Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1133 2023-06-01 00:08:14 |
2 format correct Meta information modification 1133 2023-06-01 04:34:27 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Comanescu, C. Metal Hydrides and Graphene Supports. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/45084 (accessed on 20 June 2024).
Comanescu C. Metal Hydrides and Graphene Supports. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/45084. Accessed June 20, 2024.
Comanescu, Cezar. "Metal Hydrides and Graphene Supports" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/45084 (accessed June 20, 2024).
Comanescu, C. (2023, June 01). Metal Hydrides and Graphene Supports. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/45084
Comanescu, Cezar. "Metal Hydrides and Graphene Supports." Encyclopedia. Web. 01 June, 2023.
Metal Hydrides and Graphene Supports
Edit

Energy production, distribution, and storage remain paramount to a variety of applications that reflect on our daily lives, from renewable energy systems, to electric vehicles and consumer electronics. Hydrogen is the sole element promising high energy, emission-free, and sustainable energy, and metal hydrides in particular have been investigated as promising materials for this purpose. While offering the highest gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacity of all known materials, metal hydrides are plagued by some serious deficiencies, such as poor kinetics, high activation energies that lead to high operating temperatures, poor recyclability, and/or stability, while environmental considerations related to the treatment of end-of-life fuel disposal are also of concern. Graphene is a 2D material with very appealing properties, highlighting its potential use as support for various reactive species, including metals and metal hydrides. By embedding hydride species into graphene supports, valuable nanocomposites can be obtained with direct use for energy storage applications.

graphene energy storage hydrogen metal hydrides composites

1. Metal-Decorated Graphene

An important strategy for tuning graphene for energy storage applications has been to decorate the support with metals or clusters of metals. Among the investigated materials are metallized siligraphene nanosheets (SiG) with varying light metal decorations (Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti) [1], metal-decorated graphene (Li, Na, Mg)/G, DFT study [2], or K in K @ B-substituted G [3]. Given the potential of AlH3 for hydrogen storage, Al-doping has also been explored in Al/G composites [4][5], Aln clusters supported by coronene and graphene G (DFT study) [5], and Al/Si –SLG (SLG, single layer graphene + Si +Al) [6].
Palladium is well known for its high affinity for H2, and many studies have been devoted to the theoretical modelling of this interaction; Pd-decorated N-doped G, DFT study [7]; Pdn @ G (n = 1–4) in BC3 variant [8], and Cu- and Pd-decorated G, DFT study [9]. Titanium and its clusters have also been investigated: Ti3 clusters [10]; Ti4—decorated B/N-doped G [11]; Ti4 & Ni4–doped G nanoplatelets [12]; and Ti–Al subnanoclusters on G [13].
Most reports, however, focus on Mg-doped porous carbonaceous materials, such as Mg@ G flake nanocomposites (H2 generation from H2O) [14], Mg@graphite for comparison purposes [15], Mg@rGO layers [16][17], Mg@Heteroatom–doped G [18], Mg@B–doped G [19], and Mg/defected GO [20]. Additionally, various alloys have also been studied for graphene supports: Mg alloy @rGO–V2O3 [21], rGO–EC@AB5 hybrid material (EC = ethyl cellulose, AB5 = La(Ni0.95Fe0.05)5) (LNF) [22], or MmNi3.55Co0.75Mn0.4Al0.3/G nanoplatelets (Mm denotes mischmetals) [23].

