Topic Review
Decarbonization in Shipping Industry
Decarbonization in Shipping Industry might be achieved through alternative fuels (nuclear, hydrogen, ammonia, methanol), renewable energy sources (biofuels, wind, solar), the maturity of technologies (fuel cells, internal combustion engines) as well as technical and operational strategies to reduce fuel consumption for new and existing ships (slow steaming, cleaning and coating, waste heat recovery, hull and propeller design).
  • 1464
  • 29 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Responsive Architecture
Responsive architecture is a type of architecture, an artificial entity, that reacts to data and information collected by a variety of types of sensors. It is also defined as an interactive and collective platform where diverse computing or operating systems are executed, leading to architectural behaviors like changing forms or services.
  • 1094
  • 20 May 2021
Topic Review
Methods for Recycling Heterogenous Catalysts
The rapid separation and efficient recycling of catalysts after a catalytic reaction are considered important requirements along with the high catalytic performances. In this view, although heterogeneous catalysis is generally less efficient if compared to the homogeneous type, it is generally preferred since it benefits from the easy recovery of the catalyst. Recycling of heterogeneous catalysts using traditional methods of separation such as extraction, filtration, vacuum distillation, or centrifugation is tedious and time-consuming. They are uneconomic processes and, hence, they cannot be carried out in the industrial scale.
  • 566
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Materials Science, Glasses
Glasses are solid amorphous materials which transform into liquids upon heating through the glass transition. 
  • 505
  • 27 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Sustainable Housing in Rwanda
Baked clay bricks (Impunyu) is the dominant wall construction material in Rwanda. Clay deposits in the country’s lowlands are utilized for baked clay bricks. Despite the ongoing campaign, the use of wood by some local brick producers is unfriendly to the environment. Recent research has called for alternative methods in order to reduce the cost and impact on the environment. Earlier efforts with compressed earth blocks were saddled with weight and a substantial use of cement for good surface texture and adequate resistance against surface erosion. This research explored the potentials of using an appropriate dose of clay (from Muhanzi), volcanic light aggregate (Amakoro, (from Musanze)), and cement to produce unbaked shelled compressed earth blocks (SCEB). SCEB is a compressed earth block with an outer shell and inner core of different cement content or materials, compressed into a unit block. The result is a masonry unit with a higher surface resistance, durability, and desirable architectural effect produced with a 60% reduction in cement content. A weight reduction of 12% was achieved with an optimum content of 33% of the volcanic lightweight aggregate. A cost reduction of 25% was recorded over conventional compressed earth brick walls and a 54% over sand-cement block walls. Possible future trends were also identified with appreciable prospects in earthen architecture. 
  • 495
  • 29 Jul 2021
Topic Review
PEC Reactors for Water/Wastewater Treatment
Now and in the coming years, how we use and treat water, greywater and wastewater will become more important. A suitably designed photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) reactor is one potential solution. The photoexcitation of suitable semiconducting materials in aqueous environments can lead to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS can inactivate microorganisms and degrade a range of chemical compounds. In the case of heterogeneous photocatalysis, semiconducting materials may suffer from fast recombination of electron–hole pairs and require post-treatment to separate the photocatalyst when a suspension system is used. To reduce recombination and improve the rate of degradation, an externally applied electrical bias can be used where the semiconducting material is immobilised onto an electrically conducive support and connected to a counter electrode. These electrochemically assisted photocatalytic systems have been termed “photoelectrocatalytic” (PEC). The term is stated in the IUPAC Recommendations 2011 as “electrochemically assisted photocatalysis. The role of the photocatalyst is played by a photoelectrode, often a semiconductor”. A short description of photocatalysis is included as it can be beneficial for those unfamiliar with the topic, before moving onto PEC. This entry is adapted from
  • 441
  • 20 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing and Circular Economy
Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a disruptive and powerful tool for industrial systems in the Industry 4.0 era by helping businesses flourish in the contemporary dynamic competitive landscape. However, their achievements and development highly rely on “take-make-waste” linear business models, which come, all too often, to the detriment of the environment. Hence, a shift to Circular Economy (CE) practices promoting the acceleration of the transition to resource-efficient systems and the minimization of environmental degradation is now more imperative than ever. 
  • 405
  • 17 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Odor Removal Technologies
Comparing various methods of odor removal, undoubtedly biological methods of pollution degrada-tion have an advantage over others—chemical and physical. This advantage is manifestedmainly in ecological and economic terms. The possibility of using biological methods to remove H2S and NH3, as the most common emitted by the municipal sector companies, was analyzed in terms of their removal efficiency. The method of bio-purification of air in biotrickling filters is more advan-tageous than the others, due to the high effectiveness of VOCs and odors degradation, lack of secondary pollutants, and economic aspects—it is a method competitive to the commonly used air purification method in biofilters.
  • 402
  • 12 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Modeling Approaches of Biogas Production
Biogas production is a relevant component in renewable energy systems. Model approaches of biogas production show different levels of detail. They can be classified as white, gray, and black box, or bottom-up and top-down approaches. On the one hand, biogas modeling can supply dynamic information on the anaerobic digestion process, e.g., to predict biogas yields or to optimize the anaerobic digestion process. These models are characterized by a bottom-up approach with different levels of detail: the comprehensive ADM1 (white box), simplifications and abstractions of AD models (gray box), or highly simplified process descriptions (black box). On the other hand, biogas production is included in energy system models. These models usually supply aggregated information on regional biogas potentials and greenhouse gas emissions. They are characterized by a top-down approach with a low level of detail. Most energy system models reported in literature are based on black box approaches. Considering the strengths and weaknesses of the integration of detailed and deeply investigated process models in energy system models reveals the opportunity to develop dynamic and fluctuating business models of biogas usage. 
  • 377
  • 29 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Addressing, Assessing and Improving Water Security
Water security is about managing too much, too little and/or too polluted water. Water security is about the increasing importance of sustainable management of water resources, drinking water and human well-being and protection of life and property from water-related disasters. Water security is about the health of ecosystems and economic development.  A groundwork of this broad and multi-faceted concept is presented to facilitate understanding, measuring and improving water security. 
  • 376
  • 25 Jan 2022
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