Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 4013 2023-08-17 02:56:43 |
2 update references and layout Meta information modification 4013 2023-08-17 04:18:52 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Mohidem, N.A.; Hashim, Z. Integrating Environment with Health. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48145 (accessed on 14 June 2024).
Mohidem NA, Hashim Z. Integrating Environment with Health. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48145. Accessed June 14, 2024.
Mohidem, Nur Adibah, Zailina Hashim. "Integrating Environment with Health" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48145 (accessed June 14, 2024).
Mohidem, N.A., & Hashim, Z. (2023, August 17). Integrating Environment with Health. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48145
Mohidem, Nur Adibah and Zailina Hashim. "Integrating Environment with Health." Encyclopedia. Web. 17 August, 2023.
Integrating Environment with Health
Edit

With the increasing challenge of addressing environmental health issues, various approaches have been proposed to reduce environmental problems. For Muslims all over the world, the Qur’an, Hadith, and Sunnah are recognised as the authoritative messages for spiritual and behavioural guidance on how humans can react to protect the environment and health.

environment health Hadith Islam Sunnah

1. Introduction

The World Health Organization (WHO 2006) defines the environment as “the interwoven complex relationships of physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect human and non-human beings in our behavioural response to those factors”. On the other hand, environmental health is the science and practice of preventing human injury, illness, and promoting well-being by identifying and evaluating environmental sources of hazardous agents as well as limiting exposures. These hazardous physical, chemical, and biological agents in water, air, soil, food, and other environmental settings or media are potentially harmful to human health (NEHA 2013). From the perspective of Islam, the concept of the environment is comprehensive, encompassing air, water, and land as well as their interactions with all living things, including the motivations, emotions, and instincts of human beings (Saputra et al. 2021). Allah created the environment. Its protection and preservation are obligatory, as shown in the verse from the Qur’an. If a man believes that the only reason for protecting the environment is to benefit from it, he may misuse or destroy it (Masoumbeigi et al. 2021). Environmental preservation is a public duty because current and future generations have the right to a protected and preserved environment.
Religion plays a significant part in raising people’s awareness of the environment and the need to maintain sustainability and reduce health impacts. Therefore, contemporary environmental issues continue to play a crucial and prominent role in a wide range of religious discourses. Contemporary theologians of various religions have explained their respective faiths’ previous attitudes towards the environment and accepted their faiths’ responsibilities and complicity in the current environmental crises (Gottlieb 2009). Environmental degradation is a grave offence against the Divine, in addition to posing a planetary threat, economic disaster, and aesthetic blight (Gottlieb 2011). When religions are recognised as strong influences on value systems and beliefs, they influence the decisions, behaviours, and attitudes of individuals and communities towards environmental science and health. This perspective tends to be the reason why reviewing Islamic authoritative texts that correspond to the environment and nature could help in solving the global environmental and health crises.
Islamic education is based on life lessons that can be found in the Qur’an, Hadith, and Sunnah, which include the importance of preserving a healthy environment (Ismail et al. 2021). The goal of Islamic teaching is to encourage the Muslim community and individuals to have good relationships with Allah, other humans, and the universe. When people are capable of maximising their potential, they will continue to be intertwined with the universe. The concept of Rahmatan Lil ‘Alamin is an interpretation of Islamic practice for learning more about environmental health. The community is obligated to uphold cleanliness at all times, beginning with maintaining personal hygiene, as well as keeping the home, workplace, and surrounding environment clean. The environment is a responsibility assigned by Allah to every believer (Masoumbeigi et al. 2021). Hence, it is the responsibility of humans to take care of the environment to which they have been entrusted by Allah.
