Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry related to this topic through the link below:
Check Note
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 4774 2022-05-09 14:14:13 |
2 update layout and references Meta information modification 4774 2022-05-10 04:33:00 |
Natural Fiber Composites
Upload a video

Recent advancements in natural fiber composites have minimized the usage of man-made fibers, especially in the field of structural applications such as aircraft stiffeners and rotor blades. However, large variations in the strength and modulus of natural fiber degrade the properties of the composites and lower the safety level of the structures under dynamic load. Without compromising the safety of the composite structure, it is significant to enrich the strength and modulus of natural fiber reinforcement for real-time applications.

natural fiber composite woven natural fiber orientation
View Times: 695
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 17 May 2022
Table of Contents

    1. Introduction

    This century has already perceived notable achievements in green technology, especially in the domain of materials science, with the evolution of high-performance materials made from natural resources for various structural, manufacturing, bio-medical, aerospace, and automotive applications [1][2]. Due to their natural abundance, ease of processing, design flexibility, and feasibility of manufacturing complex shapes, natural fiber composites are good alternatives to conventional materials. They are also light in weight and hazardless to the environment [3][4]. The main problem with natural fibers is the variation of properties and characteristics, such as strength and modulus [5]. The cellulose composition of the cell wall, environmental circumstances during growth, geographical considerations, microfibrillar angle, and other factors all influence the fiber’s strength [6]. The structure of the natural fiber is shown in Figure 1. Properties of natural fiber composites depend on several parameters, such as processing technique, fiber strength, interfacial bonding between fiber and matrix, type of reinforcement, weaving pattern, and fiber orientation [7].
    Materials 15 03025 g001
    Figure 1. Structure of natural fiber.
    In the last two decades, natural fiber has found extensive usage in aerospace, naval, and structural fields [8]. The main reasons behind the higher usage of natural fiber composites for weight-sensitive and structural applications such as stiffener, truss members, bio-medical, automobile interior parts, etc., by industries are the potential environmental, end-of-life discarding, and health advantages in contrast to man-made composite materials [9]. Furthermore, man-made composite materials have a high density, are expensive, and are hazardous to the environment compared to natural fiber composites [10]. As proof, natural fibers such as jute, flax, banana, hemp, and sisal have replaced synthetic fibers such as glass, carbon, Kevlar, and boron in fields that require a load-carrying capacity in the medium and low range [11]. Tarasen and Reddy [12] established the usage of natural fibers (bamboo and jute) in several areas, such as fiber-reinforced columns, special joints, packaging material, and pillars. Moreover, some natural fibers are the best sources for extracting nanocellulose fibers. These nanofibers can be added as a second reinforcement to naturally based composites. Figure 2 depicts different natural fibers utilized in composites, and Figure 3 displays the classification of natural fibers. Moreover, composites consist of two phases: One is the matrix phase and the other is the reinforcement phase. The reinforcement phase consists of lignocellulose, which is generally referred to as natural fiber composite. The fibers directly extracted from a living organism are called natural fibers. The fibers derived from synthetic materials are called synthetic fibers.
    Materials 15 03025 g002
    Figure 2. Common natural fibers used in composites: (a) bamboo (grass fiber type); (b) banana (leaf fiber type); (c) coir (fruit fiber type); (d) cotton (seed fiber type); (e) kenaf (bast fiber type); (f) flax (bast fiber type); (g) hemp (bast fiber type); (h) jute (bast fiber type); (i) nettle (grass fiber type); (j) oil palm (fruit fiber type); (k) ramie (bast fiber type); (l) sisal (leaf fiber type).
    Materials 15 03025 g003
    Figure 3. Classification of natural fibers.
    The large variation in strength and modulus makes NFCs incompatible under dynamic load and minimizes the safety level of the component. To overcome this drawback, NFCs are reinforced with NFRs in the polymer matrix to improve the structural applications’ strength, modulus, and safety.
    Most researchers have developed NFCs with random orientation and short natural fibers as reinforcements in the polymer matrix, creating non-uniform stress distribution due to fiber discontinuity, which further leads to early failure of composites. The modulus of natural fibers can be enriched by reinforcing them with natural fibers in plain, braided, and knitted arrangements. It is observed that the Young’s modulus of NFCs reinforced with NFRs in distinctive patterns in weavings such as basket, plain, stain, twill, etc. have increased promisingly. Similarly, braided NRCs enriched the Young’s modulus of jute-fiber reinforcement by 30% compared to conventional weaving [12][13]. Sapuan and Maleque [13] developed less expensive telephone stands using banana fabric (woven type) in an epoxy matrix. By substituting fiberglass with jute fiber composites, Alves et al. [14] highlighted the advantages of NFCs in the manufacture of automobile hoods.
    Reinforcing the NFC with synthetic fiber enhances its mechanical properties and load-carrying capacities and can be used for different structural applications [15]. Damodaran et al. [16] applied a basic sandwich model to develop a traditional drum (Chenda) using a carbon epoxy composite and balsa core material. Comparing the acoustic performance of the traditional drum and a composite drum suggested that the high damping properties of sandwich composites could replace the wood used in the traditional drum. Based on the mechanical properties, many researchers are focusing on working on identifying fibers (plant-based) suitable for use in medium and low load applications [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. The benefits of woven fabric natural composites (WFNCs) have led to an increase in their use in a variety of structural applications. When compared to randomly oriented and unidirectional NFCs, WFNCs provide higher stiffness and strength for the same amount of fibers employed. NFCs’ fracture toughness is also improved by the usage of woven fabric. Riedel et al. studied the usage of WFNCs in several structural applications and concluded that using woven fabric would improve composite stiffness [25].

