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HandWiki. List of Messier Objects. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/38079 (accessed on 24 April 2024).
HandWiki. List of Messier Objects. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/38079. Accessed April 24, 2024.
HandWiki. "List of Messier Objects" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/38079 (accessed April 24, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, December 06). List of Messier Objects. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/38079
HandWiki. "List of Messier Objects." Encyclopedia. Web. 06 December, 2022.
List of Messier Objects
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The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects catalogued by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his "Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles" ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters"). A preliminary version first appeared in Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771, and the last item was added in 1966 by Kenneth Glyn Jones, based on Messier's observations. The first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. In addition to his own discoveries, this version included objects previously observed by other astronomers, with only 17 of the 45 objects being Messier’s. By 1780 the catalog had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784. However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list up to 110 objects. The catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, ranging from star clusters, nebula and galaxies. Messier 1 is the supernova remnant of Crab Nebula and the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M 31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier’s side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967. Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.

supernova remnant d'étoiles nébuleuses

1. Messier Objects

  Open cluster   Globular cluster   Nebula   Planetary nebula   Supernova remnant   Galaxy   Other

Messier number NGC/IC Number Common name Object type Distance (kly) Constellation Apparent magnitude Right Ascension Declination
M1[1] NGC 1952 Crab Nebula Supernova remnant 4.9–8.1 Taurus 8.4 05h 34m 31.94s +22° 00′ 52.2″
M2[2] NGC 7089   Cluster, globular 33 Aquarius 6.3 21h 33m 27.02s −00° 49′ 23.7″
M3[3] NGC 5272   Cluster, globular 33.9 Canes Venatici 6.2 13h 42m 11.62s +28° 22′ 38.2″
M4[4] NGC 6121   Cluster, globular 7.2 Scorpius 5.9 16h 23m 35.22s −26° 31′ 32.7″
M5[5] NGC 5904   Cluster, globular 24.5 Serpens 6.7 15h 18m 33.22s +02° 04′ 51.7″
M6[6] NGC 6405 Butterfly Cluster Cluster, open 1.6 Scorpius 4.2 17h 40.1m −32° 13′
M7[7] NGC 6475 Ptolemy Cluster Cluster, open 0.65–1.31 Scorpius 3.3 17h 53m 51.2s −34° 47′ 34″
M8[8] NGC 6523 Lagoon Nebula Nebula with cluster 4.1 Sagittarius 6.0 18h 03m 37s −24° 23′ 12″
M9[9] NGC 6333   Cluster, globular 25.8 Ophiuchus 8.4 17h 19m 11.78s −18° 30′ 58.5″
M10[10] NGC 6254   Cluster, globular 14.3 Ophiuchus 6.4 16h 57m 8.92s −04° 05′ 58.07″
M11[11] NGC 6705 Wild Duck Cluster Cluster, open 6.2 Scutum 6.3 18h 51.1m −06° 16′
M12[12] NGC 6218   Cluster, globular 15.7 Ophiuchus 7.7 16h 47m 14.18s −01° 56′ 54.7″