The Qur’an is considered by Muslims as the Divine’s word and as the spiritual and behavioural authoritative text for Muslims worldwide. It consists of 114 chapters (surahs) and 6236 verses (ayahs) and is deemed to be the primary essence and final authority of the Islamic way of life. Previous studies have discovered that the Qur’an has the potential to promote cardiovascular health, mental health, maternal and child health, dietary patterns and healthy nutrition, as well as environmental related diseases (Taheri and Bakouei 2019; Masruri et al. 2022; Abdekhoda and Ranjbaran 2022; Mir Husseini Niri 2021). The Hadith and Sunnah, which correspond to the Prophet Muhammad’s sayings and deeds, are secondary sources of guidance for Muslims. Many Hadith touch on plants, trees, irrigation, land production, water allocation, irrigation, grains, cattle, hunting, and animal care. The Sunnah also contains a number of important ecological guidelines. Therefore, environmental behaviour with an in-depth understanding of the Qur’an, Hadith, and Sunnah in relation to environmental health and education is needed.

2. Integrating Environmental Health with Islamic Perspective

The term ‘environment’ refers to all of the things and humans that surround each individual. The two environmental dimensions are the natural and social environments (Tan et al. 2022). The natural environment is described as everything in the universe as God’s creation, which includes living and non-living things. The social environment is a group of people who live and interact with one another. Humans may have the same or different cultures, traditions, behaviours, religions, and ways of life. People form relationships with one another in a social environment based on their ideas, needs, and targets, which are guided by values, laws, and roles (Levy et al. 2021). Even though the natural environment is broader than the social environment, they are interconnected in such a way that each has an impact on the other (Scalsky et al. 2022) (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Diagram of the relationship between environmental dimensions.
When it comes to the relationship between environmental balance and sustainability and human well-being and safety, there are growing concerns about the lack of health security. There has been a substantial increase in the number of people looking for solutions to environmental and health risks caused by pollutants and mismanagement of natural resources. There are societal concerns and fears derived from a failure to consider security, prosperity, stability, and tranquillity in this relationship (Muharrem and Olcay Kaplan 2019). One of the solutions is to improve the understanding of the impact of environmental issues on health, which relates to people’s relationship with Allah.
The five dimensions of health are wellness, disease, intellectual health, transcendence, and Qalbe Salim. Intellectual health enables humans to benefit from any situation in life and eventually achieve Qalbe Salim, which is defined as the attainment of ultimate wellness through transcendence and occurs through obedience to Allah’s words. In Qalbe Salim, humans are at their healthiest and most peaceful (Sadat Hoseini 2019). The dichotomy of wellness and disease in the human life cycle leads to intellectual health, with its dimensions of intellect and wisdom leading to transcendence and Qalbe Salim, that is, ultimate wellness (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Diagram of the relationship between health dimensions.
A sufficient understanding of themselves, seeking Allah’s assistance, and adhering to Islamic thought based on the Qur’an, Hadith, and Sunnah are necessary for humans to enjoy a healthy environment. These situations counteract the ignorance, egoism, selfishness, and other negative temptations that contribute to both internal and external environmental degradation. These deeds uproot human greed, arrogance, and extravagance. Therefore, Allah commands people to maintain the earth, protect it from harm, refrain from excess, and safeguard justice. People who know that their actions and environmental degradation factors are at odds with nature have their roots in some of the inner and outer dimensions of the human personality. Then, they will consciously value sustained development and environmental preservation. As a result of their behaviours, their own environmental anomalies will decrease (Masoumbeigi et al. 2021).
Environmental factors that have an impact on a person’s health, quality of life, and way of life are under Allah’s authority. A person who has the most treasured Divine blessing, namely intellect and authority, has a heavy duty and must exercise caution not to use it against Allah’s will. A wise person should show honourable behaviour worthy of the best creature’s dignity by gaining the necessary awareness and changing his or her attitude, that is, by being a protector and lover of environmental health. In Islam, such behaviour is expected of Allah’s obedient and upright servants (Salman and Ahmed 2021).
The Qur’an emphasises the importance of purifying ourselves, as well as practising a healthy lifestyle in a clean environment (Figure 3). There are three types of cleanliness in Islam: (i) purification from impurity (i.e., achieving purity or cleanliness by taking a bath ghusl or performing ablution wudu’ in conditions where a bath or ablution is required or desirable under Islamic Law; (ii) cleaning our body, dress, or surroundings of impurity or filth; and (iii) removing dirt from different parts of the body, including cleaning the teeth and nostrils, nail trimming, as well as armpit and pubic hair removal (Abd Rahim et al. 2018).
