High potency, specificity and a good safety profile are the main strengths of bioactive peptides as new and promising therapies that may fill the gap between small molecules and protein drugs. These positive attributes of peptides, along with advances in drug delivery technologies, have contributed to a renewed interest in the discovery, optimization and development of peptides as pharmacological therapy. The entry collection aims to cover all aspects of peptide research in relation to health promotion.

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Topic Review
Bioactive Peptides Derived from Hen Egg Proteins
Hen eggs, characterized by high protein and digestibility, are an excellent source of food-derived bioactive peptides. Some peptides comprising fewer than six amino acids may resist gastrointestinal digestion and remain intact as they cross the intestinal epithelium.
  • 55
  • 22 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Peptide for Bone and Cartilage Regeneration
The healing of osteochondral defects (OCDs) that result from injury, osteochondritis, or osteoarthritis and bear lesions in the cartilage and bone, pain, and loss of joint function in middle- and old-age individuals presents challenges to clinical practitioners because of non-regenerative cartilage and the limitations of current therapies. Bioactive peptide-based osteochondral (OC) tissue regeneration is becoming more popular because it does not have the immunogenicity, misfolding, or denaturation problems associated with original proteins. 
  • 70
  • 19 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Oromucosal Administration of Oxytocin: The Development of ‘Oxipops’
The neuropeptide oxytocin is synthesized by cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and transported to the posterior pituitary for release into the blood, where it is most well-known for acting on smooth muscle to stimulate uterine contractions during labor and milk-ejection from the breast. The role of the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin in influencing the brain and behavior has been the subject of widespread research due, most notably, to its reported involvement in promoting social cognition and motivation, reducing anxiety, and relieving pain. It is also increasingly being considered as an important therapeutic intervention in a variety of disorders with social dysfunction as a symptom.  There is increasing evidence that many of its functional effects can be peripherally mediated via increasing its concentration in the blood. This has opened up an oromucosal administration route as an alternative, which is beneficial since the oral consumption of peptides is problematic due to their rapid breakdown in the acidic environment of the gastrointestinal system. 
  • 55
  • 18 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Diabetes Peptide-Based Drugs
Peptides continue to gain significance in the pharmaceutical arena. Since the unveiling of insulin in 1921, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorised around 100 peptides for various applications. Peptides, although initially derived from endogenous sources, have evolved beyond their natural origins, exhibiting favourable therapeutic effectiveness. The FDA has authorized a variety of medications for the treatment of diabetes, each designed to target different receptors and operate through diverse mechanisms, depending on the specific type of diabetes being addressed.
  • 78
  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Tirzepatide in Type 2 Diabetes
Tirzepatide (TZP) is a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide (GIP) receptor co-agonist approved for T2D. TZP provides promising evidence in improving glucose control and weight loss in T2D and obesity across preclinical and human studies, including data from the SURPASS program. TZP dramatically changes the clinical course of T2D in different clinical scenarios. 
  • 112
  • 19 Feb 2024
Topic Review
The Useful Antiviral Properties of Lysozyme
Lysozyme, especially the one obtained from hen’s egg white, continues to show new pharmacological properties. Lysozyme can interact with nucleic acids and alter their function, but this effect is uncoupled from the catalytic activity that determines its antibacterial activity; it is present in intact lysozyme but is equally potent in a heat-degraded lysozyme or in a nonapeptide isolated by proteolytic digestion.
  • 142
  • 08 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Flavonoid Apigenin in Cancer Counteraction
Apigenin is one of the most widespread flavonoids in the plant kingdom. For centuries, apigenin-containing plant preparations have been used in traditional medicines to treat diseases that have an inflammatory and/or degenerative component. In the 1980s, apigenin was proposed to interfere with the process of carcinogenesis. Since then, more and more evidence has demonstrated its anticancer efficacy, both in vitro and in vivo. Apigenin has been shown to target signaling pathways involved in the development and progression of cancer, such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MAPK/ERK, JAK/STAT, NF-κB, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, and to modulate different hallmarks of cancer, such as cell proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis, invasion, and cell migration.
  • 170
  • 04 Jan 2024
Topic Review
MIF and D-DT/MIF-2 in Infections
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its homolog, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT), are cytokines that play critical roles in the immune response to various infectious diseases. The role of MIF in different types of infections is controversial, as it has either a protective function or a host damage-enhancing function depending on the pathogen. Depending on the specific role of MIF, different therapeutic options for MIF-targeting drugs arise. Human MIF-neutralizing antibodies, anti-parasite MIF antibodies, small molecule MIF inhibitors or MIF-blocking peptides, as well as the administration of exogenous MIF or MIF activity-augmenting small molecules have potential therapeutic applications and need to be further explored in the future. In addition, MIF has been shown to be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in sepsis. Further research is needed to unravel the complexity of MIF and D-DT in infectious diseases and to develop personalized therapeutic approaches targeting these cytokines. Overall, a comprehensive understanding of the role of MIF and D-DT in infections could lead to new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of infectious diseases.
  • 112
  • 29 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor
Sepsis is a life-threatening complication of an infectious process that results from the excessive and uncontrolled activation of the host’s pro-inflammatory immune response to a pathogen. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, which is a major component of Gram-negative bacteria’s outer membrane, plays a key role in the development of Gram-negative sepsis and septic shock in humans. To date, no specific and effective drug against sepsis has been developed.
  • 259
  • 22 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Heat Shock Proteins Immunostimulatory Properties-based Cancer Immunotherapy
The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) against chemotherapeutic agents has become a major impediment in cancer therapy. Understanding the underlying mechanism behind MDR can guide future treatment for cancer with better therapeutic outcomes. Recent studies evidenced that crossroads interaction between the heat shock proteins (HSP) and inflammatory responses under the tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in modulating drug responsiveness and drug resistance through a complex cytological process.
  • 344
  • 26 Oct 2023
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