2. Mechanistic Insight and Kinetics of H2…Support Interaction

Pristine graphene can chemically absorb H2 and its theoretical storage capacity is 7.7 wt.%; the hydrogenated graphene (graphane, (CH)n, a sp3 hybridized analog of graphene) releases H2(g) at ~400 °C, with an Ea = 158 kJ/mol (1.64 eV) [24]. While an intriguing material in its pristine form, its thermodynamic parameters make it less feasible for scaling up processes aimed at vehicular applications; however, it is worth noting the similarity of the activation energy deduced for graphane and that of metal hydrides.
The fundamental understanding of the adsorption/desorption mechanism of H2 in graphene is paramount to developing new materials aimed at this task; a pertinent comparison between physisorption and chemisorption on graphene was reported in 2011, where the physical limitations of G (5 wt.% H2 storage) were correlated to the entropy contribution TΔS and the large van der Waals distance between two H2 molecules (0.3 nm), further preventing the increase in gravimetric storage capacity of pristine graphene [25]. The interaction H2…G was studied by DFT in single- and double-vacancy graphene by Wu et al., with direct implications for the behavior of defected graphene during hydrogenation studies [26]. The mechanism of H2 interaction with Al-doped porous graphene has been reported by Ao et al., showing by DFT that Al/G can store up to 10.5 wt.% H2, with a relatively low H2 adsorption energy of −1.11 to −0.41 eV/H2, which would potentially allow hydrogen absorption/desorption near room temperature conditions, in agreement with the findings from the analysis of atomic charges, electronic distribution, and density of states (DOS) of the system [4]. The enhanced interaction was potentially due to the polarization of the adsorbed H2 molecules.
Akilan et al. have studied by DFT the adsorption of H2 molecules on B/N-doped defected (5-8-5, 55-77, 555-777 and 5555-6-7777 defects) graphene sheets [27]. The N-atom addition (donor behavior, n-type semiconductor) increases the delocalized electrons, while the B atoms (acceptor, p-type semiconductor) increase the localized electrons in the considered system. The most efficient adsorption was modelled when the H2 molecule approached the sheet in a perpendicular direction (−80 meV), while the least efficient interaction was observed in a parallel orientation (−9 meV), while the delocalized electron density was higher on the fusion points of the pentagonal and hexagonal rings and would therefore enhance H2 adsorption [27]. Another supporting DFT study of H2 storage on TM-doped defected graphene (TM = transition metal) revealed that in the case of TM = Sc, the 555-777/Sc structure doped with Sc showed the maximum H2 capacity, with H2 binding energies in the range 0.2–0.4 eV/H2 [28].
The advances regarding TM-loaded Mg-based alloys/G have been reviewed recently [29]. A few important points are attributed to graphene: It can inhibit grain growth, thus aiding the overall cyclability of the composite, and it can (co-)catalyze the hydrogenation process, in which the electron transfer between Mg and C plays a key role [29].
The cyclic behavior of metal hydrides can be affected by issues related to grain growth. This can be partly overcome with the formation of G layers encapsulating MgH2 to prevent grain growth [30]. In this report, Lototskyy et al. used various carbon sources (graphite, AC, MWCNTs, etc.) and showed that the formation of graphene sheets during high-energy reactive ball milling in hydrogen (HRBM) is responsible for the encapsulation of MgH2, noting an increase in a/d cycling behavior along with a more reduced size of the MgH2 crystallites (40–125 nm vs. 180 nm in pristine form) [30]. The catalytic role of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) over H2 storage kinetics in Mg has been studied by Ruse et al. [31]. The enhancement of more than an order of magnitude was attributed to GNP properties (size, thickness, defect density, and specific surface area), and these can be further tuned to alter H2 storage kinetics in Mg–GNP nanocomposites [31]. A carbon-neutral, reversible, and sustainable process that produces H2 is the formate-bicarbonate system, where graphene has also served as a support of Pd and Ru metals [32].

3. Manufacturing Techniques

Several techniques have been utilized to introduce metal catalysts into graphene, synthesizing (nano)composites containing graphene and carbonaceous materials [33]. While ball milling and its variants remain a key technique, other options have been explored: Electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembled G/MWCNTs [34], Uranium U-decorated G (H2 and D2 adsorption) [35], and plasma-assisted milling in Mg@FLG composites (few-layer graphene nanosheets) [36]. Given the remarkable properties of 2D graphene on hydride storing materials, the synthesis of 2D MgH2 has also been proposed in DFT studies [37].

