Summary

High potency, specificity and a good safety profile are the main strengths of bioactive peptides as new and promising therapies that may fill the gap between small molecules and protein drugs. These positive attributes of peptides, along with advances in drug delivery technologies, have contributed to a renewed interest in the discovery, optimization and development of peptides as pharmacological therapy. The entry collection aims to cover all aspects of peptide research in relation to health promotion.

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Topic Review
Neglected Human Systemic Mycoses Diagnosis
Systemic mycoses have been viewed as neglected diseases and they are responsible for deaths and disabilities around the world. Rapid, low-cost, simple, highly-specific and sensitive diagnostic tests are critical components of patient care, disease control and active surveillance. However, the diagnosis of fungal infections represents a great challenge because of the decline in the expertise needed for identifying fungi, and a reduced number of instruments and assays specific to fungal identification.
  • 6
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
GLP-1 Receptor Agonists
GLP-1 receptor agonists stimulate GLP-1R to promote insulin secretion, whereas DPP4 inhibitors slow GLP-1 degradation. Both approaches are incretin-based therapies for T2D. In addition to GLP-1 analogs, small nonpeptide GLP-1RAs such as LY3502970, TT-OAD2, and PF-06882961 have been considered as possible therapeutic alternatives.
  • 14
  • 23 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Rice Suspension Cell Recombinant Protein Expression System
A plant cell-based recombinant glucocerebrosidase was approved by the FDA in 2012 for the treatment of human inherited Gaucher disease, indicating that plant suspension cells have advantages in biosafety and a low production cost as a commercial pharmaceutical recombinant protein expression system. A low allergenic rice suspension cell-based recombinant protein expression system controlled by the αAmy3/RAmy3D promoter has been shown to result in relatively high protein yields in plant cell-based systems.
  • 83
  • 16 Jun 2022
Topic Review
O-GlcNAcylation Regulate Skeletal Muscle
O-GlcNAcylation is a highly dynamic, reversible and atypical glycosylation that regulates the activity, biological function, stability, sublocation and interaction of target proteins. O-GlcNAcylation receives and coordinates different signal inputs as an intracellular integrator similar to the nutrient sensor and stress receptor, which target multiple substrates with spatio-temporal analysis specifically to maintain cellular homeostasis and normal physiological functions.
  • 31
  • 13 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.)
Pumpkin is a well-known multifunctional ingredient in the diet, full of nutrients, and has opened new vistas for scientists during the past years. The fruit of pumpkin including the flesh, seed, and peel are a rich source of primary and secondary metabolites, including proteins, carbohydrates, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, tryptophan, delta-7-sterols, and many other phytochemicals.
  • 101
  • 06 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Molecular Structure and Biochemistry of Post-Proline Cleaving Enzymes
Post-proline cleaving enzymes (PPCEs) are involved in various biological functions in diverse taxa of organisms including microbes, fungi, animals, and plants.
  • 47
  • 24 May 2022
Topic Review
The Role of Tachykinins in Human Disease
Since the identification of substance P in 1931, a number of short, highly conserved, bioactive peptides, called tachykinins, have been isolated and investigated, constituting at present one of the largest families of neuropeptides. In humans, tachykinins are expressed throughout the nervous and immune system, with an important role in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes that include inflammation, nociception, smooth muscle contractility, epithelial secretion and cell proliferation in the nervous, immune, gastrointestinal, respiratory, urogenital and dermal systems.
  • 59
  • 16 May 2022
Topic Review
Quercetin in Age-Related Diseases
Polyphenols are the known group of phytochemicals that essentially consists of phenolic rings. These are the plant product present in varied fruits and vegetables. These secondary metabolites perform a protective function in plants from environmental and biological stress. When consumed as a human diet these are also known to prevent various age-associated diseases. Polyphenols are known to possess antioxidant properties and protect against oxidative stress. Quercetin is among the widely occurring polyphenol, found abundantly in nature. It is commonly present in different plant products. Onion is known to have the highest quantity of quercetin. This plant compound is possessed antioxidant properties and is considered to have a protective function against aging. It is known to be present in both free and conjugated forms. Quercetin has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetic, and anti-viral properties.
  • 35
  • 11 May 2022
Topic Review
Hypopigmentation Mechanisms of Anti-Tyrosinase Peptides from Food Proteins
Skin hyperpigmentation resulting from excessive tyrosinase expression has long been a problem for beauty lovers, which has not yet been completely solved. Although researchers are working on finding effective tyrosinase inhibitors, most of them are restricted, due to cell mutation and cytotoxicity. Therefore, functional foods are developing rapidly for their good biocompatibility. Food-derived peptides have been proven to display excellent anti-tyrosinase activity, and the mechanisms involved mainly include inhibition of oxidation, occupation of tyrosinase’s bioactive site and regulation of related gene expression. For anti-oxidation, peptides can interrupt the oxidative reactions catalyzed by tyrosinase or activate an enzyme system, including super-oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) to scavenge free radicals that stimulate tyrosinase. In addition, researchers predict that peptides probably occupy the site of the substrate by chelating with copper ions or combining with surrounding amino acid residues, ultimately inhibiting the catalytic activity of tyrosinase.
  • 86
  • 06 May 2022
Topic Review
Antimicrobial Peptides Eradicate Bacterial Biofilms of Multi-Drug Resistant
Bacterial resistance is an emergency public health problem worldwide, compounded by the ability of bacteria to form biofilms, mainly in seriously ill hospitalized patients. The World Health Organization has published a list of priority bacteria that should be studied and, in turn, has encouraged the development of new drugs.
  • 56
  • 05 May 2022
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