Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1243 2023-02-16 06:33:04 |
2 layout & references Meta information modification 1243 2023-02-17 01:22:33 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Zondervan, N.A.; Tolentino-Zondervan, F.; Moeke, D. Logistics Innovations in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/41271 (accessed on 24 June 2024).
Zondervan NA, Tolentino-Zondervan F, Moeke D. Logistics Innovations in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/41271. Accessed June 24, 2024.
Zondervan, Niels A., Frazen Tolentino-Zondervan, Dennis Moeke. "Logistics Innovations in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/41271 (accessed June 24, 2024).
Zondervan, N.A., Tolentino-Zondervan, F., & Moeke, D. (2023, February 16). Logistics Innovations in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/41271
Zondervan, Niels A., et al. "Logistics Innovations in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic." Encyclopedia. Web. 16 February, 2023.
Logistics Innovations in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic
Edit

The disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have forced many companies in the logistics sector to innovate, or even transform their business and underlying processes. Closing borders, limited supply and manpower, and continuous changes in regulations challenged many logistics firms to innovate. 

COVID-19 digitalization logistics resiliency sustainability

1. Introduction

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought huge disruptions and challenges to supply chains, affecting many industries worldwide. For instance, in various countries, healthcare systems have been under extreme levels of stress due to the capacity issues such as shortage in personnel, equipment, and space in hospitals and the poor governance of infections [1][2][3]. Many airlines suffered huge losses and bankruptcies because of increased travel restrictions and uncertainties posed by changing regulations [4]. Recreational industries such as restaurants, hotels, and gyms were also hit by huge losses due to implemented lockdowns to curb the spread of infections [5].
The logistics sector is also experiencing risks and challenges brought by COVID-19 pandemic. Crossing border of goods became much more complex due to imposed lockdowns at national and international levels, hampering logistics operations and causing delays in delivery of goods. A decline and shortage of logistics service providers (LSPs) for transporting goods were also observed, especially at the beginning of the pandemic [6]. Many manufacturing companies were forced to close plants due to government regulations, thereby reducing the supply of goods. Other companies shifted their focus on manufacturing in-demand products during COVID-19. In the global logistics transportation alone, the value of losses in revenue due to COVID-19 pandemic is estimated to be 1.1 trillion euros in 2020 [7].
The COVID-19 pandemic has also affected, both positively and negatively, the adoption of innovation in the logistics sector. On the one hand, authors have argued that the COVID-19 pandemic sped up the transformation and innovation in the logistics sector, e.g., [8][9][10][11]. Online businesses blossom since the start of the pandemic and lead to increased need for innovations in logistics to deliver goods to consumers [8]. Companies have also recognized the need to adopt robust and resilient supply chains and logistics by making them smart, digitalized, and sustainable during the COVID-19 pandemic [9][10]. For example, in airline industries, COVID-19 led to innovations such as the utilization of touchless technologies at airports, the use of ultraviolet light (UV) for disinfecting aircrafts, and the use of biometrics to accelerate check-in processes [11]. COVID-19 is also reported as a main driver behind the adoption of digitalized and data-driven solutions in LSPs [6]. On the other hand, some authors reported that many logistics companies still struggle to innovate mainly due to the obstacles brought by COVID-19, e.g., [12][13]. Even though many EU countries have adopted the use of digital freight documents during the pandemic, a few countries have not yet switched to digital freight documents, causing bottlenecks in the operational processes of the LSP sector [6]. For Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), their capacity to innovate has been limited due to their size, ownership structure, and vulnerability to external shocks such as the pandemic [13].

