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HandWiki. Taiwanese Romanization System. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33540 (accessed on 18 June 2024).
HandWiki. Taiwanese Romanization System. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33540. Accessed June 18, 2024.
HandWiki. "Taiwanese Romanization System" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33540 (accessed June 18, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 08). Taiwanese Romanization System. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33540
HandWiki. "Taiwanese Romanization System." Encyclopedia. Web. 08 November, 2022.
Taiwanese Romanization System
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The Taiwanese Romanization System (Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī and since 2006 has been one of the officially promoted phonetic notation system by Taiwan's Ministry of Education. It is nearly identical to Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet (TLPA) Romanization for Hakka apart from using ts tsh j instead of c ch j for the fricatives /ts tsʰ dz/.

romanization tâi-lô tlpa

1. Alphabet

Taiwanese Romanization System uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones.

  • "nn" is only used after a vowel to express nasalization, so it has no capital letter.
  • Palatalization occurs when "J, S, Ts, Tsh" followed by "i", so "Ji, Si, Tsi, Tshi" sometimes governed as trigraphs and tetragraphs.
  • Of the 10 unused basic Latin letters, "R" is sometimes used to express dialectal vowels, while the others (C, D, F, Q, V, W, X, Y, Z) are only used in loanwords.

2. Values

2.1. Consonants

2.2. Vowels & Rhymes

  • o pronounced [ə] ㄜ in general dialect in Kaohsiung and Tainan, [o] ㄛ in Taipei.
  • -nn forms the nasal vowels
  • There is also syllabic m and ng.

  • ing pronounced [ɪəŋ], ik pronounced [ɪək̚].

2.3. Tones

A hyphen links elements of a compound word. A double hyphen indicates that the following syllable has a neutral tone and therefore that the preceding syllable does not undergo tone sandhi.

Licit syllables[2]

