Topic Review
1D MPC and Thin-Film Analysis
The development of magnetic photonic crystals (MPC) has been a rapidly evolving research area since the late 1990s. Magneto-optic (MO) materials and the techniques for their characterization have also continually undergone functional and property-related improvements. MPC Optimization is a feature-rich Windows software application designed to enable researchers to analyse the optical and magneto-optical spectral properties of multilayers containing gyrotropic constituents. A set of computational approaches, and a custom software package have been described, designed to enable the design and optimization of 1D magnetic photonic crystals in terms of the achievable combinations of Faraday rotation, transmission, and reflection spectra. 
  • 571
  • 25 Aug 2021
Topic Review
360-Degree Video Bandwidth Reduction Techniques
The usage of 360-degree videos has prevailed in various sectors such as education, real estate, medical, entertainment and more. However, various challenges are faced to provide real-time streaming due to the nature of high-resolution 360-degree videos such as high bandwidth requirement, high computing power and low delay tolerance. To overcome these challenges, streaming methods such as dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH), tiling, viewport-adaptive and machine learning (ML) are discussed.
  • 123
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
3D Biometrics
Biometrics have been used to identify humans since the 19th century. Over time, these biometrics became 3D. The main reason for this was the growing need for more features in the images to create more reliable identification models. Three main categories of 3D biometrics were identified. These were face, hand and gait. The corresponding percentages for these categories were 74.07%, 20.37% and 5.56%, respectively. The face is further categorized into facial, ear, iris and skull, while the hand is divided into fingerprint, finger vein and palm. In each category, facial and fingerprint were predominant, and their respective percentages were 80% and 54.55%. The use of the 3D reconstruction algorithms was also determined. These were stereo vision, structure-from-silhouette (SfS), structure-from-motion (SfM), structured light, time-of-flight (ToF), photometric stereo and tomography. Stereo vision and SfS were the most commonly used algorithms with a combined percentage of 51%. The state of the art for each category and the available datasets are also presented. Finally, multimodal biometrics, generalization of 3D reconstruction algorithms and anti-spoofing metrics are the three areas that should attract scientific interest for further research. 
  • 46
  • 02 Sep 2022
Topic Review
3D Point Cloud Classification
Three-dimensional (3D) point cloud classification methods based on deep learning have good classification performance. The 3D point cloud is mainly collected by light detection and ranging (LiDAR) scanner, red, green, blue, and depth (RGB-D) camera, and other sensor equipment or obtained by model conversion using computer software.
  • 289
  • 10 Jun 2022
Topic Review
3D Printed Nonlinear Musculoskeletal Actuator
A nature-inspired musculoskeletal-actuator system is developed using 3d printing for robotic applications. The actuator resembles the rigid segments and the soft-rigid interaction architecture found in limbless vertebrates such as snakes. The rigid segments provide an increase in the range of motion while maintaining structural durability and stability. The soft-rigid interactions provided a remarkable increase in energy transmission and storage, which enhanced the reliability of the musculoskeletal-actuator. Additionally, passive structural stiffness and damping control are achieved. Similar to a muscular system, our musculoskeletal-actuator is capable of increasing its stiffness and damping up to 100% and 60%, respectively, upon load lifting.
  • 193
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
5G Flying Ad Hoc Networks
Flying ad hoc network (FANET) is an application of 5G access network, which consists of unmanned aerial vehicles or flying nodes with scarce resources and high mobility rates. It is one of the new applications supported by 5G. 5G incorporates new technologies, including massive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), device-to-device (D2D) communication, coordinated multi-point (CoMP), and beamforming, providing new features, such as exploring and exploiting mmWave and underutilized spectrum. 
  • 250
  • 15 Apr 2022
Topic Review
5G Technology
In wireless communication, Fifth Generation (5G) Technology is a recent generation of mobile networks. Among all the previously existing mobile networks, 5G provides a high-speed internet facility, anytime, anywhere, for everyone. 5G is slightly different due to its novel features such as interconnecting people, controlling devices, objects, and machines. 5G mobile system will bring diverse levels of performance and capability, which will serve as new user experiences and connect new enterprises.
  • 289
  • 16 Feb 2022
Topic Review
6G Cellular Networks
There are continued advances in the internet and communication fields regarding the deployment of 5G-based applications. It is expected that by 2030, 6G applications will emerge as a continued evolution of the mobile network. Blockchain technology is one of the leading supporting technologies predicted to provide a secure and unique network to 6G-enabled devices, transactions, and applications. It is anticipated that the 6G mobile networks will be virtualized, have cloud-based systems, and aim to be the foundation for the Internet of Everything.
  • 135
  • 13 Jun 2022
Topic Review
A discrete quantum momentum operator
We introduce finite-differences derivatives intended to be exact when applied to the real exponential function. We want to recover the known results of continuous calculus with our finite differences derivatives but in a discrete form. The purpose of this work is to have a discrete momentum operator suitable for use as an operator in discrete quantum mechanics theory.
  • 790
  • 24 Aug 2021
Topic Review
A New Container Throughput Forecasting Paradigm under COVID-19
COVID-19 has imposed tremendously complex impacts on the container throughput of ports, which poses big challenges for traditional forecasting methods. Combining this with change-point analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), this uses the decomposition–ensemble methodology to build a throughput forecasting model. Firstly, EMD is used to decompose the sample data of port container throughput into multiple components. Secondly, fluctuation scale analysis is carried out to accurately capture the characteristics of the components. Subsequently, here tailor the forecasting model for every component based on the mode analysis. Finally, the forecasting results of all the components are combined into one aggregated output. 
  • 162
  • 24 Mar 2022
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