    2. Disadvantages of Composites including Short Natural Fibers

    Many researchers have investigated the mechanical, dynamic mechanical, and tribological properties of randomly oriented and short natural fibers as reinforcements in the polymer matrix. The main problem associated with short-form reinforcement in a high-density polymer matrix is that achieving uniform distribution is difficult. It affects the advantages of natural fiber composites seriously and makes them incompatible for structural applications. Almeida et al. [26] investigated the mechanical characteristics of coir fiber in a polyester matrix with a fraction of up to 80 wt% coir fiber. They found that composites with 50 wt% exhibited enhanced mechanical properties. Further addition resulted in less strength and a lower modulus of the composites due to random distribution and poor bonding between the fiber and matrix.
    Another problem associated with randomly distributed short natural fibers is that the polymer matrix is agglomerates as it affects the composites properties. A similar problem was reported by Joseph et al. [27] regarding the mechanical properties of sisal/polypropylene composites. The authors concluded that fiber length, loading, and orientation affect the performance of the composites. A schematic diagram of a randomly oriented short fiber-reinforced composite is illustrated in Figure 4.
    Materials 15 03025 g004
    Figure 4. Schematic diagram of randomly oriented short fiber composite.
    Arib et al. [28] studied the mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites and found that a higher volume percentage diminished the mechanical properties of the pineapple composites. Shekeil et al. [29] investigated the mechanical characteristics of kenaf fiber–thermoplastic polyurethane composites as a function of fiber weight %. They discovered that adding 30 wt% to the composites enhanced the mechanical characteristics of the composites and that adding more resulted in the composites’ modulus, flexural, and tensile strength decreasing.
    Researchers also found that the random distribution of NFR affects the stiffness of composites due to poor stress transfer at the interface during loading. The dynamic behavior of banana–sisal hybrid short fiber-reinforced polyester composites was investigated by Idicula et al. [30]. At 0.40 Vf, they observed a minimum peak height and maximum width for the material loss factor. It was revealed that composites with 0.40 Vf possessed higher stiffness and maximum energy. Further increasing the fiber content in the matrix reduced its stiffness due to the non-uniform fiber distribution. Similar variations were observed by Doan et al. in jute fiber/polypropylene composites [31]. Pothan et al. [32] found that 40 wt% fiber loading enhanced the storage modulus and glass transition temperature of banana fiber composite materials. They also observed that high fiber loading decreased the stiffness of the composites.
    Kumar et al. [33] compared the free vibration and damping behavior of short banana and sisal fiber polyester composites. The authors found that banana fiber with a length of 4 mm and sisal fiber with a length of 3 mm at 50 wt% improved the damping and mechanical characteristics. For longer fiber length, the damping properties of composites decreased due to agglomeration. Tayeb [34] investigated the tribological properties of sugarcane fiber–polyester composites and found that the wear rate of composites decreased when fiber length varied from 1 to 5 mm. Further, increasing the length of the fiber resulted in an increased wear rate and friction coefficient of the composite material. Higher fiber length increased the amorphous nature of the composite. Shalwan and Yousif [35] investigated the mechanical and tribological behavior of polymeric composites based on natural fibers. They came to the conclusion that the properties of composite materials are impacted by fiber orientation, fiber length, and volume fraction. Yusuf et al. [36] looked into the tribological characteristics of oil-palm fiber-reinforced polyester composites and discovered that oil palm/polyester composites had better wear properties.
    From the results of these reported studies, it is concluded that the properties of natural fibers with short form depend on the fiber aspect ratio, and improvements in properties are generally observed only up to a certain wt%. The main problem associated with short and randomly oriented fibers in composites is achieving uniform distribution in the polymer matrix [37]. Furthermore, it creates a poor interfacing bond between the fiber and the matrix due to a higher weight percentage, resulting in poor mechanical properties.

    3. Woven Natural Fiber Composite

    To overcome the disadvantage of natural fiber with short and random orientation, researchers focused more on the reinforcement effect by incorporating WNFR to enhance the properties of NFCs for low and medium load applications. Because of its ease of processing, low fabrication cost, and improved characteristics, the idea of employing WNFR to produce NFCs was generally adopted. Due to stronger fiber–matrix bonding, the gap between warp and weft acts as a mechanical interlock among the polymer matrix, increasing resistance to failure under load. In addition, the chances of failure are less/delayed due to fiber pullout under dynamic loading conditions. In recent years, tremendous development in the textile sector has motivated researchers to explore the possibilities of improving natural fiber composite properties, making them suitable for many applications. Nowadays, natural fibers are used in continuous and woven forms, which further increases the inherent properties of NFCs. Several researchers analyzed the outcome of weaving patterns such as plain, twill, stain, and basket weaving patterns on the mechanical properties of NFCs. Results revealed that NFCs reinforced with NFR with varied weaving patterns exhibit improved mechanical properties. John et al. [38] and Pothan et al. [39] explained the advantages of various weaving structures such as plain, basket, twill, and satin. Out of these four patterns, plain weave gives uniform distribution, good stability, and porosity. A continuous yarn moves in the warp and weft directions in a regular 1x1 pattern in a plain weave. Plain weave has the major drawback of having a larger crimp in the warp, and the weft impacts the properties of the succeeding composite. To enhance the properties of composite materials, researchers investigated various weaving patterns and evaluated them against plain weave as a reference. Alavudeen et al. [40] tested a woven banana/kenaf polyester composite against a randomly oriented fiber composite with the same wt%. In comparison to the short fiber composite, they discovered that the woven composite had better mechanical characteristics. As a result, it has been demonstrated that continuous natural fiber improves composite performance when compared to composites made with short natural fiber with random distribution.