Figure 3. Health aspect in relation to the environment, as mentioned in the Qur’an.
Therefore, health and the environment are attributed in such a way that both the social and natural environments affect attainment of Qalbe Salim. The environment can either cause disease or promote a healthy lifestyle. The Qur’an, Hadith, and Sunnah guide human behaviour in terms of environmental conservation and preservation. Three principles made up of unity, balance, and responsibility can be used to describe the attitudes of people towards the environment (Figure 4).
Figure 4. Principles that describe the attitude of people towards the environment.
Firstly, there is the principle of unity. The Qur’an demonstrates that nature is a whole, i.e., a complete system in which the parts support each other. The order and regular operation of the entire natural system are disturbed if even one component is affected (Cutter 2021; Kapsar et al. 2022). About 1300 years prior to the emergence of the academic concept of holism, the Qur’an encouraged a comprehensive perspective of the environment (55:7–8). Nature itself is one. Its components are interrelated to create a whole. Mankind has been provided with all of the resources it requires to survive. He/she has no right to mistreat them and must use them wisely (20:53–54) (Perry 2018). The same principle is synthesised in the 164th verse of Surah Al-Baqarah and in the 10th verse of Surah Ar-Rahman. In order to better understand and respect nature, people have to use its gifts wisely while also learning about its components, processes, and roles (Patil et al. 2022).
Secondly, as the principle of balance, the universe is in perfect balance and proportion at both qualitative and quantitative levels (Llibre 2022). As a consequence, man has a responsibility to protect the environment, which is mentioned in the 40th verse of Surah Al-Hadid. Every element of the universe has a specific purpose, for which man is responsible as a wise user and protector of the environment. Failure to fulfil this responsibility will result in an imbalance (Wiryomartono 2022). The environment in which we live is a network of connections that influence each other in such a way that every imbalance experienced by one has a negative impact on all others. This viewpoint has recently been confirmed by science. Despite the fact that the theory of ecological balance is relatively new, having been introduced in the late 20th century by the United Nations (1997), it is mentioned in numerous verses of the Qur’an (Agboola et al. 2022).
Thirdly, there is the principle of responsibility. Man is not the leader of nature and the universe. Man is the gardener of the earth and he is responsible for his behaviour (Wajda 2017). Man must understand his role as a temporary administrator, a beneficiary rather than an owner of this planet. The Qur’an advocates for the preservation of all natural aspects of the environment in the 6th verse of Surah Sad, stating that humans are not superior to any other species (Febriani and Tamam 2020). The Qur’an makes reference to the close connection between human behaviour and environmental conditions in the 7th Surah Al-ʻAlaq and in the 11th verse of Surah At-Tur. The Qur’an makes it very clear that we should protect the environment and treat it well because we are not its real owners. In addition, the Qur’an forbids the abuse of animals and birds. Man has a responsibility to ensure the welfare of all creations. In other words, the Islamic religion shows a positive attitude toward the environment and natural resources, emphasising development and protection while rejecting all forms of exploitation and destruction (Ramlan 2020). Verse 61 of the Surah Hud discusses preserving and restoring the lands through farming, cultivation, and construction.
Therefore, the right to use natural resources implies humanity’s commitment to preserving them in a sustainable manner, ensuring that future generations will also benefit from them, acknowledge their beauty, and use them to design their homes, all of which must be done in a moderate and compassionate manner. The ideology of Islamic environmentalism is based on environmental protection and conservation of nature (Gulzar et al. 2021; Muhamad et al. 2020). Accordingly, the Islamic approach to environmental health should focus on teaching the concept that the natural environment is neutral and good in and of itself. However, man’s attitude towards natural resources, as well as irresponsible and careless behaviours and attitudes, may result in an unhealthy environment.
