SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused widespread morbidity and mortality since its emergence. The COVID-19 pandemic has become widespread and known as a pathology of the respiratory system, affecting the ciliary epithelium at an early stage. In severe cases, COVID-19 can lead to development of lung disease: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A variety of extrapulmonary symptoms may also occur, including acute renal failure (AKI); acute heart failure; coagulopathy; thromboembolic complications, including stroke and pulmonary embolism; and circulatory shock. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus remains a global public health concern due to the systemic nature of the infection and its long-term consequences, many of which remain to be elucidated. SARS-CoV-2 targets endothelial cells and blood vessels, altering the tissue microenvironment, its secretion, immune-cell subpopulations, the extracellular matrix, and the molecular composition and mechanical properties.
|Microbiome||Changes by COVID-19|
|Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes simplex virus (HSV)||Are reactivated |
|Firmicutes||Significant decrease in microbiome |
|Lactobacillus||Decrease , decrease after menopause |
|L. crispatus, L. iners, L. gasseri, and L. jensenii||Relative abundance was lower |
|Ureaplasma||The amount was higher in women with moderate/severe than with asymptomatic/mild disease ; increase |