M13[13] NGC 6205 Great Globular Cluster in Hercules Cluster, globular 22.2 Hercules 5.8 16h 41m 41.24s +36° 27′ 35.5″
M14[14] NGC 6402   Cluster, globular 30.3 Ophiuchus 8.3 17h 37m 36.15s −03° 14′ 45.3″
M15[15] NGC 7078   Cluster, globular 33 Pegasus 6.2 21h 29m 58.33s +12° 10′ 01.2″
M16[16] NGC 6611 Eagle Nebula Nebula, H II region with cluster 7 Serpens 6.0 18h 18m 48s −13° 49′
M17[17] NGC 6618 Omega, Swan, Horseshoe, or Lobster Nebula Nebula, H II region with cluster 5–6 Sagittarius 6.0 18h 20m 26s −16° 10′ 36″
M18[18] NGC 6613   Cluster, open 4.9 Sagittarius 7.5 18h 19.9m −17° 08′
M19[19] NGC 6273   Cluster, globular 28.7 Ophiuchus 7.5 17h 02m 37.69s −26° 16′ 04.6″
M20[20] NGC 6514 Trifid Nebula Nebula, H II region with cluster 5.2 Sagittarius 6.3 18h 02m 23s −23° 01′ 48″
M21[21] NGC 6531   Cluster, open 4.25 Sagittarius 6.5 18h 04.6m −22° 30′
M22[22] NGC 6656 Sagittarius Cluster Cluster, globular 9.6–11.6 Sagittarius 5.1 18h 36m 23.94s −23° 54′ 17.1″
M23[23] NGC 6494   Cluster, open 2.15 Sagittarius 6.9 17h 56.8m −19° 01′
M24[24] IC 4715 Sagittarius Star Cloud Milky Way star cloud ~10 Sagittarius 4.6 18h 17m −18° 29′
M25[25] IC 4725   Cluster, open 2.0 Sagittarius 4.6 18h 31.6m −19° 15′
M26[26] NGC 6694   Cluster, open 5.0 Scutum 8.0 18h 45.2m −09° 24′
M27[27] NGC 6853 Dumbbell Nebula Nebula, planetary 1.148–1.52 Vulpecula 7.5 19h 59m 36.340s +22° 43′ 16.09″
M28[28] NGC 6626   Cluster, globular 17.9 Sagittarius 7.7 18h 24m 32.89s −24° 52′ 11.4″
M29[29] NGC 6913 Cooling Tower Cluster, open 7.2 Cygnus 7.1 20h 23m 56s +38° 31′ 24″
M30[30] NGC 7099   Cluster, globular 27.8–31 Capricornus 7.7 21h 40m 22.12 −23° 10′ 47.5″
M31[31] NGC 224 Andromeda Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 2,430–2,650 Andromeda 3.4 00h 42m 44.3s +41° 16′ 9″
M32[32] NGC 221   Galaxy, dwarf elliptical 2,410–2,570 Andromeda 8.1 00h 42m 41.8s +40° 51′ 55″
M33[33] NGC 598 Triangulum Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 2,380–3,070 Triangulum 5.7 01h 33m 50.02s +30° 39′ 36.7″
M34[34] NGC 1039   Cluster, open 1.5 Perseus 5.5 02h 42.1m +42° 46′
M35[35] NGC 2168   Cluster, open 2.8 Gemini 5.3 06h 09.1m +24° 21′
M36[36] NGC 1960   Cluster, open 4.1 Auriga 6.3 05h 36m 12s +34° 08′ 4″
M37[37] NGC 2099   Cluster, open 4.511 Auriga 6.2 05h 52m 18s +32° 33′ 02″
M38[38] NGC 1912   Cluster, open 4.2 Auriga 7.4 05h 28m 42s +35° 51′ 18″
M39[39] NGC 7092   Cluster, open 0.8244 Cygnus 5.5 21h 31m 42s +48° 25′ ″
M40[40]   Winnecke 4 Double star WNC4 0.51 Ursa Major 9.7 12h 22m 12.5s +58° 4' 59"
M41[41] NGC 2287   Cluster, open 2.3 Canis Major 4.5 06h 46.0m −20° 46′
M42[42] NGC 1976 Orion Nebula Nebula, H II region 1.324–1.364 Orion 4.0 05h 35m 17.3 −05° 23′ 28″
M43[43] NGC 1982 De Mairan's Nebula Nebula, H II region
(part of the Orion Nebula)
1.6 Orion 9.0 05h 35.6m −05° 16′
M44[44] NGC 2632 Beehive Cluster Cluster, open 0.577 Cancer 3.7 08h 40.4m +19° 59′
M45[45]   Pleiades Cluster, open 0.39–0.46 Taurus 1.6 03h 47m 24s +24° 07′ 00″
M46[46] NGC 2437   Cluster, open 5.4 Puppis 6.1 07h 41.8m −14° 49′
M47[47] NGC 2422   Cluster, open 1.6 Puppis 4.2 07h 36.6m −14° 30′
M48[48] NGC 2548   Cluster, open 1.5 Hydra 5.5 08h 13.7m −05° 45′