  Ø b g h j k kh l m n ng p ph s t th ts tsh  
a a ba ga ha   ka kha la ma na nga pa pha sa ta tha tsa tsha a
ah ah bah   hah   kah khah lah   nah   pah phah sah tah thah tsah tshah ah
ai ai bai gai hai   kai khai lai mai nai ngai pai phai sai tai thai tsai tshai ai
ainn ainn     hainn   kainn khainn           phainn   tainn   tsainn   ainn
ak ak bak gak hak   kak khak lak       pak phak sak tak thak tsak tshak ak
am am   gam ham   kam kham lam           sam tam tham tsam tsham am
an an ban gan han   kan khan lan       pan phan san tan than tsan tshan an
ang ang bang gang hang   kang khang lang       pang phang sang tang thang tsang tshang ang
ann ann     hann   kann khann           phann sann tann thann tsann tshann ann
annh       hannh                   sannh         annh
ap ap     hap   kap khap lap           sap tap thap tsap tshap ap
at at bat   hat   kat khat lat       pat   sat tat that tsat tshat at
au au bau gau hau   kau khau lau mau nau ngau pau phau sau tau thau tsau tshau au
auh           kauh   lauh mauh nauh     phauh   tauh     tshauh auh
e e be ge he   ke khe le me ne nge pe phe se te the tse tshe e
eh eh beh   heh   keh kheh leh meh neh ngeh peh   seh teh theh tseh tsheh eh
enn enn     henn   kenn khenn         penn phenn senn tenn thenn tsenn tshenn enn
ennh       hennh     khennh                       ennh
i i bi gi hi ji ki khi li mi ni   pi phi si ti thi tsi tshi i
ia ia   gia hia jia kia khia   mia nia ngia     sia tia   tsia tshia ia
iah iah   giah hiah   kiah khiah liah       piah phiah siah tiah thiah tsiah tshiah iah
iak             khiak         piak phiak siak tiak     tshiak iak
iam iam   giam hiam jiam kiam khiam liam           siam tiam thiam tsiam tshiam iam
ian ian bian gian hian jian kian khian lian       pian phian sian tian thian tsian tshian ian
iang iang   giang hiang jiang   khiang liang       piang phiang siang     tsiang tshiang iang
iann iann     hiann   kiann           piann   siann tiann thiann tsiann tshiann iann
iannh       hiannh                             iannh
iap iap   giap hiap jiap kiap khiap liap           siap tiap thiap tsiap tshiap iap
iat iat biat giat hiat jiat kiat khiat liat       piat phiat siat tiat thiat tsiat tshiat iat
iau iau biau giau hiau jiau kiau khiau liau miau niau ngiau piau phiau siau tiau thiau tsiau tshiau iau
iauh       hiauh     khiauh       ngiauh               iauh
iaunn iaunn                                   iaunn
ih   bih         khih   mih nih   pih phih sih tih thih tsih tshih ih
ik ik bik gik hik   kik   lik       pik phik sik tik thik tsik tshik ik
im im   gim him jim kim khim lim           sim tim thim tsim tshim im
in in bin gin hin jin kin khin lin       pin phin sin tin thin tsin tshin in
ing ing   ging hing   king khing ling       ping phing sing ting thing tsing tshing ing
inn inn     hinn   kinn khinn             sinn tinn thinn tsinn tshinn inn
io io bio gio hio jio kio khio lio       pio phio sio tio thio tsio tshio io
ioh ioh   gioh hioh   kioh khioh lioh           sioh tioh   tsioh tshioh ioh
iok iok   giok hiok jiok kiok khiok liok           siok tiok thiok tsiok tshiok iok
iong iong   giong hiong jiong kiong khiong liong           siong tiong thiong tsiong tshiong iong
ip ip     hip jip kip khip lip           sip     tsip tship ip
it it bit   hit jit kit khit         pit phit sit tit   tsit tshit it
iu iu biu giu hiu jiu kiu khiu liu   niu   piu   siu tiu thiu tsiu tshiu iu
iunn iunn     hiunn   kiunn khiunn             siunn tiunn   tsiunn tshiunn iunn
iunnh iunnh     hiunnh                             iunnh
m m     hm                             m
mh       hmh                             mh
ng ng     hng   kng khng   mng nng   png   sng tng thng tsng tshng ng
ngh       hngh                 phngh sngh       tshngh ngh
o o bo go ho   ko kho lo       po pho so to tho tso tsho o
oh oh     hoh   koh   loh       poh phoh soh toh thoh tsoh tshoh oh
ok ok bok gok hok   kok khok lok       pok phok sok tok thok tsok tshok ok
om om                         som tom       om
ong ong bong gong hong   kong khong long       pong phong song tong thong tsong tshong ong
onn onn     honn   konn                         onn
onnh onnh     honnh                             onnh
oo oo boo goo hoo   koo khoo loo moo noo ngoo poo phoo soo too thoo tsoo tshoo oo
ooh                 mooh                   ooh
u u bu gu hu ju ku khu lu       pu phu su tu thu tsu tshu u
ua ua bua gua hua   kua khua lua mua nua   pua phua sua tua thua tsua tshua ua
uah uah buah   huah juah kuah khuah luah       puah phuah suah   thuah tsuah tshuah uah
uai uai     huai   kuai khuai             suai         uai
uainn uainn     huainn   kuainn               suainn     tsuainn   uainn
uan uan buan guan huan   kuan khuan luan       puan phuan suan tuan thuan tsuan tshuan uan
uang uang                                 tshuang uang
uann uann     huann   kuann khuann         puann phuann suann tuann thuann   tshuann uann
uat uat buat guat huat   kuat khuat luat       puat phuat suat tuat thuat tsuat   uat
ue ue bue gue hue jue kue khue lue       pue phue sue tue   tsue tshue ue
ueh ueh bueh gueh hueh   kueh khueh         pueh phueh sueh         ueh
uh uh           khuh         puh phuh   tuh thuh tsuh tshuh uh
ui ui bui gui hui   kui khui lui mui     pui phui sui tui thui tsui tshui ui
un un bun gun hun jun kun khun lun       pun phun sun tun thun tsun tshun un
ut ut but   hut   kut khut lut       put phut sut tut thut tsut tshut ut
  Ø b g h j k kh l m n ng p ph s t th ts tsh  

References

  1. In version of Ngoo Siu-le (zh), /ɘe/ [ere] is spelled as [oe] while the Phonetic Symbol "ㄜ" is replaced with "".
  2. (in zh). 2007. ISBN 978-986-00-7755-1. http://khai.mtwww.mt.au.edu.tw/ezcatfiles/b077/img/img/276/tshiutsheh.pdf. 
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