References

  1. Naqvi, S.R.; Hussain, T.; Luo, W.; Ahuja, R. Metallized siligraphene nanosheets (SiC7) as high capacity hydrogen storage materials. Nano Res. 2018, 11, 3802–3813.
  2. Aydin, S.; Simsek, M. The enhancement of hydrogen storage capacity in Li, Na and Mg-decorated BC3 graphene by CLICH and RICH algorithms. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2019, 44, 7354–7370.
  3. Tokarev, A.; Avdeenkov, A.V.; Langmi, H.; Bessarabov, D.G. Modeling hydrogen storage in boron-substituted graphene decorated with potassium metal atoms. Int. J. Energy Res. 2015, 39, 524–528.
  4. Ao, Z.M.; Dou, S.X.; Xu, Z.M.; Jiang, Q.G.; Wang, G.X. Hydrogen storage in porous graphene with Al decoration. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2014, 39, 16244–16251.
  5. Costanzo, F.; van Hemert, M.C.; Kroes, G.J. Promoting Effect of Carbon Surfaces on H-2 Dissociation on Al-n Clusters by First Principles Calculations. J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118, 513–522.
  6. Zhang, Y.; Cui, H.; Tian, W.Z.; Liu, T.; Wang, Y.Z. Effect of hydrogen adsorption Energy on the electronic and optical properties of Si-modified single-layer graphene with an Al decoration. AIP Adv. 2020, 10, 045012.
  7. Bakhshi, F.; Farhadian, N. Improvement of hydrogen storage capacity on the palladium-decorated N-doped graphene sheets as a novel adsorbent: A hybrid MD-GCMC simulation study. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2019, 44, 13655–13665.
  8. Ramos-Castillo, C.M.; Reveles, J.U.; Zope, R.R.; de Coss, R. Palladium Clusters Supported on Graphene Monovacancies for Hydrogen Storage. J. Phys. Chem. C 2015, 119, 8402–8409.
  9. Choudhary, A.; Malakkal, L.; Siripurapu, R.K.; Szpunar, B.; Szpunar, J. First principles calculations of hydrogen storage on Cu and Pd-decorated graphene. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2016, 41, 17652–17656.
  10. Bora, P.L.; Ahmad, R.; Singh, A.K. Remarkable enhancement in hydrogen storage on free-standing Ti3B and BC3 supported Ti-3 clusters. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2015, 40, 1054–1061.
  11. Intayot, R.; Rungnim, C.; Namuangruk, S.; Yodsin, N.; Jungsuttiwong, S. Ti-4-Decorated B/N-doped graphene as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material: A DFT study. Dalton Trans. 2021, 50, 11398–11411.
  12. Ramos-Castillo, C.M.; Reveles, J.U.; Cifuentes-Quintal, M.E.; Zope, R.R.; de Coss, R. Ti-4- and Ni-4-Doped Defective Graphene Nanoplatelets as Efficient Materials for Hydrogen Storage. J. Phys. Chem. C 2016, 120, 5001–5009.
  13. Ramos-Castillo, C.M.; Reveles, J.U.; Cifuentes-Quintal, M.E.; Zope, R.R.; de Coss, R. Hydrogen storage in bimetallic Ti-Al sub-nanoclusters supported on graphene. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2017, 19, 21174–21184.
  14. Bartali, R.; Speranza, G.; Aguey-Zinsou, K.F.; Testi, M.; Micheli, V.; Canteri, R.; Fedrizzi, M.; Gottardi, G.; Coser, G.; Crema, L.; et al. Efficient hydrogen generation from water using nanocomposite flakes based on graphene and magnesium. Sustain. Energy Fuels 2018, 2, 2516–2525.
  15. Bouaricha, S.; Dodelet, J.P.; Guay, D.; Huot, J.; Schulz, R. Study of the activation process of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials modified by graphite and other carbonaceous compounds. J. Mater. Res. 2001, 16, 2893–2905.
  16. Cho, E.S.; Ruminski, A.M.; Liu, Y.S.; Shea, P.T.; Kang, S.Y.; Zaia, E.W.; Park, J.Y.; Chuang, Y.D.; Yuk, J.M.; Zhou, X.W.; et al. Hierarchically Controlled Inside-Out Doping of Mg Nanocomposites for Moderate Temperature Hydrogen Storage. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2017, 27, 1704316.
  17. Dun, C.; Jeong, S.; Kwon, D.H.; Kang, S.; Stavila, V.; Zhang, Z.L.; Lee, J.W.; Mattox, T.M.; Heo, T.W.; Wood, B.C.; et al. Hydrogen Storage Performance of Preferentially Oriented Mg/rGO Hybrids. Chem. Mater. 2022, 34, 2963–2971.
  18. Cho, Y.; Kang, S.; Wood, B.C.; Cho, E.S. Heteroatom-Doped Graphenes as Actively Interacting 2D Encapsulation Media for Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 20823–20834.
  19. Dong, S.; Lv, E.F.; Wang, J.H.; Li, C.Q.; Ma, K.; Gao, Z.Y.; Yang, W.J.; Ding, Z.; Wu, C.C.; Gates, I.D. Construction of transition metal-decorated boron doped twin-graphene for hydrogen storage: A theoretical prediction. Fuel 2021, 304, 121351.