    3.1. Mechanical Properties

    The mechanical properties of natural fiber composites, such as impact, flexural, and tensile strength, are influenced by fiber percentage in the matrix, fiber strength, fiber–matrix adhesion, fiber orientation, concentration, and treatment type [41][42]. Steel, titanium, and aluminum were formerly the materials of choice for engineering, civil, aircraft, and automotive applications. WNFR composites, on the other hand, offer favorable weight characteristics and bulk strength, making them a feasible substitute for traditional materials since they have stiffness and superior strength [43][44][45]. Schematic diagrams of basic weaving patterns used in the composite field are illustrated in Figure 5.
    Materials 15 03025 g005
    Figure 5. Schematic of various woven mats: (a) plain; (b) basket; (c) twill; (d) satin.
    In an experimental investigation, Asim et al. [46] evaluated the flexural characteristics and tensile strength of tri-layer palm oil and woven jute fiber–epoxy composites to palm oil–epoxy and woven jute–epoxy composites. Three-layer palm oil and woven jute fiber–epoxy composites had greater mechanical properties than identical composites made with other combinations. It was also discovered that the kind of fiber and its hybridization had an impact on composite characteristics. The mechanical characteristics of Cotton and Kapok fabrics as reinforcing components in a polypropylene matrix were examined by Mwaikambo et al. [47]. They discovered that adding fabric to the composite material enhanced its rigidity. Sapuan et al. [48] studied the mechanical characteristics of woven banana/epoxy composites and discovered that woven banana composites had a higher strength and modulus. The influence of a stacking arrangement on the mechanical properties of sansevieria cylindrical–coconut sheath polyester composites was investigated by Bennet et al. [49]. The maximum modulus was seen when the mat fiber was kept as an exterior layer and short-fiber mat was used as the core material.
    Carmisciano et al. [50] investigated the flexural properties of a basalt woven fiber-reinforced vinyl ester composite and a glass fiber composite. Basalt woven fiber composites outperformed glass fiber composites. Venkateshwaran and Elayaperumal [51] investigated the mechanical properties of woven banana–jute–epoxy composites with various stacking sequences. They discovered that adding jute fiber as a core layer increased the flexural and tensile properties of the composite over the jute and banana composites individually. The flexural characteristics of woven pandanus and banana fabric composites with short fiber reinforcement were compared by Mariatti et al. [52]. They discovered that at the same volume %, the woven fabric composite exhibited a high modulus and strength. Finally, Khan et al. [53] investigated the mechanical characteristics of non-woven jute and plain-woven jute composites in the warp direction. They observed that in the warp direction, the woven mat composite outperformed the non-woven composite in terms of mechanical properties.
    Rajesh and Pitchaimani [54] analyzed the effect of weaving patterns on mechanical properties compared with composites reinforced with randomly oriented natural fibers. Results revealed that for the same weight percentage, the woven composite improved the mechanical properties of the composites whereas randomly oriented SNFR failed relatively. Short-form reinforcement experienced higher stress concentrations as fiber discontinuity affected the bonding strength between the fibers and the matrix. It led to early failure of the composites compared to woven fabric reinforcement. The individual strength of the yarn and the amount of fiber present in the reinforcement influenced the load-carrying behavior of the composites. Similar observations were made by Alavudeen et al. [40]. They analyzed the effect of fiber strength and weaving patterns on the mechanical properties of polyester composites and compared them with randomly oriented composites. They found that irrespective of fiber strength, the weaving pattern significantly affected the strength of the composites.
    Figure 5 depicts commonly used weaving patterns in the composite field, such as plain, basket, twill, and satin weaves. The main advantage associated with plain and basket weaving is the uniform orientation of the fibers in the weft and warp directions. In satin and twill weaves, the fabric will bias diagonally, which influences the load-carrying behavior of the composites. In plain and basket weaves, stress is distributed uniformly along with the warp and weft directions, which affects the mechanical properties of the composites. In twill and satin weaves, stress transfers non-uniformly and diagonally to the warp and weft directions, leading to earlier failure of the composite under loading. In the textile industry, the huckaback style is commonly used in fabrics. Due to the periodic yarn arrangement in both the warp and weft directions, the huckaback pattern enhances the fabric’s surface roughness. The gaps between subsequent strands in the warp and weft orientations are the fundamental drawback of huckaback woven composites, which causes them to break prematurely. As a result, there is a higher concentration of tension during loading. Goutianos et al. [55] studied the effects of yarn twist for woven composites. Results indicated that a higher yarn twist improved the properties of the composites, whereas a lower yarn twist exacerbated insufficient loading capacity. Pothan et al. [56] evaluated the mechanical characteristics of several types of woven sisal fiber composites and discovered that plain-woven fabric improved the composite’s properties. Shibata et al. [57] investigated the flexural strength of bamboo/kenaf fiber-reinforced composites that were unidirectional and randomly oriented. They concluded that the woven fabric, regardless of material, flexural strength, and modulus of the composite, was improved. Table 1 shows the mechanical properties of frequently used plant fibers in the field of composites.
    Table 1. Mechanical properties of plant fiber-reinforced polymeric biocomposites.
    Composites Flexural Strength (MPa) Flexural Modulus (GPa) Tensile Strength (MPa) Tensile Modulus (GPa) Elongation at Break (%) Author and Year Ref.
    Jute/polypropylene 77.32 4.34 56.71 1.82 Chandekar et al. (2020) [58]
    ramie (5-layer) /epoxy 98.73 ± 5.98 99.04 ± 2.85 Darshan and Suresha (2021) [59]
    Kenaf/polypropylene 45.56 2.37 24.67 2.35 Akthar et al. (2016) [60]
    Sisal/epoxy 252.39 ± 12.11 11.32 ± 1.02 83.96 ± 6.94 1.58 ± 0.08 Gupta and Srivastava (2016) [61]
    Rice straw/LDPE 33.7 1.6 13.7 0.144 24.10 Xia et al. (2018) [62]
    Pineapple/epoxy ~100 80.12 ± 2.23 8.15 ± 0.23 Odusote and Oyewo (2016) [63]
    Rice straw/polypropylene 36.5 ± 0.5 1.28 ± 0.027 33.2 ± 0.5 1.66 ± 0.025 23.9 ± 2.9 Hidalgo-Salazar and Salinas (2019) [64]
    Reed/citric acid 12.51 2.45 0.54 Ferrandez-Garcia et al. (2019) [65]
    Basalt fiber/silk fiber/epoxy 151.42 6.20 118.85 2.15 Georgiopoulos et al. (2016) [66]
    Sisal/cotton/polyester 270 ± 4 12.62 ± 0.41 65 ± 5 0.52 ± 0.015 12.31 Sathishkumar et al. (2017) [67]
    Hemp/sisal/epoxy 44.47 ± 2 1.892 ± 0.061 31.76 ± 0.88 1.173 ± 0.32 3.2 6 ± 0.41 Thiagamani et al. (2019) [68]
    Sisal/chitosan/epoxy 136 ± 2.8 7.023 ± 0.61 46.70 ± 3.5 3.821 ± 0.13 2.176 ±0.82 Soundhar et al. (2019) [69]
    Sisal/bagasse/epoxy 0.76 27.36 0.06 James et al. (2020) [70]
    Jute/hemp/flax/epoxy 66 ± 4 1.25 ± 0.23 60 ± 3 1.88 ± 0.21 5.8 ± 2.2 Chaudhary et al. (2018) [71]
    Banana/ramie/polypropylene 30   35 ± 2     Sai krishnan et al. (2020) [72]
    sisal/banana/coir/epoxy 48.60 3.45 26.35 1.20 Balaji et al. (2019) [73]
    Date palm/flax/thermoplastic starch 73.6 5 31 2.8 5.25 Ibrahim et al. (2014) [74]
    Kenaf fiber/phenolic resin 62.12 2.63 15.8 4.350 2.89 Naresh Kumar et al. (2021) [75]
    Banana/jute fiber/vinylester 70 3.26 17.98 1.89 4.5 Ravindran et al. (2021) [76]
    Red banana/ramie/vinyl ester 80 42 Sai krishnan et al. (2020) [77]
    Flax/jute/polypropylene 58.79 ± 1.73 1.39 ± 0.11 39.48 ± 1.61 2.85 ± 0.12 2.90 ± 0.18 Karaduman et al. (2015) [78]
    Coconut sheath/epoxy 76.80 58.60 Suresh Kumar et al. (2014) [79]
    Areca sheath/palm leaf sheath fiber/epoxy 51 46 0.18 Ganesh et al. (2020) [80]
    Kenaf/jute fiber 57.2 4.62 43.21 3.60 2.1 Khan et al. (2019) [81]
    Banana/kenaf/epoxy 24 2.32 54 0.291 18.5 Sathish et al. (2017) [82]

