Topic Review
Regenerative Treatment for Osteoarthritis Disease
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic debilitating disorder causing pain and gradual degeneration of weight-bearing joints with detrimental effects on cartilage volume as well as cartilage damage, generating inflammation in the joint structure. The etiology of OA is multifactorial. Currently, therapies are mainly addressing the physical and occupational aspects of osteoarthritis using pharmacologic pain treatment and/or surgery to manage the symptomatology of the disease with no specific regard to disease progression or prevention.
  • 645
  • 14 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Cardiothoracic Surgical Critical Care Medicine
Cardiothoracic surgical critical care medicine (CT-CCM) is a medical discipline centered on the perioperative care of diverse groups of patients. With an aging demographic and an increase in burden of chronic diseases the utilization of cardiothoracic surgical critical care units is likely to escalate. Given these projections, it is important to assess the state of cardiothoracic surgical intensive care, to develop goals and objectives for the future, and to identify knowledge gaps in need of scientific inquiry.
  • 637
  • 09 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Helices are the most common secondary structural elements in many functional proteins and have attracted much interest when examining the formation kinetics from a coil structure. Measurements describing the timescale to a helix from a coiled structure have been substantially improved with the availability of spectrophotometers with a dramatically improved time resolution. Early studies showed that helix–coil transitions occur in the 100-nanosecond range with a model helix near room temperature.
  • 634
  • 01 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Adult Abdominal Tuberculosis Diagnosis
Tuberculosis is a common systemic infection with the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is primarily found in the lungs and causes caseous inflammation in lung tissue and other organs. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that spreads via the air. Tuberculosis is an endemic disease in developing countries, due to the wide spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), it might represent a problem in developed countries, as well. Only around one-fifth of patients diagnosed with abdominal TB have pulmonary disease. 
  • 621
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is considered superior to endoscopic mucosal resection as an endoscopic resection because of its higher en bloc resection rate, but it is more difficult to perform. As ESD techniques have become more common, and the range of treatment by ESD has expanded, the number of possible complications has also increased, and endoscopists need to manage them.
  • 615
  • 18 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Classifying Oligometastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents a subset of patients with limited metastatic spread and the potential for achieving long-term survival, or even cure, with LCT to all sites of disease. Patient selection for aggressive local treatment of oligometastatic NSCLC would be facilitated by a common definition of what constitutes oligometastasis. The definition of oligometastasis by LCT treatment feasibility is vague and elusive, particularly in the context of ever-improving local treatment modalities.
  • 613
  • 10 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Nanoscalpel for Cancer Treatment
Magnetomechanical therapy is one of the most promising areas in tumor microsurgery. The nanoscalpel can become a tool sufficient for cancer microsurgery. In order to achieve this, It should meet the following requirements: (1) to be nano- or micro-sized; (2) to have affinity and specificity for targets on tumor cells; (3) to have the ability for remote control. This nano- or microscalpel should include at least two components: (1) a physical nanostructure (particle, disk, plate) capable of converting a magnetic moment into a mechanical moment; and (2) a ligand molecule (antibody, aptamer, etc.) that allows the scalpel to accurately target tumor cells. The most suitable structures for nanoscalpel are anisotropic, magnetic micro- or nanodiscs with high saturation magnetization and no remanent magnetization. This type of material would facilitate remote control of the scalpel through a magnetic field. In addition, anisotropy enhances the transmigration of discs to the tumor. Today, four types of magnetic microdiscs are used for tumor destruction: synthetic antiferromagnetic P-SAF (perpendicular) and SAF (planar), vortex Py and three-layer non-magnetic-ferromagnetic-non-magnetic systems with flat quasi-dipole magnetic structures.
  • 612
  • 25 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Foreign Bodies in the Liver in Children
Retention of foreign bodies (FB) in the liver parenchyma is a rare event in children but it can bring a heavy burden in terms of immediate and long-term complications. Multiple materials can migrate inside the liver. Clinical manifestations may vary, depending on the nature of the foreign body, its route of penetration and timing after the initial event. Moreover, the location of the FB inside the liver parenchyma may pose specific issues related to the possible complications of a challenging surgical extraction. Different clinical settings and the need for highly specialized surgical skills may influence the overall management of these children. 
  • 598
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Preoperative Anemia in Vascular Patients
Anemia is a common condition in preoperative period of peripheral arterial disease patients. Anemia has multifactorial causes, including: iron deficiency; vitamin deficiency and inflammation; and chronic kidney disease. Some retrospective researches demonstrated, that preprocedural anemia is a predictor adverse outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for vascular disease treatment. These outcomes are increase likelihood of: A) transfusion; B) amputation; C) and major adverse cardiovascular events.It is not clear if preoperative anemia optimization with iron and/or erythropoietin, reduce major adverse outcomes in patients submitted to vascular peripheral surgeries. 
  • 591
  • 04 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant form of primary liver cancer, the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and the eighth most frequently diagnosed cancer in women in the United States. It is also the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in developed countries.
  • 586
  • 25 Apr 2021
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