Topic Review
Participatory Forest Management
Participatory forest management has been considered as a practical and effective strategy for sustainable forest management, especially in situations where land tenure is not securely settled. For effective restoration projects, local communities, as the cornerstone of participatory management, should be provided with incentives to facilitate their participation and active role. We postulate that participation in mangrove restoration projects can not only provide financial rewards but also yield intangible benefits for communities, i.e., social capital upgraded. Our study with the case of coastal mangrove restoration in the Philippines concluded that local people’s participation is a viable option for natural resource management that can create benefits and favorable conditions to communities. 
  • 6701
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Carbon Cycling in Mangrove Ecosystems
The carbon cycle in mangrove ecosystems is an important biogeochemical pathway in understanding the links between this forest ecosystem and both the atmosphere and the adjacent coastal ocean. Mangroves are a major habitat in the coastal zone for storing carbon in the soils of their deep forest floor, and for exporting to adjacent coastal seas significant quantities of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The large export of DIC is sufficient to result in adjacent coastal waters becoming a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in tropical and subtropical latitudes.
  • 1046
  • 21 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Silvicultural Site Preparation Techniques
Silvicultural site preparation techniques are planned anthropogenic disturbances that are designed to aid in the regeneration and establishment of a new stand of trees.
  • 759
  • 09 Dec 2020
Topic Review
C Dynamics in Mangrove Forests
Mangrove forest is an important coastal ecosystems for blue carbon. Thus, understanding the carbon dynamic in mangrove forests will help the management the ecosystem with climate changes. many research studies have been quantified the potential C storage in mangrove soil to be about 500 Mg C ha−1. However, mangrove also lost about 43.8 Kg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 due to its CO2 and CH4 emissions.
  • 644
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Forest Reproductive Material Quality
More than two billion hectares worldwide offer opportunities for restoration. The need to accelerate reforestation programmes is caused by global climate change and human impacts. There is no consensus in the scientific community as to what goals to pursue in the implementation of programs and what methods to use to achieve the goals. Confusing terminology in the field of world reforestation, conflicting research makes it necessary to establish the basic quality criteria. The impact of the quality of forest reproductive material on reforestation cannot be underestimated. Definition of forest reproduction material (FRM) quality should be project specific, because seed and seedling quality attributes targeted and desirable for one site, could be unsuitable for others. Seed size and germinability have the strongest effect on plant performance, both in nursery and on the field. Root collar diameter is the single most useful seedling morphological attribute. The most important quality attributes of seed and seedling can be improved by simple techniques and practices. In a long term, the genetic aspect of FRM quality have a decisive role and any restoration program should be based on proper seed source to site matching, with maintaining the wide genetic diversity. In any restoration program, imperative should be the use of FRM with targeted quality attributes: physical, morphological, physiological, and genetic. Meeting demands for huge quantities of FRM, should not be at the cost of quality.
  • 597
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Forest Volatile Organic Compounds
This article provides a biochemical description of forest Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs), namely any organic substance, except carbon dioxide and monoxide, mostly emitted by plants and having vapor pressure high enough to be vaporized in relevant amounts into the forest air. An estimation of the average contribution of forests to the atmospheric composition is mentioned. Additionally, a brief analysis of functional roles that BVOCs play for plant physiology and forest ecology is reported, including the importance of non-tree-derived BVOCs. Finally, biochemical pathways leading to the natural production of most forest BVOCs are described.
  • 514
  • 02 Feb 2021
Topic Review
GNSS Time-Based Clustering Of Mobile Laser Scanning Data From Forest
Mobile laser scanning (MLS) is a progressive technology that has already demonstrated its ability to provide highly accurate measurements of road networks. Mobile innovation of the laser scanning has also found its use in forest mapping over the last decade. In most cases, existing methods for forest data acquisition using MLS result in misaligned scenes of the forest, scanned from different views appearing in one point cloud. These difficulties are caused mainly by forest canopy blocking the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal and limited access to the forest. We propose an approach to the processing of MLS data of forest scanned from different views with two mobile laser scanners under heavy canopy. Misaligned scenes of the forest acquired from different views were successfully extracted from the raw MLS point cloud using GNSS time-based point clustering. In order to align extracted MLS data acquired from different views under heavy forest canopy, the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm was used. An average misalignment of 7.2 mm was achieved for the point clouds aligned using ICP algorithm. DBH was estimated from the aligned MLS data using a simple circle-fitting method with a root-mean-square error of 3.06 cm.
  • 491
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Dowel-Type Joints in Timber Structures
Dowel-type joints are one of the most common connectors. They basically consist of one or more cylindrical steel dowels inserted into aligned holes of different elements. The dowels transmit loads between the elements, being subjected to opposite compressive forces on the contact area with each element. This causes the dowels to work under bending moments and shear forces. There is an almost infinite number of possible configurations for dowel-type joints.
  • 392
  • 09 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Cinnamon in Human Health
Cinnamon is an unusual tropical plant belonging to the Lauraceae family. It has been used for hundreds of years as a flavor additive, but it has also been used in natural Eastern medicine. Cinnamon extracts are vital oils that contain biologically active compounds, such as cinnamon aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties and is used to treat diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. 
  • 360
  • 22 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Agroforestry is recognized as a sustainable land use practice that creates more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy, sustainable land-use systems. However, the uptake of such a promising land use practice is slow. Through this research, carried out in a Terai district of Nepal, we thoroughly examine what influences farmers’ choice of agroforestry adoption and what discourages the adoption. For this, a total of 288 households were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Two agroforestry practices were compared with conventional agriculture with the help of the Multinomial Logistic Regression (MNL) model. The likelihood of adoption was found to be influenced by gender: the male-headed households were more likely to adopt the tree-based farming practice. Having a source of off-farm income was positively associated with the adoption decision of farmers. Area of farmland was found as the major constraint to agroforestry adoption for smallholder farmers. Some other variables that affected positively included livestock herd size, provision of extension service, home-to-forest distance, farmers’ group membership and awareness of farmers about environmental benefits of agroforestry. Irrigation was another adoption constraint that the study area farmers were faced with. The households with a means of transport and with a larger family (household) size were found to be reluctant regarding agroforestry adoption. A collective farming practice could be a strategy to engage the smallholder farmers in agroforestry.
  • 359
  • 16 Jan 2022
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