    3.2. Dynamic Mechanical Properties

    Thermal and dynamic mechanical characteristics of newly developed materials are significant parameters to be examined primarily for structural applications. At higher temperatures, the interactions between molecules in materials made out of conventional materials will be higher, which increases energy dissipation and lowers the stiffness. The fiber or yarn arrangement, reinforcement, amount of fiber in the matrix, and adhesion between the matrix in the space between two fiber yarns influence the dynamic characteristics of composite materials. Rajesh and Pitchaimani [83] investigated the dynamic mechanical characteristics of composite materials using weaving patterns and fiber strengths. They discovered that in the glassy zone, regardless of the weaving pattern, the composite had a small change in storage modulus. However, compared to satin, plain, huckaback, and twill woven composites, the basket-design jute composite significantly increased the storage modulus after the glassy area. At higher temperatures, the basket-design composite enhanced structural stiffness and improved resistance to free molecular movement. The basket-woven fabric’s fiber yarn arrangement also reduced stress concentration and supported more weight between two consecutive yarns in the weft and warp directions. Furthermore, the list of published research work that has been conducted to demonstrate the dynamic mechanical properties is tabulated in Table 2.
    Table 2. Some of the research work related to dynamic mechanical properties.
    No. Composites Observations Authors and Year Ref.
    1. Kenaf and hemp bast fiber-reinforced polyester The composites had a relatively higher storage modulus than other samples. Aziz and Ansell (2004) [84]
    2. Natural fiber-reinforced polyethylene The developed composite had relatively better shear properties than other samples. Franco and Valadez (2005) [85]
    3. Coir fiber-reinforced natural rubber Interfacial bonding influence energy dissipation was observed. Geethamma et al. (2005) [86]
    4. Jute fiber-reinforced green composites The developed composites had relatively better tensile property and toughness. Hossain et al. (2011) [87]
    5. Doum fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites The usage of a coupling agent in the composites improved the rheological properties. Essabir et al. (2013) [88]
    6. Flax- and linen-fabric-reinforced epoxy Improved fiber/matrix adhesion reduced the damping ratio of the composite. Yan (2012) [89]
    7. Coconut sheath fiber epoxy The enhanced interface bonding reduced the damping ratio of the fiber. Kumar et al. (2014) [90]
    8. Banana fiber-reinforced phenol formaldehyde resole The developed composite had a better glass transition temperature and storage modulus. Indira et al. (2014) [91]
    9. Woven coconut sheath/polyester composite The developed composites demonstrated better damping characteristics than the counterpart materials. Rajini et al. (2013a) [92]
    10. Banana/polyester hybrid composites Reducing the red-mud particle composition increased the damping properties of the composites. Uthayakumar et al. (2014) [93]
    11. Ensete stem fibers/polyester composites The storage modulus of the constructed composites made from ensete fibers treated with 5.0% NaOH was 1412 MPa, i.e., it was 108% more than that of untreated ensete-fiber polyester composites. Negawo et al. (2019) [94]
    12. Date palm fibers/epoxy composites The storage modulus and loss modulus were improved by including date palm fibers (DPF) in epoxy. However, 50% DPF loading showed greater performance than 40% or 60% DPF loading. Gheith et al. (2019) [95]
    13. Banana fiber (BF)/recycled high-density polyethylene composites (RHDPEs) The modulus of the RHDPE matrix was significantly increased when BF was added. An increase in the storage modulus value of about 20.42% was found while adding BF to RHDPE. Sukanya and Kothapalli (2018) [96]
    14. Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) hybridized with basalt-reinforced epoxy composite Changes in fiber orientations were discovered to have a significant impact on the loss tangent and storage modulus. Doddi et al. (2020) [97]
    15. Luffa cylindrical/ polyester composite The effects of fiber surface treatment (with NaOH, silane, and Ca(OH)2) and fiber content on the generated vegetable fiber (luffa cylindrica) polyester composite were investigated (30%, 40%, and 50%). The Ca(OH)2-treated fiber had a high peak in the damping factor (at 50%), whereas silane-treated fiber had a higher loss modulus (at 50%). Kalusuraman et al. (2020) [98]
    The impact of weaving patterns on the dynamic mechanical behavior of banana–epoxy composites was investigated by Venkateshwaran and Elayaperumal [51]. The composite enhanced the storage modulus of the composite laminate while having no influence on the glass transition temperature compared to twill and satin weaves. According to the authors, the orientation of natural fiber yarns in the warp and weft directions influenced the storage modulus of the plain-woven composite. In plain weave, a different strand arrangement in the warp and weft orientations enhances stability and minimizes porosity. The high crimp present in both the warp and weft directions is the fundamental issue with plain weave. Plain weave, however, is more rigid than satin or twill. Fangueiro and Rana [99] investigated the viscoelastic behavior of twill and plain-woven hemp fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composites. They discovered that twill weave improved the composites’ viscoelastic and mechanical characteristics, as well as their loss and storage moduli. Gupta [100] discovered that plain-weave reinforcement improved the composite’s dynamic mechanical characteristics more than short fibers. A dynamic mechanical investigation of oil-palm empty fruit bunch (EFB)/woven jute fiber (Jw) epoxy hybrid composites was explored by Jawaid et al. [101]. The woven jute composite’s storage modulus was found to be higher than that of the hybrid composites. It revealed that the hybridization of oil-palm empty fruit bunches with woven jute fabric affects the performance of the composite under the thermal environment due to the addition of oil-palm empty fruit bunches minimizing the resistance of free molecule movement in the polymer chain. Thus, it minimizes the resistance against free molecular movement and reduces stiffness. Asim et al. [102] studied the influence of jute fiber loading on the dynamic mechanical behavior of oil-palm epoxy composites. The inclusion of jute fiber in the oil-palm–epoxy composites increased their storage modulus. It showed that adding high-strength jute fiber to the matrix prevented free molecule movement and improved the composite material’s stiffness at higher temperatures. The dynamic mechanical behavior of PLA–hemp bio-composites was studied by Durante et al. [103]. They discovered that increasing the fiber ratio in the PLA matrix enhanced the composite material’s glass transition temperature and storage modulus. The dynamic mechanical behavior of aliphatic–aromatic co-polyester and green composites consisting of woven flax cloth matrix was studied by Chandrasekar et al. [104]. Conferring to the results, the addition of woven fabric significantly increased the storage modulus of the green composite.

    3.3. Free Vibration Behaviour

    The materials used for structural applications must have superior damping properties, along with strength and stiffness. These properties are significantly influenced by the manufacturing process, type of reinforcement, and matrix. Researchers have fabricated composite laminates using a compression-molding process and compared them with a hand lay-up technique. Results revealed that composites fabricated using the compression-molding technique exhibited improved properties compared to those produced using the hand lay-up method. Kumar et al. [33] reported that the compression-molding process showed enhanced material properties and stiffness, along with energy dissipating properties. For structural applications, it is important to reduce the resonant amplitude of vibration to protect the components and structures from failure. The modal damping associated with each mode of the structure has a considerable impact on the resonant amplitude of vibration. A small exciting force can induce high amplitude vibrations at resonance due to any sizeable vibratory inertia force. In general, fiber-reinforced composites have higher damping properties than conventional materials due to viscoelastic behavior and fiber–matrix interaction.
    Free vibration properties such as natural frequency and damping characteristics of fiber-reinforced composites have been analyzed by several researchers using experimental, analytical, and numerical methods. In free vibration analysis, the composite material’s natural frequency and corresponding damping factor were found using the fast Fourier transfer (FFT) algorithm. It changes a time-domain signal to a frequency response signal and provides an incessant peak for the corresponding natural frequency of the composite material. Chandradass et al. [105] experimentally analyzed the outcome of nanoclay additions on free vibration characteristics of a glass fiber-reinforced composite structure. The second-phase nanoscale dispersion in the matrix and E-glass fiber greatly improved the internal damping of the hybrid composites, according to the dynamic results. Gibson [106] analyzed the modal vibration response quantities of composite materials and structures. Results revealed that impulsive excitation methods gave accurate values for the characterization of intrinsic material properties.
    Recently, synthetic fibers have been replaced by natural fibers as reinforcements in the polymer matrix because of their better energy-dissipating behavior [107][108]. The development of green composites increases the usage of plant wastes, thereby reducing their carbon footprint. The free vibration behavior of woven reinforced materials improves the natural frequency of the composite material [109][110]. Rouf [111] analyzed the influence of plain, twill, and satin weaving patterns on the dynamic behavior of woven fabric composites. The author found that plain weave increased the damping properties of composites more than satin composites. Duc et al. [112] conducted a modal analysis to determine the natural frequency and damping behavior of unidirectional, laminated, and woven flax fiber (FF)/epoxy composites. They critically evaluated the factors affecting the natural frequency and damping factor of the composite material. They found that the impregnation quality, fiber/matrix adhesion, strength of the fibers, twist of the fiber yarns, and yarn crimp significantly affected the fundamental natural frequency and corresponding damping factor of the composite structure.
    Similarly, the effects of structure type, type of fibers, and physical properties such as density, thickness, and manufacturing process on the stiffness of the composite laminate influence the dynamic properties [113]. Mishra and Sahu [114] carried out extensive experimental work on the free vibrational behavior of woven composites with different boundary conditions. They found that the number of layers, fiber orientation, aspect ratio, and different boundary conditions of the woven fiber composite significantly influenced their stiffness values.
    According to Chandra et al. [115], fiber-reinforced composites offer better strength and stiffness, as well as a stronger damping effect, than traditional materials. Da et al. [116] measured the frequency and conducted modal damping analysis for jute/sisal hybrid polyester composites using the impulse hammer technique. They found that the average damping factor attained for the jute/sisal hybrid composite was 1.15 times higher than the composite reinforced with the jute layer alone. It was due to differences in the flexural stiffness of the jute/sisal hybrid polyester composite. Rajini et al. [117] discussed the free vibration behavior of coconut woven mat with different percentages of nanoclay added to the polyester composite. The introduction of nanoclay increased the natural frequency of the composite by up to 3 wt%, whereas further addition reduced the matrix stiffness. The damping characteristics of the composite material improved as the wt% of the nanoclay increased, owing to the efficient interaction between the fiber and matrix, which boosted the composite material’s energy dissipation. Rajesh et al. [83][118] reported similar observations for a banana–jute intra-ply hybrid composite. Results showed that the use of a basket-woven composite as reinforcement enhanced the first three fundamental natural frequencies of the composite material. Fiber orientation within the yarn plays an essential role in determining natural frequencies [119][120]. Rajesh and Pitchaimani [121] analyzed the natural frequency of woven natural fiber composites under a buckling load. Results revealed that the weaving patterns influenced the resistance against a buckling load.


