Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 handwiki -- 1154 2022-11-21 01:39:26

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
HandWiki. List of Proton Launches (1970–79). Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35423 (accessed on 17 June 2024).
HandWiki. List of Proton Launches (1970–79). Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35423. Accessed June 17, 2024.
HandWiki. "List of Proton Launches (1970–79)" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35423 (accessed June 17, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 21). List of Proton Launches (1970–79). In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/35423
HandWiki. "List of Proton Launches (1970–79)." Encyclopedia. Web. 21 November, 2022.
List of Proton Launches (1970–79)
Edit

This is a list of launches made by the Proton rocket between 1970 and 1979. All launches were conducted from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.

baikonur cosmodrome

1. Launches

Date/Time (UTC) Configuration Serial number Launch pad Outcome
Payload Separation orbit Operator Function
Remarks

1970

6 February 1970
04:16
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 247-01 Site 81/23 Failure
Luna E-8-5 #405 Highly elliptical (intended)   Lunar sample return
First stage accidentally shut down T+128 seconds due to false alarm from pressure gauge.
18 August 1970
03:45
Proton-K 8K82K 246-01 Site 81/23 Successful
82-EV Suborbital   Test flight
Investigation into high failure rate of Proton launches
12 September 1970
13:35
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 248-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Luna 16 (Luna E-8-5 #406) Highly elliptical   Lunar sample return
20 October 1970
19:55
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 250-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Zond 8 (Soyuz 7K-L1 #14) Highly elliptical   Spacecraft test
10 November 1970
14:44
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 251-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Luna 17 (Luna E-8 #203) Highly elliptical   Lunar lander
Deployed Lunokhod 1 rover
2 December 1970
17:00
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 252-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Kosmos 382 (Soyuz 7K-L1E #2K) Medium Earth   Test flight
Test of Block D upper stage[1]

1971

19 April 1971
01:40
Proton-K 8K82K 254-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Salyut 1 (DOS-1) Low Earth   Space station
First space station
10 May 1971
16:58
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 253-01 Site 81/23 Failure
Kosmos 419 (Mars-3MS #170) Heliocentric (intended)
Low Earth (achieved)
  Mars orbiter
Upper stage failed to ignite as timer was programmed in years instead of hours.
19 May 1971
16:22
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 255-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Mars 2 (Mars-4M #171) Heliocentric   Mars probe
28 May 1971
15:26
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 249-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Mars 3 (Mars-4M #172) Heliocentric   Mars probe
2 September 1971
13:40
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 256-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Luna 18 (Luna E-8-5 #207) Highly elliptical   Lunar sample return
Payload later failed
28 September 1971
10:00
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 257-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Luna 19 (Luna E-8LS #202) Highly elliptical   Lunar orbiter

1972

14 February 1972
03:27
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 258-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Luna 20 (Luna E-8-5 #408) Highly elliptical   Lunar sample return
29 July 1972
03:20
Proton-K 8K82K 260-01 Site 81/24 Failure
DOS-2 Low Earth (intended)   Space station
Second stage pitch control failure. Automatic shutdown commanded T+180 seconds.

1973

8 January 1973
06:55
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 259-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Luna 21 (Luna E-8 #204) Highly elliptical   Lunar lander
Deployed Lunokhod 2 rover
3 April 1973
09:00
Proton-K 8K82K 283-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Salyut 2 (Almaz OPS-1) Low Earth   Space station
Payload later failed
11 May 1973
00:20
Proton-K 8K82K 284-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Kosmos 557 (DOS-3) Low Earth   Space station
Payload later failed
21 July 1973
19:20
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 261-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Mars 4 (Mars-3MS #52S) Heliocentric   Mars orbiter
Payload later failed
25 July 1973
18:55
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 262-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Mars 5 (Mars-3MS #53S) Heliocentric   Mars orbiter
Payload later failed
5 August 1973
17:45
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 281-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Mars 6 (Mars-3MP #50P) Heliocentric   Mars probe
9 August 1973
17:00
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 281-02 Site 81/24 Successful
Mars 7 (Mars-3MP #51P) Heliocentric   Mars probe

1974

26 March 1974
13:35
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 282-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Kosmos 637 (Raduga GVM) Geosynchronous   Test flight
First Proton launch with Block DM upper stage, first Soviet launch to geosynchronous orbit, boilerplate payload
29 May 1974
08:56
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 282-02 Site 81/24 Successful
Luna 22 (Luna E-8LS #206) Highly elliptical   Lunar orbiter
24 June 1974
22:38
Proton-K 8K82K 283-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Salyut 3 (Almaz OPS-2) Low Earth   Space station
29 July 1974
12:00
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 287-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Molniya-1S Geosynchronous   Communications
28 October 1974
14:30
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 285-02 Site 81/24 Successful
Luna 23 (Luna E-8-5M #410) Highly elliptical   Lunar sample return
Spacecraft later failed
26 December 1974
04:15
Proton-K 8K82K 284-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Salyut 4 (DOS-4) Low Earth   Space station

1975

8 June 1975
02:38
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 286-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Venera 9 (Venera 4V-1 #660) Heliocentric   Venus probe
14 June 1975
03:00
Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 285-02 Site 81/24 Successful
Venera 10 (Venera 4V-1 #661) Heliocentric   Venus probe
8 October 1975
00:30
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 286-02 Site 81/23 Successful
Kosmos 775 (Prognoz) Geosynchronous   Missile defence
Spacecraft later failed
16 October 1975, 04:04 Proton-K/D 8K82K/11S824 287-02 Site 81/23 Failure
Luna E-8-5M #412 Highly elliptical (intended)   Lunar sample return
Final flight of Proton-K with Block D upper stage, upper stage malfunctioned
22 December 1975
13:00
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 288-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Gran' #11L (Raduga) Geosynchronous   Communications

