High potency, specificity and a good safety profile are the main strengths of bioactive peptides as new and promising therapies that may fill the gap between small molecules and protein drugs. These positive attributes of peptides, along with advances in drug delivery technologies, have contributed to a renewed interest in the discovery, optimization and development of peptides as pharmacological therapy. The entry collection aims to cover all aspects of peptide research in relation to health promotion.

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Topic Review
Antimicrobial Peptides as a Solution for Atopic Dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that is the result of various environmental, bacterial and genetic stimuli, which culminate in the disruption of the skin’s barrier function. Characterized by highly pruritic skin lesions, xerosis and an array of comorbidities among which skin infections are the most common, this condition results in both a significant loss of quality of life and in the need for life-long treatments (e.g., corticosteroids, monoclonal antibodies and regular antibiotic intake), all of which may have harmful secondary effects. This, in conjunction with AD’s rising prevalence, made the development of alternative treatment strategies the focus of both the scientific community and the pharmaceutical industry. Given their potential to both manage the skin microbiome, fight infections and even modulate the local immune response, the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from more diverse origins has become one of the most promising alternative solutions for AD management, with some being already used with some success towards this end.
  • 25
  • 22 Sep 2023
Topic Review
HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Targeted Therapies
Breast cancer represents the most common cancer type and one of the major leading causes of death in the female worldwide population. Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor (HER2), a transmembrane glycoprotein related to the epidermal growth factor receptor, results in a biologically and clinically aggressive breast cancer subtype. It is also the primary driver for tumor detection and progression and, in addition to being an important prognostic factor in women diagnosed with breast cancer, HER2 is a widely known therapeutic target for drug development. In breast cancer, the overexpression of the HER2 receptor makes it a reliable biomarker and a successful therapeutic target. Several strategies have been developed to target HER2, using various targeting molecules including monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibody–drug conjugates, small molecules, and peptides.
  • 21
  • 12 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Mushroom Bioactive Peptides
Mushroom bioactive peptides (MBPs) are bioactive peptides extracted directly or indirectly from edible mushrooms. MBPs are known to have antioxidant, anti-aging, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive properties, and facilitate memory and cognitive improvement, antitumour and anti-diabetes activities, and cholesterol reduction.
  • 103
  • 11 Aug 2023
Topic Review
Metabolite-Based Hydrogels
Minimalistic peptide- and metabolite-based supramolecular hydrogels have great potential relative to traditional polymeric hydrogels in various biomedical and technological applications. Advantages such as remarkable biodegradability, high water content, favorable mechanical properties, biocompatibility, self-healing, synthetic feasibility, low cost, easy design, biological function, remarkable injectability, and multi-responsiveness to external stimuli make supramolecular hydrogels promising candidates for drug delivery, tissue engineering, tissue regeneration, and wound healing. Non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic interactions, and π–π stacking interactions play key roles in the formation of peptide- and metabolite-containing low-molecular-weight hydrogels. Peptide- and metabolite-based hydrogels display shear-thinning and immediate recovery behavior due to the involvement of weak non-covalent interactions, making them supreme models for the delivery of drug molecules. In the areas of regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, pre-clinical evaluation, and numerous other biomedical applications, peptide- and metabolite-based hydrogelators with rationally designed architectures have intriguing uses. 
  • 210
  • 03 Jul 2023
Topic Review
Structure and Properties of Gelatin
Gelatin is a natural biopolymer that is intrinsically biocompatible and biodegradable, has low immunogenicity, and is classified as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It consists of an amphoteric polymer that is derived from collagen by alkaline-, acid-, or heat-based hydrolysis.
  • 1772
  • 24 May 2023
Topic Review
Diversity of Antimicrobial Peptides in Silkworm
Antimicrobial resistance is a phenomenon that the world is witnessing that poses a serious threat to global health. The decline in the development of novel therapeutics over the past has exacerbated the situation further. In this scenario, the pursuit of new alternative therapeutics to commonly used antibiotics has gained predominance amongst researchers across the world. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from natural sources have drawn significant interest as promising pharmacological substitutes over the conventional antibiotics. The most notable advantage of AMPs is that microorganisms cannot develop resistance to them. Insects represent one of the potential sources of AMPs, which are synthesized as part of an innate immune defence against invading pathogens. AMPs from different insects have been extensively studied, and silkworm is one of them. Diverse classes of AMPs (including attacins, cecropins, defensins, enbocins, gloverins, lebocins and moricins) were identified from silkworm that exhibit antimicrobial property against bacteria, fungi and viruses, indicating their potential therapeutic benefits. 
  • 170
  • 17 May 2023
Topic Review
Applications of Peptides in Health Management and Agriculture
Numerous bioactive peptides have been identified from edible insect species, including peptides that were enzymatically liberated from insect proteins and endogenous peptides that occur naturally in insects. The peptides exhibited diverse bioactivities, encompassing antioxidant, anti-angiotensin-converting enzyme, anti-dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, anti-glucosidase, anti-lipase, anti-lipoxygenase, anti-cyclooxygenase, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. Such findings point to their potential contribution to solving human health problems related to inflammation, free radical damage, diabetes, hypertension, and liver damage, among others. Bioactive peptides may have a positive impact on body functions and thus benefit human health. New information reporting their beneficial effects on the health of livestock and plants is also emerging. Bioactive peptides may be produced endogenously in humans, animals, and plants.
  • 326
  • 12 May 2023
Topic Review
Apelinergic System in Pregnancy
The apelinergic system is a highly conserved pleiotropic system. It comprises the apelin receptor apelin peptide jejunum (APJ) and its two peptide ligands, Elabela/Toddler (ELA) and apelin, which have different spatiotemporal localizations. This system has been implicated in the regulation of the adipoinsular axis, in cardiovascular and central nervous systems, in carcinogenesis, and in pregnancy in humans. During pregnancy, the apelinergic system is essential for embryo cardiogenesis and vasculogenesis and for placental development and function. It may also play a role in the initiation of labor. The apelinergic system seems to be involved in the development of placenta-related pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction, but an improvement in PE-like symptoms and birth weight has been described in murine models after the exogenous administration of apelin or ELA.
  • 294
  • 08 May 2023
Topic Review
Implementation of Lutetium-177 Therapy
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using Lutetium-177 (177Lu) based radiopharmaceuticals has emerged as a therapeutic area in the field of nuclear medicine and oncology, allowing for personalized medicine. Since the first market authorization in 2018 of [¹⁷⁷Lu]Lu-DOTATATE (Lutathera®) targeting somatostatin receptor type 2 in the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, intensive research has led to transfer innovative 177Lu containing pharmaceuticals to the clinic.
  • 338
  • 04 May 2023
Topic Review
Cell-Penetrating Peptides in Development of Transgenic Plants
The peptide-based gene delivery system, mediated by cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), has been regarded as a promising non-viral tool for efficient and stable gene transfection into both animal and plant cells. CPPs are short peptides with diverse sequences and functionalities, capable of agitating plasma membrane and entering cells. Various basic, amphipathic, cyclic, and branched CPPs were designed, and modifications of functional groups were performed to enhance DNA interaction and stabilization in transgenesis.
  • 230
  • 04 May 2023
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