    1. Foulk, J.A.; Akin, D.E.; Dodd, R.B. New Low Cost Flax Fibers for Composites. SAE Technol. Pap. Ser. 2000, 1, 1133.
    2. Venkateshwaran, N.; Elayaperumal, A. Banana Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites—A Review. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 2010, 29, 2387–2396.
    3. Joshi, S.V.; Drzal, L.T.; Mohanty, A.K.; Arora, S. Are natural fiber composites environmentally superior to glass fiber reinforced composites? Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2004, 35, 371–376.
    4. Holbery, J.; Houston, D. Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications. JOM 2006, 58, 80–86.
    5. Gurunathan, T.; Mohanty, S.; Nayak, S.K. A review of the recent developments in biocomposites based on natural fibres and their application perspectives. Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2015, 77, 1–25.
    6. Gargiullo, L.; Del Chierico, F.; D’Argenio, P.; Putignani, L. Gut microbiota modulation for multidrug-resistant organism decoloni-zation: Present and future perspectives. Front. Microbiol. 2019, 10, 1704.
    7. Al-Oqla, F.M. Sapuan, S.M. Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites in industrial applications: Feasibility of date palm fibers for sustainable automotive industry. J. Clean. Prod. 2014, 66, 347–354.
    8. Arthanarieswaran, V.P.; Kumaravel, A.; Kathirselvam, M. Evaluation of mechanical properties of banana and sisal fiber reinforced epoxy composites: Influence of glass fiber hybridization. Mater. Des. 2014, 64, 194–202.
    9. Soundhar, A.; Jayakrishna, K. Investigations on mechanical and morphological characterization of chitosan reinforced polymer nanocomposites. Mater. Res. Express 2019, 6, 1–23.
    10. Sanjay, M.R.; Madhu, P.; Jawaid, M.; Senthamaraikannan, P.; Senthil, S.; Pradeep, S. Characterization and properties of natural fiber polymer composites: A comprehensive review. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 172, 566–581.
    11. Ghani, M.U.; Siddique, A.; Abraha, K.G.; Yao, L.; Li, W.; Khan, M.Q.; Kim, I.S. Performance Evaluation of Jute/Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polybutylene Succinate (PBS) Hybrid Composites with Different Layering Configurations. Materials 2022, 15, 1055.
    12. Sen, T.; Reddy, H.J. Strengthening of RC beams in flexure using natural jute fibre textile reinforced composite system and its comparative study with CFRP and GFRP strengthening systems. Int. J. Sustain. Built Environ. 2013, 2, 41–55.
    13. Sapuan, S.M.; Maleque, M.A. Design and fabrication of natural woven fabric reinforced epoxy composite for household telephone stand. Mater. Des. 2005, 26, 65–71.
    14. Alves, C.; Ferrão, P.; Silva, A.J.; Reis, L.G.; Freitas, M.; Rodrigues, L.B.; Alves, D.E. Ecodesign of automotive components making use of natural jute fiber composites. J. Clean. Prod. 2010, 18, 313–327.
    15. Davoodi, M.M.; Sapuan, M.S.M.; Ahmad, D.; Ali, A.; Khalina, A.; Jonoobi, M. Mechanical properties of hybrid kenaf/glass reinforced epoxy composite for passenger car bumper beam. Mater. Des. 2010, 31, 4927–4932.
    16. Damodaran, A.; Mansour, H.; Lessard, L.; Scavone, G.; Babu, A.S. Application of composite materials to the chenda, an Indian percussion instrument. Appl. Acoust. 2015, 88, 1–5.
    17. Wu, M.; Shuai, H.; Cheng, Q.; Jiang, L. Bioinspired green composite lotus fibers. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 3358–3361.
    18. Kumar, R.; Zhang, L. Aligned ramie fiber reinforced arylated soy protein composites with improved properties. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2009, 69, 555–560.
    19. Shahzad, A. Hemp fiber and its composites–A review. J. Compos. Mater. 2012, 46, 973–986.
    20. Fadel, S.M.; Hassan, M.L.; Oksman, K. Improving tensile strength and moisture barrier properties of gelatin using microfibrillated cellulose. J. Compos. Mater. 2013, 47, 1977–1985.
    21. O’Donnell, A.; Dweib, M.; Wool, R. Natural fiber composites with plant oil-based resin. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2004, 64, 1135–1145.
    22. Abral, H.; Kadriadi, D.; Rodianus, A.; Mastariyanto, P.; Ilhamdi; Arief, S.; Sapuan, S.; Ishak, M. Mechanical properties of water hyacinth fibers—Polyester composites before and after immersion in water. Mater. Des. 2014, 58, 125–129.
    23. Mayandi, K.; Rajini, N.; Pitchipoo, P.; Sreenivasan, V.; Jappes, J.W.; Alavudeen, A. A comparative study on characterisations of Cissus quadrangularis and Phoenix reclinata natural fibres. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 2015, 34, 269–280.
    24. Karakoti, A.; Soundhar, A.; Rajesh, M.; Jayakrishna, K.; Hameed, M.T. Enhancement of mechanical properties of an epoxy composite reinforced with Hibiscuss sabdariffa var. altissima fiber micro cellulose. Int. J. Recent Technol. 2019, 8, 477–480.
    25. Rudnik, E.; Briassoulis, D. Comparative Biodegradation in Soil Behaviour of two Biodegradable Polymers Based on Renewable Resources. J. Polym. Environ. 2011, 19, 18–39.
    26. Almeida, J.R.; Monterio, S.N.; Terrones, L.A. Mechanical properties of coir/polyester composites. Elsevier Polym. Test. 2008, 27, 591–595.
    27. Joseph, P.V.; Joseph, K.; Thomas, S. Effect of processing variables on the mechanical properties of sisal-fiber-reinforced polypro-pylene composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 1999, 59, 1625–1640.
    28. Arib, R.M.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ahmad, M.M.; Paridah, M.T.; Zaman, H.K. Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced poly-propylene composites. Mater. Des. 2006, 27, 391–396.
    29. El-Shekeil, Y.A.; Sapuan, S.M.; Abdan, K.; Zainudin, E.S. Influence of fiber content on the mechanical and thermal properties of Kenaf fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites. Compos. Part B Eng. 2012, 43, 245–254.
    30. Idicula, M.; Malhotra, S.K.; Joseph, K.; Thomas, S. Dynamic mechanical analysis of randomly oriented intimately mixed short ba-nana/sisal hybrid fibre reinforced polyester composites. Compos. Sci. Tech. 2005, 65, 1077–1087.
    31. Doan, T.-T.-L.; Brodowsky, H.; Mäder, E. Jute fibre/polypropylene composites II. Thermal, hydrothermal and dynamic mechanical behaviour. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2007, 67, 2707–2714.
    32. Pothan, L.A.; Oommen, Z.; Thomas, S. Dynamic mechanical analysis of banana fiber reinforced polyester composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2003, 63, 283–293.