1976

22 June 1976
18:04
Proton-K 8K82K 290-02 Site 81/23 Successful
Salyut 5 (Almaz OPS-3) Low Earth   Space station
9 August 1976
15:04
Proton-K/D-1 8K82K/11S824M 288-02 Site 81/23 Successful
Luna 24 (Luna E-8-5M #413) Highly elliptical   Lunar sample return
First flight of Proton-K with Block D-1 upper stage
11 September 1976
18:24
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 289-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Gran' #12L (Raduga) Geosynchronous   Communications
26 October 1976
14:50
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 290-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Ekran #11L Geosynchronous   Communications
15 December 1976
01:30
Proton-K 8K82K 289-02 Site 81/24 Successful
Kosmos 881 (TKS VA #009A/1) Low Earth   Spacecraft test
Kosmos 882 (TKS VA #009/1) Low Earth   Spacecraft test

1977

17 July 1977
09:00
Proton-K 8K82K 293-02 Site 81/24 Successful
Kosmos 929 (TKS #16101) Low Earth   Spacecraft test
23 July 1977
21:15
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 291-01 Site 200/40 Successful
Gran' #13L Geosynchronous   Communications
First launch from Site 200
4 August 1977
22:00
Proton-K 8K82K 293-01 Site 81/24 Failure
TKS VA #009A/P Low Earth (intended)   Spacecraft test
TKS VA #009/P Low Earth (intended)   Spacecraft test
First stage thrust vectoring failure. Automatic shutdown commanded T+53 seconds. Upper spacecraft ejected by launch escape system
20 September 1977
17:28
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 291-02 Site 200/40 Successful
Ekran #12L Geosynchronous   Communications
29 September 1977
06:50
Proton-K 8K82K 295-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Salyut 6 (DOS-5) Low Earth   Space station
Last launch of State Trials

1978

30 March 1978
00:00
Proton-K 8K82K 292-01 Site 81/24 Successful
Kosmos 997 (TKS VA #009A/P2) Low Earth   Spacecraft test
Kosmos 998 (TKS VA #009P/2) Low Earth   Spacecraft test
27 May 1978
01:25
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 294-02 Site 200/40 Failure
Ekran #13L Geosynchronous   Communications
First stage thrust vectoring malfunction starting at T+87 seconds. Automatic cutoff T+119 seconds.
18 July 1978
21:59
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 292-02 Site 200/40 Successful
Gran' #14L (Raduga) Geosynchronous   Communications
17 August 1978
20:02
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 297-02 Site 200/40 Failure
Ekran #15L Geosynchronous   Communications
Second stage control failure caused by hot gas leak. Automatic shutdown commanded T+252 seconds.
9 September 1978
03:25
Proton-K/D-1 8K82K/11S824M 296-01 Site 81/23 Successful
Venera 11 (Venera 4V-1 #360) Heliocentric   Venus probe
14 September 1978
02:25
Proton-K/D-1 8K82K/11S824M 296-02 Site 81/24 Successful
Venera 12 (Venera 4V-1 #361) Heliocentric   Venus probe
17 October 1978
16:04
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 298-01 Site 200/40 Failure
Ekran #14L Geosynchronous   Communications
Second stage engine failure T+236 seconds due to ingestion of debris into the turbopumps
19 December 1978, 12:15 Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 295-02 Site 200/40 Partial failure
Gorizont #11L Geosynchronous (planned)
Medium Earth (achieved)
  Communications
Upper stage malfunctioned, leaving satellite in wrong orbit. Spacecraft was able to correct its orbit, at the expense of onboard fuel.

1979

21 February 1979
07:49
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 294-01 Site 200/40 Successful
Ekran #16L Geosynchronous   Communications
25 April 1979
03:44
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 298-02 Site 200/40 Successful
Gran' #15L (Raduga) Geosynchronous   Communications
22 May 1979
23:00
Proton-K 8K82K 200-02 Site 81/24 Successful
Kosmos 1100 (TKS VA #0102A) Low Earth   Spacecraft test
Kosmos 1101 (TKS VA #0102) Low Earth   Spacecraft test
Planned to be a manned launch, converted to an unmanned test due to failures on previous missions. Rocket reused after an abort after ignition on 20 April, during attempted launch of two other TKS spacecraft.[2]
5 July 1979
23:19
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 299-01 Site 200/40 Successful
Gorizont #12L Geosynchronous   Communications
3 October 1979
17:12
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 302-02 Site 200/40 Successful
Ekran #17L Geosynchronous   Communications
28 December 1979
11:51
Proton-K/DM 8K82K/11S86 303-01 Site 200/40 Successful
Gorizont #13L Geosynchronous   Communications

References

  1. Wade, Mark. "Soyuz 7K-L1E". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 6 September 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100906230604/http://www.astronautix.com/craft/soy7kl1e.htm. Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  2. Wade, Mark. "Cosmos 1100". Encyclopedia Astronautica. http://www.astronautix.com/flights/coss1100.htm. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
More
Information
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register :
View Times: 177
Entry Collection: HandWiki
Revision: 1 time (View History)
Update Date: 21 Nov 2022
1000/1000
Video Production Service