The Islamic view on a country’s development recognises economic growth as a way of achieving human happiness and well-being, in which a balance between people’s right to prosperity, community rights to social equity and fairness, the environment, and health is maintained (Bsoul et al. 2022). Therefore, organisations put the idea of “green Islam” into practice by promoting eco-theology and increasing Muslim involvement in sustainable living and environmental management.
Religious organisations such as Ummah for Earth and Islamic Relief Worldwide focus on modern Muslim societies that are committed to protecting the environment and vulnerable communities that align with Islamic tradition. In addition to their role in distributing religious values, the idea of ummah or community also refers to a more resilient future. Everyone would receive the benefits of a clean, liveable planet, thus protecting their health from environmental pollution (Chapra 2016; Petersen 2016). When used to establish and promote environmentally sustainable living, the ummah concept offers a powerful and effective connection-building tool for the Muslim community. The ummah’s goal should be to promote the root causes of environmental protection, environmental literacy, and problem-solving for urgent issues, including environment-related diseases.
Islamic Relief Worldwide is a non-profit development and humanitarian organisation dedicated to assisting and empowering the world’s weakest and most vulnerable people. Along with GreenFaith and the Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Islamic Relief launched the Islamic Declaration on Climate Change (The Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Sciences 2016). It urged Muslim communities to actively participate in local, national, and international climate action. Global Muslim leaders supported the Declaration, which makes the case for environmental protection within the context of the Islamic faith and the role of health.
Islamic faith-based organisations employ a variety of strategies when advocating for the environment, specifically for specified countries. For example, in Indonesia, using the organisational network of pesantrens, schools, and kyais to expand their campaign on eco-theology, these organisations use technologies of power to self-govern. This is reflected in the concept of eco-spiritual governmentality, an initiative that Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama have taken through pre-teaching (dakwah). Muhammadiyah organises a variety of volunteer programmes, such as the establishment of Mubaligh Lingkungan, to educate people about eco-theology (environmental preacher). In order to stop illegal logging and deforestation in Central Java, they have called for a jihad, which is an Arabic term for “struggle” (Dewayanti and Saat 2020). The expression shows a strong desire to put an end to what is thought to be an irresponsible act towards the environmental damage that affects human health.
As a solution, non-religious regulatory and non-regulatory organisations can cooperate with Islamic regulatory organisations to apply coercive Muslim principles or Shariah compliance by implementing environmental health values and practices. For instance, the Green Building Index Organization’s rating can be used as a standard to classify respective organisations as Shariah-compliant (Nasir et al. 2021). With this ruling in place, organisations may be under pressure to achieve GBI accreditation as well as Shariah compliance.

4. Differences between Islamic and Western Views on Environmental Responsibility

In Islam, nature was created for people to study the environment in order to discover God and should be used for their benefit. This viewpoint is an extension of the concept that man has been placed on Earth to serve as God’s representative (Faruqi 2006; Zaidi 1991; Said 1989). The environment can be used to provide food, and its bounty should be distributed equally among communities. All activities that harm mankind and thus destroy the natural balance is prohibited. For example, unnecessarily killing animals or removing vegetation can lead to starvation due to a lack of food. Therefore, Islam holds people responsible for any harm they cause to the planet, so it is important for them to preserve natural resources.
Islam emphasises that environmental protection is the only way to preserve the delicate balance of life and emphasises common interests, in contrast to Western concepts that view it as a reaction to outside factors and the pursuit of particular interests. The main difference between Western and Islamic views is the source of knowledge. The Western view is based on their own ideas and research on the subject, whereas the Islamic view is based on Divine revelation from the Qur’an, Hadith, and Sunnah from the Prophet Muhammad SAW (Nasir et al. 2021). The interaction between man and the environment is accompanied by a powerful desire to please Allah (Aral and López-Sintas 2022). The Qur’anic verses in Figure 5 demonstrate the relationship between nature and man, and this relationship inspires Muslim scholars to explore natural phenomena in order to better understand God (Wersal 1995).
Figure 5. Verses in the Qur’an that mention the whole universe.