    33. Kumar, K.S.; Siva, I.; Jeyaraj, P.; Jappes, J.W.; Amico, S.C.; Rajini, N. Synergy of fiber length and content on free vibration and damping behavior of natural fiber reinforced polyester composite beams. Mater. Des. 2014, 56, 379–386.
    34. El-Tayeb, N. A study on the potential of sugarcane fibers/polyester composite for tribological applications. Wear 2008, 265, 223–235.
    35. Shalwan, A.; Yousif, B.F. In State of Art: Mechanical and tribological behaviour of polymeric composites based on natural fibres. Mater. Des. 2013, 48, 14–24.
    36. Yousif, B.F.; El-Tayeb, N.S.M. The effect of oil palm fibers as reinforcement on tribological performance of polyester composite. Surf. Rev. Lett. 2007, 14, 1095–1102.
    37. Suarez, S.A.; Gibson, R.F.; Sun, C.T.; Chaturvedi, S.K. The influence of fiber length and fiber orientation on damping and stiffness of polymer composite materials. Exp. Mech. 1986, 26, 175–184.
    38. John, M.J.; Thomas, S. Biofibres and biocomposites. Carbohydr. Polym. 2008, 71, 343–364.
    39. Thomas, S.; Pothan, L.A.; Cherian, B.M. Natural fibre reinforced polymer composites: From macro to nanoscale. Arch. Contemp. 2009, 36, 317–333.
    40. Alavudeen, A.; Rajini, N.; Karthikeyan, S.; Thiruchitrambalam, M.; Venkateshwaren, N. Mechanical properties of banana/kenaf fiber-reinforced hybrid polyester composites: Effect of woven fabric and random orientation. Mater. Des. 2015, 66, 246–257.
    41. Ramesh, M.; Deepa, C. Processing of Green Composites. In Textile Science and Clothing Technology; Springer Science and Business Media LLC: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2018; pp. 47–72.
    42. Saheb, D.N.; Jog, J.P. Natural fiber polymer composites: A review. Adv. Polym. Technol. J. Polym. Process. Inst. 1999, 18, 351–363.
    43. Juárez, C.; Durán, A.; Valdez-Tamez, P.L.; Fajardo, G. Performance of “Agave lecheguilla” natural fiber in portland cement composites exposed to severe environment conditions. Build. Environ. 2007, 42, 1151–1157.
    44. Bledzki, A.K.; Mamun, A.A.; Faruk, O. Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites and comparison with jute and flax fibre PP composites. Express Polym. Lett. 2007, 1, 755–762.
    45. Yan, L.; Kasal, B.; Huang, L. A review of recent research on the use of cellulosic fibres, their fibre fabric reinforced cementitious, geo-polymer and polymer composites in civil engineering. Compos. Part B Eng. 2016, 92, 94–132.
    46. Asim, M.; Jawaid, M.; Abdan, K.; Ishak, M.R.; Alothman, O.Y. Effect of Hybridization on the Mechanical Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fiber/Kenaf Phenolic Hybrid Composites. J. Renew. Mater. 2018, 6, 38–46.
    47. Mwaikambo, L.Y.; Martuscelli, E.; Avella, M. Kapok/cotton fabric–polypropylene composites. Polym. Test. 2000, 19, 905–918.
    48. Sapuan, S.; Leenie, A.; Harimi, M.; Beng, Y. Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites. Mater. Des. 2006, 27, 689–693.
    49. Bennet, C.; Rajini, N.; Winowlin Jappes, J.T.; Venkatesh, A.; Harinarayanan, S.; Vinothkumar, G. Effect of Lamina Fiber Orientation on Tensile and Free Vibration (by Impulse Hammer Technique) Properties of Coconut Sheath/Sansevieria cylindrica Hybrid Composites. AMR 2014, 984–985, 172–177.
    50. Carmisciano, S.; De Rosa, I.M.; Sarasini, F.; Tamburrano, A.; Valente, M. Basalt woven fiber reinforced vinylester composites: Flexural and electrical properties. Mater. Des. 2011, 32, 337–342.
    51. Venkateshwaran, N.; ElayaPerumal, A.; Raj, R.A. Mechanical and dynamic mechanical analysis of woven banana/epoxy com-posite. J. Polym. Environ. 2012, 20, 565–572.
    52. Mariatti, M.; Jannah, M.; Abu Bakar, A.; Khalil, H.A. Properties of Banana and Pandanus Woven Fabric Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites. J. Compos. Mater. 2008, 42, 931–941.
    53. Khan, G.A.; Terano, M.; Gafur, M.; Alam, M.S. Studies on the mechanical properties of woven jute fabric reinforced poly(l-lactic acid) composites. J. King Saud Univ.—Eng. Sci. 2016, 28, 69–74.
    54. Rajesh, M.; Pitchaimani, J. Mechanical Properties of Natural Fiber Braided Yarn Woven Composite: Comparison with Conventional Yarn Woven Composite. J. Bionic Eng. 2017, 14, 141–150.
    55. Goutianos, S.; Peijs, T.; Nystrom, B.; Skrifvars, M.O.V. Development of Flax Fibre based Textile Reinforcements for Composite Applications. Appl. Compos. Mater. 2006, 13, 199–215.
    56. Pothan, L.A.; Mai, Y.-W.; Thomas, S.; Li, R. Tensile and Flexural Behavior of Sisal Fabric/Polyester Textile Composites Prepared by Resin Transfer Molding Technique. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 2008, 27, 1847–1866.
    57. Shibata, S.; Cao, Y.; Fukumoto, I. Flexural modulus of the unidirectional and random composites made from biodegradable resin and bamboo and kenaf fibres. Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2008, 39, 640–646.
    58. Chandekar, H.; Chaudhari, V.; Waigaonkar, S. A review of jute fiber reinforced polymer composites. Mater. Today Proc. 2020, 26, 2079–2082.
    59. Darshan, S.M.; Suresha, B. Effect of basalt fiber hybridization on mechanical properties of silk fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Mater. Today Proc. 2020, 43, 986–994.
    60. Akhtar, M.N.; Sulong, A.B.; Radzi, M.K.F.M.; Ismail, N.; Raza, M.; Muhamad, N.; Khan, M.A. Influence of alkaline treatment and fiber loading on the physical and mechanical properties of kenaf/polypropylene composites for variety of applications. Prog. Nat. Sci. 2016, 26, 657–664.
    61. Gupta, M.; Srivastava, R. Tensile and Flexural Properties of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite: A Comparison between Unidirectional and Mat form of Fibres. Procedia Mater. Sci. 2014, 5, 2434–2439.
    62. Xia, T.; Huang, H.; Wu, G.; Sun, E.; Jin, X.; Tang, W. The characteristic changes of rice straw fibers in anaerobic digestion and its effect on rice straw-reinforced composites. Ind. Crop. Prod. 2018, 121, 73–79.
    63. Odusote, J.K.; Oyewo, A.T. Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fiber reinforced polymer composites for application as a prosthetic socket. J. Eng. Technol. 2016, 7, 125–139.
    64. Hidalgo-Salazar, M.A.; Salinas, E. Mechanical, thermal, viscoelastic performance and product application of PP-rice husk Co-lombian biocomposites. Compos. Part B Eng. 2019, 176, 107135.
    65. Ferrandez-Garcia, M.T.; Ferrandez-Garcia, C.E.; Garcia-Ortuño, T.; Ferrandez-Garcia, A.; Ferrandez-Villena, M. Experimental Evaluation of a New Giant Reed (Arundo donax L.) Composite Using Citric Acid as a Natural Binder. Agronomy 2019, 9, 882.