  20. Han, D.J.; Kim, S.; Cho, E.S. Revealing the role of defects in graphene oxide in the evolution of magnesium nanocrystals and the resulting effects on hydrogen storage. J. Mater. Chem. A 2021, 9, 9875–9881.
  21. Du, J.Q.; Lan, Z.Q.; Zhang, H.; Lu, S.X.; Liu, H.Z.; Guo, J. Catalytic enhanced hydrogen storage properties of Mg-based alloy by the addition of reduced graphene oxide supported V2O3 nanocomposite. J. Alloys Compd. 2019, 802, 660–667.
  22. Bhatnagar, A.; Gupta, B.K.; Tripathi, P.; Veziroglu, A.; Hudson, M.S.L.; Abu Shaz, M.; Srivastava, O.N. Development and Demonstration of Air Stable (5) Type Hydrogenated Intermetallic Hybrid for Hydrogen Fuelled Devices. Adv. Sustain. Syst. 2017, 1, 1700087.
  23. Cui, R.C.; Yang, C.C.; Li, M.M.; Jin, B.; Ding, X.D.; Jiang, Q. Enhanced high-rate performance of ball-milled MmNi(3.55)Co(0.75)Mn(0.4)Al(0.3) hydrogen storage alloys with graphene nanoplatelets. J. Alloys Compd. 2017, 693, 126–131.
  24. Morse, J.R.; Zugell, D.A.; Patterson, E.; Baldwin, J.W.; Willauer, H.D. Hydrogenated graphene: Important material properties regarding its application for hydrogen storage. J. Power Sources 2021, 494, 229734.
  25. Ding, F.; Yakobson, B.I. Challenges in hydrogen adsorptions: From physisorption to chemisorption. Front. Phys. 2011, 6, 142–150.
  26. Wu, X.J.; Fei, Z.J.; Liu, W.G.; Tan, J.; Wang, G.H.; Xia, D.Q.; Deng, K.; Chen, X.K.; Xiao, D.T.; Wu, S.W.; et al. Adsorption and desorption of hydrogen on/from single-vacancy and double-vacancy graphenes. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 2019, 30, 69.
  27. Akilan, R.; Vinnarasi, S.; Mohanapriya, S.; Shankar, R. Adsorption of H(2)molecules on B/N-doped defected graphene sheets—A DFT study. Struct. Chem. 2020, 31, 2413–2434.
  28. Lotfi, R.; Saboohi, Y. A comparative study on hydrogen interaction with defective graphene structures doped by transition metals. Phys. E 2014, 60, 104–111.
  29. Feng, D.C.; Zhou, D.S.; Zhao, Z.Y.; Zhai, T.T.; Yuan, Z.M.; Sun, H.; Ren, H.P.; Zhang, Y.H. Progress of graphene and loaded transition metals on Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2021, 46, 33468–33485.
  30. Lototskyy, M.; Sibanyoni, J.M.; Denys, R.V.; Williams, M.; Pollet, B.G.; Yartys, V.A. Magnesium-carbon hydrogen storage hybrid materials produced by reactive ball milling in hydrogen. Carbon 2013, 57, 146–160.
  31. Ruse, E.; Buzaglo, M.; Pri-Bar, I.; Shunak, L.; Nadiv, R.; Pevzner, S.; Siton-Mendelson, O.; Skripnyuk, V.M.; Rabkin, E.; Regev, O. Hydrogen storage kinetics: The graphene nanoplatelet size effect. Carbon 2018, 130, 369–376.
  32. Bahuguna, A.; Sasson, Y. Formate-Bicarbonate Cycle as a Vehicle for Hydrogen and Energy Storage. Chemsuschem 2021, 14, 1258–1283.
  33. Free, Z.; Hernandez, M.; Mashal, M.; Mondal, K. A Review on Advanced Manufacturing for Hydrogen Storage Applications. Energies 2021, 14, 8513.
  34. Gupta, S.; Heintzman, E.; Price, C. Electrostatic Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembled Graphene/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Multilayers as Efficient ‘All Carbon’ Supercapacitors. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2016, 16, 4771–4782.
  35. Ghalami, Z.; Ghoulipour, V.; Khanchi, A. Hydrogen and deuterium adsorption on uranium decorated graphene nanosheets: A combined molecular dynamics and density functional theory study. Curr. Appl. Phys. 2019, 19, 536–541.
  36. Lang, C.G.; Ouyang, L.Z.; Yang, L.L.; Dai, L.Y.; Wu, D.F.; Shao, H.Y.; Zhu, M. Enhanced hydrogen storage kinetics in composite synthesized by plasma assisted milling. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2018, 43, 17346–17352.
  37. Lee, J.; Sung, D.; Chung, Y.K.; Bin Song, S.; Huh, J. Unveiling two-dimensional magnesium hydride as a hydrogen storage material via a generative adversarial network. Nanoscale Adv. 2022, 4, 2332–2338.
More
Information
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register :
View Times: 524
Entry Collection: Chemical Bond
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 01 Jun 2023
1000/1000
Video Production Service