After the Scientific Revolution, the Western view was that no footprints of the Divine could be identified in the environment (Peters 2003). Moreover, any similarities that existed between Western and Islamic views were torn apart by the rise of modern science (Nasr 1996). An analysis of the principles of religion and nature by Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1996) found that there was a significant shift that played a central role in the emergence of modern science from the idea of cosmic order and laws created by God.
This situation was applicable to people and the environment because of the idea of ‘the laws of the environment’, which were discovered by people, associated with mathematical laws, and segregated from ethical and spiritual laws. Although later theologians attempted to ‘christianise’ the seventeenth-century scientific concept of the laws of nature, this new idea also eclipsed the earlier Christian understanding of the topic. Surprisingly, such a situation did not occur in other civilisations with long scientific traditions, such as Chinese, Indian, and Islamic civilisations. As a consequence, this situation had implications for the division between the modern West and other civilisations in terms of understanding the order of nature and its religious significance.
Europe appears to have decided to transform mediaeval science, which had been influenced by Islamic scientific traditions. Plato succeeded Aristotle, and mathematics became the new scientific tool. With contributions from Nicholas Copernicus (1473–1543), Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), and Johannes Kepler (1571–1630), mediaeval science ended with the biological sciences and Charles Darwin’s The Origins of Life, which had philosophical implications. According to Koyré (1892–1964), a respected French historian of science (Iqbal 2002), the founders of modern science did not refine or improve what they had inherited, but actually destroyed one world and replaced it with another. They reshaped the intellectual framework, restated and reformed its concepts, and developed an entirely novel approach to concepts of the human being and the environment. The differences between Islamic and Western views on the relationship between man and the environment are presented in Figure 6.
Figure 6. Islamic and Western views on the relationship between man and the environment.
Islamic and Western views are also diverse in terms of society’s institutions or companies. Hence, companies should protect and preserve the environment, even if doing so will affect their own interests. The Islamic view is superior to the Western view, which reflects that companies should protect the environment as part of protecting their environmental interests. These interests vary in the Western view. For instance, companies protect the environment to attract customers, avoid complaints and fines, or generate wealth (Lin 2020; Prisandani 2022).
In terms of environmental preservation, companies have five levels of environmental responsibility (Salem et al. 2012). The first level is irresponsible, which represents an extreme behaviour of a company. In this case, the company shows no regard for the environment. Issues such as fraud, misrepresenting accounting statements, illegal disposal of toxic waste, and false advertisement illustrate irresponsibility by a company. The second level is minimalist, in which companies try to maximise profit and share value. The company complies with the minimum legal requirements. It may also take part in a few environmental activities. The third level is apathetic, in which companies adhere to the required ethical obligations and operate within the law. Doing what is right and avoiding harm can serve as representations of these obligations. Altruistic and philanthropic endeavours, as well as other social and environmental activities, are rarely carried out by the company. If such a company makes no strategic effort to engage in a corporate social responsibility scheme, it is referred to as apathetic. The fourth level is tactical, in which companies voluntarily fulfil their social responsibilities. This is advantageous both in the short- and long-term basis. When a company’s standing is raised, it eventually guarantees long-term profits. The fifth level is taqwa-centric, whereby Islamic values are applied by a company or institution. At this level, companies voluntarily engage in environmental activities, regardless of the financial implications, both positive as well as negative. At this point, religious duty serves as the key driver behind an environmental activity. Profit or company reputation is less significant than this religious obligation. Hence, the Islamic perspective on environmental responsibility is illustrated by this example. It outweighs all other theories (Figure 7).
Figure 7. Environmental responsibility levels.
While traditional corporate legitimacy demonstrates that companies should protect the environment as part of protecting their own interests (a win-win situation), ethical Islamic legitimacy prioritises the environment above other things and highlights public interests over individual interests. There are companies that comply with the five levels of environmental responsibility. For example, the Saudi government has paid SAR 35.5 billion to the owners of expropriated properties to make possible the expansion and modernisation of Makkah’s Grand Mosque, which will better serve over 6 million pilgrims (human beings—the centre of the natural environment) each year (Helfaya et al. 2018). Therefore, people are obligated to protect and preserve the environment, even if doing so jeopardises their specific interests.