2. Logistics Innovations in Response to COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed the vulnerability of many businesses that rely on traditional way of operating [11]. This enhanced the demand for business innovations to cope with the challenges brought by the COVID-19 pandemic. Innovations are not only related to the introduction of new products such as goods or services to the market, but also to the improvements and advancements in the business processes, procedures, and routines [14]. However, there are opposing views when it comes to the response of firms to innovation during a crisis. Some studies argue that hardships and crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, incentivize companies to innovate to cope with the shocks and effects of the crisis [11][14]. Other studies suggest that crises reduce and discourage firms to invest in innovations as many innovation activities become unsustainable [12][15]
Innovations play an important role in keeping supply chains and the underlying logistics processes viable, especially in times of disruptive events such as COVID-19 pandemic. As defined by Ivanov and Dolgui [16], viability is the ability of the system to cope with demands of surviving in a changing environment. Viability is an important aspect for businesses to survive, avoid market collapses, and secure provision with goods and services [16].
Resiliency, sustainability, and digitalization are key concepts towards viable supply chains and logistics [9]. These key concepts have emerged through time and have been individually studied by scholars. The COVID-19 pandemic period demonstrated that the (potential) added value of these key concepts should be considered in conjunction. Figure 1 shows the evolution of these concepts and the ways in which it leads to the development of smart logistics and supply chains. Ivanov [9] argued that logistics and supply chain viability can only be achieved by approaching the resiliency, sustainability, and digitalization at an holistic perspective and not individually. The concepts of resiliency, sustainability, and digitalization found in Figure 1 are used to analyze the trends and innovations in logistics before and after the onset of COVID-19 pandemic. The remainder of this section elaborates these concepts.
Figure 1. The evolution of the three key concepts based on Ivanov [9].
Resiliency refers to the ability of an entity to adapt to both positive and negative shocks and disruptions caused by both internal and external environments [17]. The first studies on resiliency in the context of supply chains and logistics, which are still of relevance today, date back to the early 2000s [9][18][19]. The resiliency of the chain relates to visibility, managing risks, and reducing the complexity of networks [20].
The resiliency of supply chains and logistics processes can be enhanced via sustainability strategies. Sustainability plays an important role in reducing the environmental impacts of commercialization and industrialization and in reducing inefficiencies and wastes in the operation. The era of sustainability in supply chains and logistics started around 2010 [9]. The early focus on sustainability revolves around three themes, namely reverse logistics, emission assessment and the greening of logistical activities and supply chains [21]. Specific examples under these sustainability themes include reduced CO2 emissions of freight and transport companies, using green packaging, bundling goods, optimizing routes, using spaces more efficiently and reducing wastes in processes [22]. As the definition of sustainability continues to evolve, the social and economic aspect of sustainability also began to be incorporated in the study of sustainability in relation to supply chains and logistics [23]. Social topics include the incorporation of corporate social responsibility such as fair trade and wages, good employment practices, good working conditions, and responsible relationships with suppliers and customers. Economic aspects include the maximization of shareholder wealth or value while taking into consideration the environmental and social values.
Digitalization has also been linked to transforming supply chains and logistics towards a more sustainable and resilient state than before [24]. The availability of digital solutions, data and computing powers makes it possible to model and analyze logistics in an integrated and more detailed manner. Specifically, digitalization has potential impact to reduce CO2 emissions from logistics, empty drives, fuel consumption and number of vehicles to deliver goods to consumers [24][25]. Although digitalization has been an ongoing topic for decades, the era of digitalization that includes Industry 4.0 and Data Analytics only started to dominate the field of supply chain and logistics since the beginning of 2015 [26][27]. Digitalization in logistics includes implementation of new information technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT), blockchain, simulation, sensors and the use of generated data to make logistics smart [28]. The advantages of digitalization in logistics include but are not limited to real-time and full transparency of information across the supply chain, decentralized and interconnected processes, and self-governing management that includes automation [25].

