Topic Review
Society 5.0.
Society 5.0. has for finality to strengthen the potential of cyber-physical-social relations in promoting the improvement of the quality of life of all people through a super smart society.
  • 72.9K
  • 30 Oct 2020
Periyar E. V. Ramasamy
Erode Venkatappa Ramasamy[1] (17 September 1879 – 24 December 1973), commonly known as Periyar or Thanthai Periyar, was an Indian social activist and politician who started the Self-Respect Movement and Dravidar Kazhagam. He is known as the 'Father of the Dravidian movement'.[2] He rebelled against Brahminical dominance and gender and caste inequality in Tamil Nadu.[3][4][5] E.V. Ramasamy jo
  • 67.1K
  • 14 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Flying Spaghetti Monster
The Flying Spaghetti Monster (FSM) is the deity of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, or Pastafarianism. Pastafarianism (a portmanteau of pasta and Rastafarianism) is a social movement that promotes a light-hearted view of religion and opposes the teaching of intelligent design and creationism in public schools. According to adherents, Pastafarianism is a "real, legitimate religion, as much as any other". In New Zealand, Pastafarian representatives are authorized to officiate weddings. However, in the United States, a federal judge has ruled that the "Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster" is not a real religion. In August 2018 the Dutch Council of State also ruled that Pastafarianism is not a religion. The "Flying Spaghetti Monster" was first described in a satirical open letter written by Bobby Henderson in 2005 to protest the Kansas State Board of Education decision to permit teaching intelligent design as an alternative to evolution in public school science classes. In the letter, Henderson demanded equal time in science classrooms for "Flying Spaghetti Monsterism", alongside intelligent design and evolution. After Henderson published the letter on his website, the Flying Spaghetti Monster rapidly became an Internet phenomenon and a symbol of opposition to the teaching of intelligent design in public schools. Pastafarian tenets (generally satires of creationism) are presented both on Henderson's Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster website, where he is described as "prophet", and in The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, written by Henderson in 2006. The central belief is that an invisible and undetectable Flying Spaghetti Monster created the universe. Pirates are revered as the original Pastafarians. Henderson asserts that a decline in the number of pirates over the years is the cause of global warming. The FSM community congregates at Henderson's website to share ideas about the Flying Spaghetti Monster and crafts representing images of it. Because of its popularity and exposure, the Flying Spaghetti Monster is often used as a contemporary version of Russell's teapot—an argument that the philosophic burden of proof lies upon those who make unfalsifiable claims, not on those who reject them. Pastafarianism has received praise from the scientific community and criticism from proponents of intelligent design. Pastafarians have engaged in disputes with creationists, including in Polk County, Florida, where they played a role in dissuading the local school board from adopting new rules on teaching evolution.
  • 66.9K
  • 10 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Plus-Minus Sign
The plus-minus sign (±) is a mathematical symbol with multiple meanings. The sign is normally pronounced "plus or minus". In mathematics, it generally indicates a choice of exactly two possible values, one of which is the negation of the other. In experimental sciences, the sign commonly indicates the confidence interval or error in a measurement, often the standard deviation or standard error. The sign may also represent an inclusive range of values that a reading might have. In engineering the sign indicates the tolerance, which is the range of values that are considered to be acceptable, safe, or which comply with some standard, or with a contract. In botany it is used in morphological descriptions to notate "more or less". In chemistry the sign is used to indicate a racemic mixture. In chess, the sign indicates a clear advantage for the white player; the complementary sign ∓ indicates the same advantage for the black player.
  • 63.0K
  • 23 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Judgment of Solomon
The Judgment of Solomon is a story from the Hebrew Bible in which King Solomon of Israel ruled between two women both claiming to be the mother of a child. Solomon revealed their true feelings and relationship to the child by suggesting to cut the baby in two, with each woman to receive half. With this strategy, he was able to discern the non-mother as the woman who entirely approved of this proposal, while the actual mother begged that the sword might be sheathed and the child committed to the care of her rival. Some consider this approach to justice an archetypal example of an impartial judge displaying wisdom in making a ruling.
  • 62.4K
  • 24 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Ammonia Production
Ammonia is the second-largest global chemical products, utilized as agricultural fertilizer, food production, industrial materials, refrigerants, and additives. Recently, the utilization of ammonia as the energy carrier (secondary energy source) has attracted many interests, due to its high volumetric hydrogen density, low storage pressure, high stability for long-term storage, high auto-ignition temperature, low condensation pressure, and lower gas density than air. in general, ammonia production includes the currently adopted thermochemical (Haber–Bosch), electrochemical, and photochemical cycle processes. 
  • 59.7K
  • 20 May 2022
Topic Review
Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument
Questionnaire is one of the most widely used tools to collect data in especially social science research. The main objective of questionnaire in research is to obtain relevant information in most reliable and valid manner. Thus the accuracy and consistency of survey/questionnaire forms a significant aspect of research methodology which are known as validity and reliability. Often new researchers are confused with selection and conducting of proper validity type to test their research instrument (questionnaire/survey). 
  • 55.2K
  • 15 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Current State of Bestiality Law in the US
Laws punishing individuals who have sex with nonhuman animals have existed since the earliest written legal codes. In the United States, bestiality has long been prohibited. The rationale for criminalizing sex acts with animals has changed over time and has included moral condemnation, considerations of animal rights and animal welfare, and most recently, a concern about the relationship between animal cruelty and interpersonal violence, colloquially known as the Link. There exist important differences in language, specificity, and potential punishments for offenders depending on the jurisdiction.
  • 54.3K
  • 16 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Path Planning and Optimization Techniques
The optimization algorithms for pathfinding for ground robotics [20,21,22,23,24], aerial vehicles [25,26,27], and underwater vehicles [28,29] includes a wide range of applications. The most well-known applications for autonomous vehicles are obstacle avoidance, path planning, localization, navigation, sensing, and communication, which works on pre-essential maps related to the environment; they also play a vital role in communication relay, aviation industry for surveillance, and loitering dominated missions. 
  • 53.1K
  • 09 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Ashkenazi Jewish Intelligence
Whether Ashkenazi Jews have higher average intelligence than other ethnic groups, and if so, why, has been an occasional subject of scientific controversy. Studies have generally found Ashkenazi Jews to have an average intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 107 to 115, and Ashkenazi Jews as a group have had successes in intellectual fields far out of proportion to their numbers. A 2005 scientific paper, "Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence", proposed that Jews as a group inherit significantly higher verbal and mathematical intelligence and somewhat lower spatial intelligence than other ethnic groups, on the basis of inherited diseases and the peculiar economic situation of Ashkenazi Jews in the Middle Ages. Opposing this hypothesis are explanations for the congenital illnesses in terms of the founder effect and explanations of intellectual successes by reference to Jewish culture's promotion of scholarship and learning.
  • 51.0K
  • 14 Oct 2022
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