One of the objectives of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is to improve the well-being of all stakeholders, including employees, shareholders, depositors, customers, society, and future generations. The mission of “business and khalifah” implies the essential need for companies to instil good CSR practices, such as encouraging good environmental practices, occupational safety, philanthropic contributions, and socially beneficial and harmless activities (Umar et al. 2022). Failure to do so is equivalent to disrespecting and offending Allah’s will, with all of the implications in this world and the Hereafter.
CSR disclosure by Islamic banks is commonly based on eight dimensions, one of which is the environment. For instance, full-fledged local Islamic banks in Malaysia include Bank Islam Malaysia (BIMB), Bank Kerjasama Rakyat Malaysia (BKRM), and Bank Muamalat Malaysia (BMM). The items are as follows: (i) the introduction of a green product glossary/definition of a green product; (ii) investment in a recycling bin project (recycling for nature) and other sustainable development projects; (iii) donations to environmental awareness causes; (iv) financing in any project that may cause environmental damage; (v) investment in sustainable development projects; and (vi) initiatives to mitigate environmental impacts of products and services, and the extent of impact mitigation (Darus et al. 2018).
Although there are differences in environmental responsibility between Western and Islamic theories, similarities exist among them. Paganism, for example, the 7th largest religion according to the UK census, would agree with Islamic theories on protecting the earth. Therefore, cooperation of devotees from these two theories would help to educate communities from various religious backgrounds on the importance of protecting the environment. Awareness programmes should be implemented to increase responsibility for environmental conservation and preservation, which will eventually minimise the impact of environmental degradation on health.

References

  1. World Health Organization. 2006. Preventing Disease through Healthy Environments: Towards an Estimate of the Environmental Burden of Disease. Available online: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/preventingdisease/en/ (accessed on 26 August 2022).
  2. National Environmental Health Association (NEHA). 2013. New perspectives on environmental health: The approval of new definitions. The Journal of Environmental Health 6: 72–73.
  3. Saputra, Ahmad Sarip, Ida Rohmah Susiani, and Nur Syam. 2021. Hifdh Al-Bī ‘ah as part of Maqāṣid Al-Sharī’ah: Yūsuf Al-Qarḍāwy’s perspective on the environment in Ri’āyat al-Bī ‘ah fi Sharī’ah al-Islām book. In AIP Conference Proceedings. Malang: AIP Publishing LLC, vol. 2353, p. 030106.
  4. Masoumbeigi, Hossein, Narjes Malek Mohammadi, Hossein Shamsi Gooshki, Abolfazl Khoshi, Mehdi Mesri, Fathollah Najjarzadegan, Ali Esrafili, Majid Kermani, and Norouz Mahmoudi. 2021. An Approach to the anthropological theory of the qur’an and Hadith and their roles in reducing environmental degradation. International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine 11: 36166.
  5. Gottlieb, Roger S. 2009. The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology. New York: Oxford University Press.
  6. Gottlieb, Roger S. 2011. A Greener Faith: Religious Environmentalism and Our Planet’s Future. New York: Oxford University Press.
  7. Ismail, Wail Muin, Mahfouda Rashid Said AlMushaiqri, and Li Haiyan. 2021. Inclusion of islamic peace concepts in school curricula. Journal of Dharma 46: 501–16.
  8. Taheri, Zainab, and Fatemeh Bakouei. 2019. The Relationship between Mothers’ Empowerment in Breastfeeding with Exclusive Breast Feeding in Infants. Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences 21: 85–92.
  9. Masruri, Muhammad, Faisal Husen Ismail, Arwansyah Kirin, Abdul Qahhar Ibrahim, and Muhammad Misbah. 2022. Reciting the Qur’an and friendship online as a method of post-covid-19 soul and mental care. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 21: 84–99.
  10. Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa, and Fatemeh Ranjbaran. 2022. The Holy Qur’an and Treatment of Mental and Physical Diseases. Pastoral Psychology 71: 423–35.
