient one question at a time.
The trainee presented information at a pace that was easy to follow for both patient and interpreter—that is, information was given in digestible chunks
The trainee addressed the patient as “you” and not as “he” or “she.”
The trainee appropriately closed the encounter: at a minimum, asked the patient if he or she had any questions.
Asked patient one question at a time
Addressed patient directly
Maintained direct eye contact with patient
Listened to interpreter without unnecessary interruption
Asked interpreter questions about incomplete interpretations
Spoke in short, simple sentences with pauses for interpretation
2.2. Developing Students’ Skills through Training in How to Use Interpreters in Health Care Interviews or Consultations
3. Framework for Integrating Interpreting Services in Medical Education
The entry is from 10.3390/soc11030070
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