References

  1. Sun, S.; Xie, Z.; Yu, K.; Jiang, B.; Zheng, S.; Pan, X. COVID-19 and healthcare system in China: Challenges and progression for a sustainable future. Glob. Health 2021, 17, 14.
  2. Alajmi, J.; Jeremijenko, A.M.; Abraham, J.C.; Alishaq, M.; Concepcion, E.G.; Butt, A.A.; Abou-Samra, A.-B. COVID-19 infection among healthcare workers in a national healthcare system: The Qatar experience. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 2020, 100, 386–389.
  3. Al-Zaman, M.S. Healthcare Crisis in Bangladesh during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2020, 103, 1357–1359.
  4. Olaganathan, R. Impact of COVID-19 on airline industry and strategic plan for its recovery with special reference to data analytics technology. Glob. J. Eng. Technol. Adv. 2021, 07, 033–046.
  5. Roy, S.; Dutta, R.; Ghosh, P. Recreational and philanthropic sectors are the worst-hit US industries in the COVID-19 aftermath. Soc. Sci. Humanit. Open 2021, 3, 100098.
  6. Herold, D.M.; Nowicka, K.; Pluta-Zaremba, A.; Kummer, S. COVID-19 and the pursuit of supply chain resilience: Reactions and ‘lessons learned’ from logistics service providers (LSPs). Supply Chain Manag. An Int. J. 2021, 26, 702–714.
  7. Placek, M. Projected Revenue Losses in the Road Transport Industry Due to the Coronavirus Pandemic in 2020 and 2021, by Type. 2022. Available online: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1288530/road-transport-industry-revenue-loss-covid-19/ (accessed on 10 May 2022).
  8. Choi, T.-M. Risk analysis in logistics systems: A research agenda during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Transp. Res. Part E Logist. Transp. Rev. 2021, 145, 102190.
  9. Ivanov, D. Viable supply chain model: Integrating agility, resilience and sustainability perspectives—Lessons from and thinking beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Ann. Oper. Res. 2020.
  10. Anser, M.K.; Khan, M.A.; Nassani, A.A.; Abro, M.M.Q.; Zaman, K.; Kabbani, A. Does COVID-19 pandemic disrupt sustainable supply chain process? Covering some new global facts. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2021, 28, 59792–59804.
  11. Amankwah-Amoah, J. COVID-19 pandemic and innovation activities in the global airline industry: A review. Environ. Int. 2021, 156, 106719.
  12. Klein, M.; Gutowska, E.; Gutowski, P. Innovations in the T&L (Transport and Logistics) Sector during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Sweden, Germany and Poland. Sustainability 2022, 14, 3323.
  13. Juergensen, J.; Guimón, J.; Narula, R. European SMEs amidst the COVID-19 crisis: Assessing impact and policy responses. J. Ind. Bus. Econ. 2020, 47, 499–510.
  14. Heinonen, K.; Strandvik, T. Reframing service innovation: COVID-19 as a catalyst for imposed service innovation. J. Serv. Manag. 2020, 32, 101–112.
  15. Archibugi, D.; Filippetti, A.; Frenz, M. The impact of the economic crisis on innovation: Evidence from Europe. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2013, 80, 1247–1260.
  16. Ivanov, D.; Dolgui, A. Viability of intertwined supply networks: Extending the supply chain resilience angles towards survivability. A position paper motivated by COVID-19 outbreak. Int. J. Prod. Res. 2020, 58, 2904–2915.
  17. Mensah, P.; Merkuryev, Y. Developing a resilient supply chain. Procedia-Soc. Behav. Sci. 2014, 110, 309–319.
  18. Carvalho, H.; Azevedo, S.G.; Cruz-Machado, V. Agile and resilient approaches to supply chain management: Influence on performance and competitiveness. Logist. Res. 2012, 4, 49–62.
  19. Blackhurst, J.; Dunn, K.S.; Craighead, C.W. An Empirically Derived Framework of Global Supply Resiliency. J. Bus. Logist. 2011, 32, 374–391.
  20. Durach, C.F.; Wieland, A.; Machuca, J.A.D. Antecedents and dimensions of supply chain robustness: A systematic literature review. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logist. Manag. 2014, 45, 118–137.
  21. Abukhader, S.M.; Jönson, G. Logistics and the environment: Is it an established subject? Int. J. Logist. Res. Appl. 2004, 7, 137–149.
  22. McKinnon, A.; Browne, M.; Whiteing, A.; Piecyk, M. Green Logistics: Improving the Environmental Sustainability of Logistics; Kogan Page Publishers: London, UK, 2015.
  23. Grant, D.B.; Trautrims, A.; Wong, C.Y. Sustainable Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 2nd ed.; Kogan Page Publishers: New York, NY, USA, 2017; Available online: http://dspace.vnbrims.org:13000/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/4171/Sustainable%20Logistics%20and%20Supply%20Chain%20Management%20Principles%20and%20Practices%20for%20Sustainable%20Operations%20and%20Management.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed on 20 January 2022).
  24. Jahn, C.; Kersten, W.; Ringle, C.M. Digitalization in Maritime and Sustainable Logistics: City Logistics, Port Logistics and Sustainable Supply Chain Management in the Digital Age; epubli GmbH: Berlin, Germany, 2017.
  25. Kayikci, Y. Sustainability impact of digitization in logistics. Procedia Manuf. 2018, 21, 782–789.
  26. Herold, D.M.; Ćwiklicki, M.; Pilch, K.; Mikl, J. The emergence and adoption of digitalization in the logistics and supply chain industry: An institutional perspective. J. Enterp. Inf. Manag. 2021, 34, 1917–1938.
  27. Stank, T.; Esper, T.; Goldsby, T.J.; Zinn, W.; Autry, C. Toward a Digitally Dominant Paradigm for twenty-first century supply chain scholarship. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logist. Manag. 2019, 49, 956–971.
  28. Maslarić, M.; Nikoličić, S.; Mirčetić, D. Logistics Response to the Industry 4.0: The Physical Internet. Open Eng. 2016, 6, 511–517.
More
Information
Subjects: Management
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , ,
View Times: 634
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 17 Feb 2023
1000/1000
Video Production Service