  11. Mir Husseini Niri, Seyyed Ahmad. 2021. Food Health in the View of Islam. Journal of Nutrition and Food Security 6: 262–71.
  12. Tan, Bo, Hongwei Wang, Xiaoqin Wang, Suyan Yi, Jing Zhou, Chen Ma, and Xinyan Dai. 2022. The study of early human settlement preference and settlement prediction in Xinjiang, China. Scientific Reports 12: 1–18.
  13. Levy, Lynn, Jill Becker-Feigeles, and Lynn Levy. 2021. SWK6100 Human Behavior and the Social Environment (HBSE). Available online: https://repository.yu.edu/handle/20.500.12202/7840 (accessed on 24 August 2022).
  14. Scalsky, Ryan J., Yi-Ju Chen, Zhekang Ying, James A. Perry, and Charles C. Hong. 2022. The Social and Natural Environment’s Impact on SARS-CoV-2 Infections in the UK Biobank. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19: 533.
  15. Muharrem Inc., and Olcay Kaplan Inc. 2019. Hydrocarbon Pollution and its Effect on the Environment. London: BoD—Books on Demand.
  16. Sadat Hoseini, Akram Sadat. 2019. A proposed Islamic nursing conceptual framework (Open Access). Nursing Science Quarterly 32: 49–53.
  17. Salman, Muhammad, and Ishfaq Ahmed. 2021. Transformational Leadership: Mediating Role of Green HRM and Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics. Journal of Management and Research 8: 131–58.
  18. Abd Rahim, Syuhaida Idha, Siti Khurshiah Mohd Mansor, Mohd Asmadi Yakob, and Noraini Ismail. 2018. Food safety, sanitation and personal hygiene in food handling: An overview from Islamic perspective. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) 9: 1524–30.
  19. Cutter, Susan L. 2021. The changing nature of hazard and disaster risk in the Anthropocene. Annals of the American Association of Geographers 111: 819–27.
  20. Kapsar, Kelly, Veronica F. Frans, Lawson W. Brigham, and Jianguo Liu. 2022. The metacoupled Arctic: Human–nature interactions across local to global scales as drivers of sustainability. Ambio 51: 2061–78.
  21. Perry, Damon L. 2018. The Global Muslim Brotherhood in Britain: Non-Violent Islamist Extremism and the Battle of Ideas. London: Routledge.
  22. Patil, Satish V., Bhavana V. Mohite, Kiran R. Marathe, Narendra S. Salunkhe, Vishal Marathe, and Vikas S. Patil. 2022. Moringa Tree, Gift of Nature: A Review on Nutritional and Industrial Potential. Current Pharmacology Reports 8: 262–80.
  23. Llibre, Jaume. 2022. The limit dynamics for the vacuum Einstein equations in a homogeneous universe. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 162: 112490.
  24. Wiryomartono, Bagoes. 2022. Sustainability and the Built Environment: The Search for Ethics Based on Environmental Awareness and Social Responsibility. In Architectural Humanities in Progress. Cham: Springer, pp. 229–44.
  25. Agboola, Phillips O., Festus Victor Bekun, Divine Q. Agozie, and Bright Akwasi Gyamfi. 2022. Environmental sustainability and ecological balance dilemma: Accounting for the role of institutional quality. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 29: 74554–68.
  26. Wajda, Anna Maria. 2017. Out of concern for mother earth: An overview of the biblical background of the encyclical “laudato si’. Verbum Vitae 31: 241–66.
  27. Febriani, Nur Arfiyah, and Badru Tamam. 2020. Society integration for environmental conservation in Qur’anic perspectives. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology 29: 1268–77.
  28. Ramlan, Shazny. 2020. Implementing Islamic law to protect the environment: Insights from Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Asia Pacific Journal of Environmental Law 23: 202–30.
  29. Gulzar, Aadil, Tajamul Islam, Muhammad Anees Khan, and Shiekh Marifatul Haq. 2021. Environmental ethics towards the sustainable development in Islamic perspective: A Brief Review. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 22: 1–10.
