The spatial aspect of transportation is crucial, as mobility is governed by space. Transportation modes encompass a spectrum that ranges from atomization—transportation modes that deal with the smallest load unit (e.g., single or a few passengers)—to massification—transportation modes that deal with the largest load unit (e.g., carry large number of passengers) 
Recently, the ubiquity of GPS-enabled devices (e.g, GPS tracking systems, smart phones, and wearables) have advanced and diversified their applications by allowing high-resolution data to be acquired. This has introduced the Big Data era, where datasets are created in higher velocity, volume, and variety (3 Vs) 
. Spatial data is no exception. The process of capturing, managing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data, known as a Geographic Information System (GIS), offers a powerful tool for the advancement of the transportation field.