    66. Georgiopoulos, P.; Christopoulos, A.; Koutsoumpis, S.; Kontou, E. The effect of surface treatment on the performance of flax/biodegradable composites. Compos. Part B Eng. 2016, 106, 88–98.
    67. Sathishkumar, T.; Naveen, J.; Navaneethakrishnan, P.; Satheeshkumar, S.; Rajini, N. Characterization of sisal/cotton fibre woven mat reinforced polymer hybrid composites. J. Ind. Text. 2016, 47, 429–452.
    68. Thiagamani, S.M.K.; Krishnasamy, S.; Muthukumar, C.; Tengsuthiwat, J.; Nagarajan, R.; Siengchin, S.; Ismail, S.O. Investigation into mechanical, absorption and swelling behaviour of hemp/sisal fibre reinforced bioepoxy hybrid composites: Effects of stacking sequences. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 140, 637–646.
    69. Soundhar, A.; Kandasamy, J. Mechanical, Chemical and Morphological Analysis of Crab shell/Sisal Natural Fiber Hybrid Composites. J. Nat. Fibers 2021, 18, 1518–1532.
    70. James, D.J.D.; Manoharan, S.; Saikrishnan, G.; Arjun, S. Influence of bagasse/sisal fibre stacking sequence on the mechanical characteristics of hybrid-epoxy composites. J. Nat. Fibers 2020, 17, 1497–1507.
    71. Chaudhary, V.; Bajpai, P.K.; Maheshwari, S. An investigation on wear and dynamic mechanical behavior of jute/hemp/flax reinforced composites and its hybrids for tribological applications. Fibers Polym. 2018, 19, 403–415.
    72. Krishnan, G.S.; Shanmugasundar, G.; Vanitha, M.; Sivashanmugam, N. Mechanical Properties of Chemically Treated Banana and Ramie Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites. IOP Conf. Series Mater. Sci. Eng. 2020, 961, 012013.
    73. Balaji, A.; Sivaramakrishnan, K.; Karthikeyan, B.; Purushothaman, R.; Swaminathan, J.; Kannan, S.; Udhayasankar, R.; Madieen, A.H. Study on mechanical and morphological properties of sisal/banana/coir fiber-reinforced hybrid polymer composites. J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 2019, 41, 386.
    74. Ibrahim, H.; Farag, M.; Megahed, H.; Mehanny, S. Characteristics of starch-based biodegradable composites reinforced with date palm and flax fibers. Carbohydr. Polym. 2014, 101, 11–19.
    75. Kumar, N.; Grewal, J.S.; Singh, T.; Kumar, N. Mechanical and thermal properties of chemically treated Kenaf natural fiber rein-forced polymer composites. Mater. Today Proc. 2021.
    76. Ravindran, S.; Sozhamannan, G.G.; Saravanan, L.; Venkatachalapathy, V.S. Study on mechanical behaviour of natural fiber rein-forced vinylester hybrid composites. Mater. Today Proc. 2021, 45, 4526–4530.
    77. Krishnan, G.S.; Shanmugasundar, G.; Vanitha, M.; Srinivasan, S.; Suresh, G. Investigation on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Red banana/Ramie Fiber vinyl ester composites. IOP Conf. Series Mater. Sci. Eng. 2020, 961, 012015.
    78. Karaduman, Y.; Onal, L.; Rawal, A. Effect of stacking sequence on mechanical properties of hybrid flax/jute fibers reinforced thermoplastic composites. Polym. Compos. 2015, 36, 2167–2173.
    79. Kumar, S.M.S.; Duraibabu, D.; Subramanian, K. Studies on mechanical, thermal and dynamics mechanical properties of untreated (raw) and treated coconut sheath fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Mater. Des. 2014, 59, 63–69.
    80. Ganesh, S.; Gunda, Y.; Mohan, S.R.; Raghunathan, V.; Dhilip, J.D. Influence of stacking sequence on the mechanical and water absorption characteristics of areca sheath-palm leaf sheath fibers reinforced epoxy composites. J. Nat. Fibers 2020, 1–11.
    81. Khan, T.; Sultan, M.T.H.; Shah, A.U.M.; Ariffin, A.H.; Jawaid, M. The Effects of Stacking Sequence on the Tensile and Flexural Properties of Kenaf/Jute Fibre Hybrid Composites. J. Nat. Fibers 2021, 18, 452–463.
    82. Sathish, P.; Kesavan, R.; Ramnath, B.V.; Vishal, C. Effect of Fiber Orientation and Stacking Sequence on Mechanical and Thermal Characteristics of Banana-Kenaf Hybrid Epoxy Composite. Silicon 2017, 9, 577–585.
    83. Rajesh, M.; Pitchaimani, J. Dynamic mechanical analysis and free vibration behavior of intra-ply woven natural fiber hybrid polymer composite. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 2015, 35, 228–242.
    84. Aziz, S.H.; Ansell, M.P. The effect of alkalization and fibre alignment on the mechanical and thermal properties of kenaf and hemp bast fibre composites: Part 1—Polyester resin matrix. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2004, 64, 1219–1230.
    85. Herrera-Franco, P.J.; Valadez-González, A. A study of the mechanical properties of short natural-fiber reinforced composites. Compos. Part B Eng. 2005, 36, 597–608.
    86. Geethamma, V.G.; Kalaprasad, G.; Groeninckx, G.; Thomas, S. Dynamic mechanical behavior of short coir fiber reinforced natural rubber composites. Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2005, 36, 1499–1506.
    87. Hossain, M.K.; Dewan, M.W.; Hosur, M.; Jeelani, S. Mechanical performances of surface modified jute fiber reinforced biopol nanophased green composites. Compos. Part B Eng. 2011, 42, 1701–1707.
    88. Essabir, H.; Elkhaoulani, A.; Benmoussa, K.; Bouhfid, R.; Arrakhiz, F.; Qaiss, A.E.K. Dynamic mechanical thermal behavior analysis of doum fibers reinforced polypropylene composites. Mater. Des. 2013, 51, 780–788.
    89. Yan, L. Effect of alkali treatment on vibration characteristics and mechanical properties of natural fabric reinforced composites. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 2012, 31, 887–896.
    90. Kumar, K.S.; Siva, I.; Rajini, N.; Jeyaraj, P.; Jappes, J.W. Tensile, impact, and vibration properties of coconut sheath/sisal hybrid composites: Effect of stacking sequence. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 2014, 33, 1802–1812.
    91. Indira, K.N.; Jyotishkumar, P.; Thomas, S. Viscoelastic behaviour of untreated and chemically treated banana Fiber/PF composites. Fibers Polym. 2014, 15, 91–100.
    92. Rajini, N.; Jappes, J.T.W.; Jeyaraj, P.; Rajakarunakaran, S.; Bennet, C. Effect of montmorillonite nanoclay on temperature dependence mechanical properties of naturally woven coconut sheath/polyester composite. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 2013, 32, 811–822.
    93. Prabu, V.A.; Uthayakumar, M.; Manikandan, V.; Rajini, N.; Jeyaraj, P. Influence of redmud on the mechanical, damping and chemical resistance properties of banana/polyester hybrid composites. Mater. Des. 2014, 64, 270–279.
    94. Negawo, T.A.; Polat, Y.; Buyuknalcaci, F.N.; Kilic, A.; Saba, N.; Jawaid, M. Mechanical, morphological, structural and dynamic me-chanical properties of alkali treated Ensete stem fibers reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. Compos. Struct. 2019, 207, 589–597.