  30. Muhamad, Asmawati, Abdul Halim Syihab, and Abdul Halim Ibrahim. 2020. Preserving human–nature’s interaction for sustainability: Qur’an and Sunnah perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 26: 1053–66.
  31. Bsoul, Labeeb, Amani Omer, Lejla Kucukalic, and Ricardo H. Archbol. 2022. Islam’s Perspective on Environmental Sustainability: A Conceptual Analysis. Social Sciences 11: 228.
  32. Chapra, M. Umer. 2016. The Future ofEconomics: An Islamic Perspective. London: Kube Publishing Ltd.
  33. Petersen, Marie Juul. 2016. For Humanity or for the Umma? Aid and Islam in Transnational Muslim NGOs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  34. The Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2016. Islamic declaration on global climate change. International Islamic Climate Change Symposium. Available online: http://islamicclimatedeclaration.org/islamic-declaration-on-global-climate-change/ (accessed on 13 September 2022).
  35. Dewayanti, Aninda, and Norshahril Saat. 2020. Islamic Organizations and Environmentalism in Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute.
  36. Nasir, Norita Mohd, Mahendhiran Sanggaran Nair, and Pervaiz K. Ahmed. 2021. Institutional isomorphism and environmental sustainability: A new framework from the Shariah perspective. Environment, Development and Sustainability 23: 13555–68.
  37. Faruqi, Yasmeen Mahnaz. 2006. Contributions of Islamic scholars to the scientific enterprise. International Education Journal 7: 391–99.
  38. Zaidi, Iqtidar H. 1991. On the Ethics of Man’s Interaction with the Environment: An Islamic Approach. Environmental Ethics 3: 35–47.
  39. Said, Abdul Aziz. 1989. The Paradox of Development in the Middle East. Futures 21: 619–27.
  40. Aral, Öykü H., and Jordi López-Sintas. 2022. Is pro-environmentalism a privilege? Country development factors as moderators of socio-psychological drivers of pro-environmental behavior. Environmental Sociology 8: 211–27.
  41. Wersal, Lisa. 1995. Islam and Environmental Ethics: Traditional Responds to Contemporary Challenges. Zygon 30: 451–59.
  42. Peters, Ted. 2003. Science, Theology, and Ethics. Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate.
  43. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. 1996. Religion and the Order of Nature. New York: Oxford University Press.
  44. Iqbal, Muzaffar. 2002. Islam and Modern Science: Questions at the Interface. In God, Life, and the Cosmos: Christian and Islamic Perspectives. Edited by Ted Peters, Muzaffar Iqbal and Syed Nomanul Haq. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  45. Lin, Tom C. W. 2020. Executive private misconduct. The George Washington Law Review 88: 327.
  46. Prisandani, Ulya Yasmine. 2022. Public companies and sustainability through regulatory reform in Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Studies 80: 32–50.
  47. Salem, Milad Abdelnabi, Norlena Hasnan, and Nor Hasni Osman. 2012. Some Islamic views on environmental responsibility. Dalam IPCBEE 48: 109–13.
  48. Helfaya, Akrum, Amr Kotb, and Rasha Hanafi. 2018. Qur’anic ethics for environmental responsibility: Implications for business practice. Journal of Business Ethics 150: 1105–28.
  49. Umar, Habibu Umar, Mohd Hairul Azrin Besar, and Muhamad Abduh. 2022. Compatibility of the CSR practices of Islamic banks with the United Nations SDGs amidst COVID-19: A documentary evidence. International Journal of Ethics and Systems.
  50. Darus, Faizah, Haslinda Yusoff, Dayang Milianna Abang Naim, Azlan Amran, and Hasan Fauzi. 2018. Corporate social responsibility practices of Malaysian Islamic banks from the Shariah perspective: A focus on the key dimensions. Global Journal Al-Thaqafah 2018: 41–55.
More
Information
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : ,
View Times: 427
Entry Collection: Environmental Sciences
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 17 Aug 2023
1000/1000
Video Production Service