M49[49] NGC 4472   Galaxy, elliptical 53,600–58,200 Virgo 9.4 12h 29m 46.7s +08° 00′ 02″
M50[50] NGC 2323   Cluster, open 3.2 Monoceros 5.9 07h 03.2m −08° 20′
M51[51] NGC 5194, NGC 5195 Whirlpool Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 19,000–27,000 Canes Venatici 8.4 13h 29m 52.7s +47° 11′ 43″
M52[52] NGC 7654   Cluster, open 5.0 Cassiopeia 5.0 23h 24.2m +61° 35′
M53[53] NGC 5024   Cluster, globular 58 Coma Berenices 8.3 13h 12m 55.25s +18° 10′ 05.4″
M54[54] NGC 6715   Cluster, globular 87.4 Sagittarius 8.4 18h 55m 03.33s −30° 28′ 47.5″
M55[55] NGC 6809   Cluster, globular 17.6 Sagittarius 7.4 19h 39m 59.71s −30° 57′ 53.1″
M56[56] NGC 6779   Cluster, globular 32.9 Lyra 8.3 19h 16m 35.57s +30° 11′ 00.5″
M57[57] NGC 6720 Ring Nebula Nebula, planetary 1.6–3.8 Lyra 8.8 18h 53m 35.079s +33° 01′ 45.03″
M58[58] NGC 4579   Galaxy, barred spiral ~63,000 Virgo 10.5 12h 37m 43.5s +11° 49′ 05″
M59[59] NGC 4621   Galaxy, elliptical 55,000–65,000 Virgo 10.6 12h 42m 02.3s +11° 38′ 49″
M60[60] NGC 4649   Galaxy, elliptical 51,000–59,000 Virgo 9.8 12h 43m 39.6s +11° 33′ 09″
M61[61] NGC 4303   Galaxy, spiral 50,200–54,800 Virgo 10.2 12h 21m 54.9s +04° 28′ 25″
M62[62] NGC 6266   Cluster, globular 22.2 Ophiuchus 7.4 17h 01m 12.60s −30° 06′ 44.5″
M63[63] NGC 5055 Sunflower Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 37,000 Canes Venatici 9.3 13h 15m 49.3s +42° 01′ 45″
M64[64] NGC 4826 Black Eye Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 22,000–26,000 Coma Berenices 9.4 12h 56m 43.7s +21° 40′ 58″
M65[65] NGC 3623 Leo Triplet Galaxy, barred spiral 41,000–42,000 Leo 10.3 11h 18m 55.9s +13° 05′ 32″
M66[66] NGC 3627 Leo Triplet Galaxy, barred spiral 31,000–41,000 Leo 8.9 11h 20m 15.0s +12° 59′ 30″
M67[67] NGC 2682   Cluster, open 2.61–2.93 Cancer 6.1 08h 51.3m +11° 49′
M68[68] NGC 4590   Cluster, globular 33.6 Hydra 9.7 12h 39m 27.98s −26° 44′ 38.6″
M69[69] NGC 6637   Cluster, globular 29.7 Sagittarius 8.3 18h 31m 23.10s −32° 20′ 53.1″
M70[70] NGC 6681   Cluster, globular 29.4 Sagittarius 9.1 18h 43m 12.76s −32° 17′ 31.6″
M71[71] NGC 6838   Cluster, globular 13.0 Sagitta 6.1 19h 53m 46.49s +18° 46′ 45.1″
M72[72] NGC 6981   Cluster, globular 53.40–55.74 Aquarius 9.4 20h 53m 27.70s −12° 32′ 14.3″
M73[73] NGC 6994   Asterism ~2.5 Aquarius 9.0 20h 58m 54s −12° 38′
M74[74] NGC 628   Galaxy, spiral 24,000–36,000 Pisces 10.0 01h 36m 41.8s +15° 47′ 01″
M75[75] NGC 6864   Cluster, globular 67.5 Sagittarius 9.2 20h 06m 04.75s −21° 55′ 16.2″
M76[76] NGC 650, NGC 651 Little Dumbbell Nebula Nebula, planetary 2.5 Perseus 10.1 01h 42.4m +51° 34′ 31″
M77[77] NGC 1068 Cetus A Galaxy, spiral 47,000 Cetus 9.6 02h 42m 40.7s −00° 00′ 48″
M78[78] NGC 2068   Nebula, diffuse 1.6 Orion 8.3 05h 46m 46.7s +00° 00′ 50″
M79[79] NGC 1904   Cluster, globular 41 Lepus 8.6 05h 24m 10.59s −24° 31′ 27.3″
M80[80] NGC 6093   Cluster, globular 32.6 Scorpius 7.9 16h 17m 02.41s −22° 58′ 33.9″
M81[81] NGC 3031 Bode's Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 11,400–12,200 Ursa Major 6.9 09h 55m 33.2s +69° 3′ 55″
M82[82] NGC 3034 Cigar Galaxy Galaxy, starburst 10,700–12,300 Ursa Major 8.4 09h 55m 52.2s +69° 40′ 47″
M83[83] NGC 5236 Southern Pinwheel Galaxy Galaxy, barred spiral 14,700 Hydra 7.5 13h 37m 00.9s −29° 51′ 57″