    95. Gheith, M.H.; Aziz, M.A.; Ghori, W.; Saba, N.; Asim, M.; Jawaid, M.; Alothman, O.Y. Flexural, thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of date palm fibres reinforced epoxy composites. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 2019, 8, 853–860.
    96. Satapathy, S.; Kothapalli, R.V.S. Mechanical, Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Banana Fiber/Recycled High Density Polyethylene Biocomposites Filled with Flyash Cenospheres. J. Polym. Environ. 2018, 26, 200–213.
    97. Doddi, P.R.V.; Chanamala, R.; Dora, S.P. Effect of fiber orientation on dynamic mechanical properties of PALF hybridized with basalt reinforced epoxy composites. Mater. Res. Express 2020, 7, 015329.
    98. Kalusuraman, G.; Siva, I.; Munde, Y.; Pon Selvan, C.; Kumar, S.A.; Amico, S.C. Dynamic-mechanical properties as a function of luffa fibre content and adhesion in a polyester composite. Polym. Test. 2020, 87, 106538.
    99. Fangueiro, R.; Rana, S. Natural Fibres: Advances in Science and Technology towards Industrial Applications; Fangueiro, R., Rana, S., Eds.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2016.
    100. Gupta, K.M. Engineering Materials: Research, Applications and Advances; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2014.
    101. Jawaid, M.; Khalil, H.A.; Alattas, O.S. Woven hybrid biocomposites: Dynamic mechanical and thermal properties. Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2012, 43, 288–293.
    102. Asim, M.; Jawaid, M.; Abdan, K.; Ishak, M.R. Effect of pineapple leaf fibre and kenaf fibre treatment on mechanical performance of phenolic hybrid composites. Fibers Polym. 2017, 18, 940–947.
    103. Durante, M.; Langella, A.; Formisano, A.; Boccarusso, L.; Carrino, L. Dynamic-Mechanical Behaviour of Bio-composites. Procedia Eng. 2016, 167, 231–236.
    104. Chandrasekar, M.; Ishak, M.R.; Sapuan, S.M.; Leman, Z.; Jawaid, M. A review on the characterisation of natural fibres and their composites after alkali treatment and water absorption. Plast. Rubber Compos. 2017, 46, 119–136.
    105. Chandradass, J.; Kumar, M.R.; Velmurugan, R. Effect of nanoclay addition on vibration properties of glass fibre reinforced vinyl ester composites. Mater. Lett. 2007, 61, 4385–4388.
    106. Gibson, R.F. A review of recent research on mechanics of multifunctional composite materials and structures. Compos. Struct. 2010, 92, 2793–2810.
    107. Wambua, P.; Ivens, J.; Verpoest, I. Natural fibres: Can they replace glass in fibre reinforced plastics? Compos. Sci. Technol. 2003, 63, 1259–1264.
    108. Kalia, S.; Kaith, B.; Kaur, I. Pretreatments of natural fibers and their application as reinforcing material in polymer composites-A review. Polym. Eng. Sci. 2009, 49, 1253–1272.
    109. Haddad, Y.M. Mechanical Behaviour of Engineering Materials: Volume 2: Dynamic Loading and Intelligent Material Systems; Springer Science & Business Media: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2013.
    110. Chen, B.; Chou, T.-W. Free vibration analysis of orthogonal-woven fabric composites. Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 1999, 30, 285–297.
    111. Rouf, K.; Denton, N.L.; French, R.M. Effect of fabric weaves on the dynamic response of two-dimensional woven fabric composites. J. Mater. Sci. 2017, 52, 10581–10591.
    112. Duc, F.; Bourban, E.; Manson, E. Damping performance of flax fibre composites. In Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, Seville, Spain, 22–26 June 2014.
    113. Shen, Y.; Tan, J.; Fernandes, L.; Qu, Z.; Li, Y. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis on Delaminated Flax Fiber Reinforced Composites. Material 2019, 12, 2559.
    114. Mishra, I.; Sahu, S.K. Modal Analysis of Woven Fiber Composite Plates with Different Boundary Conditions. Int. J. Struct. Stab. Dyn. 2015, 15, 1–17.
    115. Chandra, R.; Singh, S.P.; Gupta, K. Damping studies in fiber-reinforced composites–A review. Compos. Struct. 1999, 46, 41–51.
    116. Akash, D.A.; Thyagaraj, N.R.; Sudev, L.J. Experimental study of dynamic behaviour of hybrid jute/sisal fibre reinforced polyester composites. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Appl. 2013, 2, 170–172.
    117. Rajini, N.; Jappes, J.W.; Rajakarunakaran, S.; Jeyaraj, P. Dynamic mechanical analysis and free vibration behavior in chemical modifications of coconut sheath/nano-clay reinforced hybrid polyester composite. J. Compos. Mater. 2013, 47, 3105–3121.
    118. Rajesh, M.; Jeyaraj, P.; Rajini, N. Mechanical, Dynamic Mechanical and Vibration Behavior of Nanoclay Dispersed Natural Fiber Hybrid Intra-ply Woven Fabric Composite. In Nanoclay Reinforced Polymer Composites; Springer Science and Business Media LLC: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2016; pp. 281–296.
    119. Rajesh, M.; Pitchaimani, J. Dynamic mechanical and free vibration behavior of natural fiber braided fabric composite: Com-parison with conventional and knitted fabric composites. Polym. Compos. 2018, 39, 2479–2489.
    120. Rajesh, M.; Pitchaimani, J.; Rajini, N. Free Vibration Characteristics of Banana/Sisal Natural Fibers Reinforced Hybrid Polymer Composite Beam. Procedia Eng. 2016, 144, 1055–1059.
    121. Rajesh, M.; Pitchaimani, J. Experimental investigation on buckling and free vibration behavior of woven natural fiber fabric composite under axial compression. Compos. Struct. 2017, 163, 302–311.
    Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , , , , , ,
    View Times: 695
    Revisions: 2 times (View History)
    Update Date: 17 May 2022
    Table of Contents


      Are you sure you want to delete?

      Video Upload Options

      Do you have a full video?
      If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
      Arumugam, S.; Sultan, M.T.; Kandasamy, J.; Shahar, F.S.; Shah, A.U.M.; Sebaey, T.; Khan, T. Natural Fiber Composites. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 07 February 2023).
      Arumugam S, Sultan MT, Kandasamy J, Shahar FS, Shah AUM, Sebaey T, et al. Natural Fiber Composites. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed February 07, 2023.
      Arumugam, Soundhar, Mohamed Thariq Sultan, Jayakrishna Kandasamy, Farah Syazwani Shahar, Ain Umaira Md Shah, Tamer Sebaey, Tabrej Khan. "Natural Fiber Composites," Encyclopedia, (accessed February 07, 2023).
      Arumugam, S., Sultan, M.T., Kandasamy, J., Shahar, F.S., Shah, A.U.M., Sebaey, T., & Khan, T. (2022, May 09). Natural Fiber Composites. In Encyclopedia.
      Arumugam, Soundhar, et al. ''Natural Fiber Composites.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 09 May, 2022.