Topic Review
Essential Trace Elements
Trace elements produce double-edged effects on the lives of animals and particularly of humans. On one hand, these elements represent potentially toxic agents; on the other hand, they are essentially needed to support growth and development and confer protection against disease. The amount taken up and the accumulation in human tissues decisively control whether the exerted effects are toxic or beneficial. This entry provides a brief description of some toxic, likely essential and essential elements and their influence on human health.
  • 2121
  • 20 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Tissues to Implant Abutments
This entry is based on the fact that physical or biomechanical phenomena can cause biologic results. Implant-abutment connection structures determine the stability of soft tissue attachment to abutments. The bone responses to the strain that the stress is converted to, not the stress itself. Some implant-abutment materials and connection designs prevent the marginal bone loss by converting the stress to the strain stimulating bone apposition properly. These biomechanical interpretation of soft tissue seal and bone stimulation should be understood for the clinical long-term success of dental implants.
  • 1201
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Basal Ganglia in Neurometabolic Diseases
Diseases primarily affecting the basal ganglia in children result in characteristic disturbances of movement and muscle tone. Both experimental and clinical evidence indicates that the basal ganglia also play a role in higher mental states. The basal ganglia can be affected by neurometabolic, degenerative diseases or other conditions from which they must be differentiated. Neuroradiological findings in basal ganglia diseases are also known. However, they may be similar in different diseases. Their assessment in children may require repeated MRI examinations depending on the stage of brain development (mainly the level of myelination). A large spectrum of pathological changes in the basal ganglia in many diseases is caused by their vulnerability to metabolic abnormalities and chemical or ischemic trauma. The diagnosis is usually established by correlation of clinical and radiological findings. Neuroimaging of basal ganglia in neurometabolic diseases is helpful in early diagnosis and monitoring of changes for optimal therapy.
  • 1048
  • 20 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Antimicrobial Peptides for Wound Infections
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides (HDPs), are found in bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They typically consist of 10–50 amino acid residues (very rarely up to 100 amino acids) and generally possess cationic (net charge ranging from −4 to +20) and amphipathic structures. 
  • 692
  • 09 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Neuroprotective Effects of Quercetin
Quercetin is a flavonoid compound present in a wide variety of vegetables and fruit, such as onion, asparagus, red leaf lettuce, cilantro, lovage, dill, capers, apples, and berries. Quercetin represents the highest percentage of total flavonoid intake and is the most important component of flavonol subclass, often the base of other flavonoids. Thus, quercetin has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects in several neurodegenerative disorders as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-viral and anti-microbial properties, and cardioprotective and hepatoprotective activities.
  • 563
  • 07 Mar 2021
Topic Review
AI&ML for Medical Sector
This work represents a comprehensive analysis of the potential AI, ML, and IoT technologies for defending against the COVID-19 pandemic. The existing and potential applications of AI, ML, and IoT, along with a detailed analysis of the enabling tools and techniques are outlined. A critical discussion on the risks and limitations of the aforementioned technologies are also included.
  • 518
  • 21 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Discriminative Measurement for Radon Isotopes
Radon and thoron measurement studies have been widely conducted and reported all over the world. Generally, the techniques used relate to the passive nuclear track detectors. Though some surveys shown that passive monitors for radon are sensitive to thoron, and hence the measured results might be probably overestimated the radon concentration. This study investigated the radon and thoron measurement in domestic and international using passive radon-thoron discriminative measuring device, commercially named RADUET. This paper attempts to provide an understanding and evident roadmap for discriminative measurements of radon isotopes.
  • 464
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Mechanotransduction in Skin and Wounds
Skin injury is a common occurrence and mechanical forces are known to significantly impact the biological processes of skin regeneration and wound healing. Immediately following the disruption of the skin, the process of wound healing begins, bringing together numerous cell types to collaborate in several sequential phases. These cells produce a multitude of molecules and initiate multiple signaling pathways that are associated with skin disorders and abnormal wound healing, including hypertrophic scars, keloids, and chronic wounds. Studies have shown that mechanical forces can alter the microenvironment of a healing wound, causing changes in cellular function, motility, and signaling. A better understanding of the mechanobiology of cells in the skin is essential in the development of efficacious therapeutics to reduce skin disorders, normalize abnormal wound healing, and minimize scar formation.
  • 463
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Smart Sanitation
The Toilet Board Coalition defines Smart Sanitation as a way to build resilience in cities, communities and sectors by utilizing Fourth Industrial Revolution technologies to improve the collection and monitoring of wastewater for both individualized and aggregate-level preventative health surveillance. 
  • 432
  • 09 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Obesity with Infertility
A high-fat diet and obesity, the development of which is encouraged by the western lifestyle, can significantly affect male fertility. An inappropriate diet may be directly related to the increase of oxidative stress, but also contribute to the development of obesity, which is associated with the deterioration of fertility, both in terms of generating oxidative stress as well as hormonal or immunological disorders. In obese individuals, disorders on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are observed, as well as elevated oestrogen levels with simultaneous decrease of testosterone, LH and FSH hormone levels. Weight loss in obese men seems to be the first, and the most basic step in the treatment of male infertility.
  • 428
  • 30 Oct 2020
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