M84[84] NGC 4374   Galaxy, lenticular 57,000–63,000 Virgo 10.1 12h 25m 03.7s +12° 53′ 13″
M85[85] NGC 4382   Galaxy, lenticular 56,000–64,000 Coma Berenices 10.0 12h 25m 24.0s +18° 11′ 28″
M86[86] NGC 4406   Galaxy, lenticular 49,000–55,000 Virgo 9.8 12h 26m 11.7s +12° 56′ 46″
M87[87] NGC 4486 Virgo A Galaxy, elliptical 51,870–55,130 Virgo 9.6 12h 30m 49.42338s +12° 23′ 28.0439″
M88[88] NGC 4501   Galaxy, spiral 39,000–56,000 Coma Berenices 10.4 12h 31m 59.2s +14° 25′ 14″
M89[89] NGC 4552   Galaxy, elliptical 47,000–53,000 Virgo 10.7 12h 35m 39.8s +12° 33′ 23″
M90[90] NGC 4569   Galaxy, spiral 55,900–61,500 Virgo 10.3 12h 36m 49.8s +13° 09′ 46″
M91[91] NGC 4548   Galaxy, barred spiral 47,000–79,000 Coma Berenices 11.0 12h 35m 26.4s +14° 29′ 47″
M92[92] NGC 6341   Cluster, globular 26.7 Hercules 6.3 17h 17m 07.39s +43° 08′ 09.4″
M93[93] NGC 2447   Cluster, open 3.6 Puppis 6.0 07h 44.6m −23° 52′
M94[94] NGC 4736   Galaxy, spiral 14,700–17,300 Canes Venatici 9.0 12h 50m 53.1s +41° 07′ 14″
M95[95] NGC 3351   Galaxy, barred spiral 31,200–34,000 Leo 11.4 10h 43m 57.7s +11° 42′ 14″
M96[96] NGC 3368   Galaxy, spiral 28,000–34,000 Leo 10.1 10h 46m 45.7s +11° 49′ 12″
M97[97] NGC 3587 Owl Nebula Nebula, planetary 2.03 Ursa Major 9.9 11h 14m 47.734s +55° 01′ 08.50″
M98[98] NGC 4192   Galaxy, spiral 44,400 Coma Berenices 11.0 12h 13m 48.292s +14° 54′ 01.69″
M99[99] NGC 4254   Galaxy, spiral 44,700–55,700 Coma Berenices 10.4 12h 18m 49.6s +14° 24′ 59″
M100[100] NGC 4321   Galaxy, spiral 55,000 Coma Berenices 10.1 12h 22m 54.9s +15° 49′ 21″
M101[101] NGC 5457 Pinwheel Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 19,100–22,400 Ursa Major 7.9 14h 03m 12.6s +54° 20′ 57″
M102[102] NGC 5866 Spindle Galaxy Galaxy, lenticular 50,000 Draco 10.7 15h 06m 29.5s +55° 45′ 48″
M103[103] NGC 581   Cluster, open 10 Cassiopeia 7.4 01h 33.2m +60° 42′
M104[104] NGC 4594 Sombrero Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 28,700–30,900 Virgo 9.0 12h 39m 59.4s −11° 37′ 23″
M105[105] NGC 3379   Galaxy, elliptical 30,400–33,600 Leo 10.2 10h 47m 49.6s +12° 34′ 54″
M106[106] NGC 4258   Galaxy, spiral 22,200–25,200 Canes Venatici 9.1 12h 18m 57.5s +47° 18′ 14″
M107[107] NGC 6171   Cluster, globular 20.9 Ophiuchus 8.9 16h 32m 31.86s −13° 03′ 13.6″
M108[108] NGC 3556   Galaxy, barred spiral 46,000 Ursa Major 10.7 11h 11m 31.0s +55° 40′ 27″
M109[109] NGC 3992   Galaxy, barred spiral 59,500–107,500 Ursa Major 10.6 11h 57m 36.0s +53° 22′ 28″
M110[110] NGC 205   Galaxy, dwarf elliptical 2,600–2,780 Andromeda 9.0 00h 40m 22.1s +41° 41′ 07″
Messier number NGC Number Common name Object type Distance (kly) Constellation Apparent magnitude Right Ascension Declination

2. Star Chart of Messier Objects

Messier Star Chart. https://handwiki.org/wiki/index.php?curid=2011200

References

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  3. Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 3". http://messier.seds.org/m/m003.html. Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  4. Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 4". http://messier.seds.org/m/m004.html. Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
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