Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 3794 2022-04-18 11:43:07 |
2 format corrected. + 3 word(s) 3797 2022-04-19 04:09:09 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Jabbar, A.; Rafi-Ul-Shan, P.M.; Abbasi, Q.; Anjum, N.; Kalsoom, T.; Ramzan, N.; Ahmed, S.; Falade, O.P.; Imran, M.; Ur Rehman, M. Millimeter-Wave Smart Antenna Solutions for URLLC. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21873 (accessed on 24 June 2024).
Jabbar A, Rafi-Ul-Shan PM, Abbasi Q, Anjum N, Kalsoom T, Ramzan N, et al. Millimeter-Wave Smart Antenna Solutions for URLLC. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21873. Accessed June 24, 2024.
Jabbar, Abdul, Piyya Muhammad Rafi-Ul-Shan, Qammer Abbasi, Nadeem Anjum, Tahera Kalsoom, Naeem Ramzan, Shehzad Ahmed, Oluyemi P. Falade, Muhammad Imran, Masood Ur Rehman. "Millimeter-Wave Smart Antenna Solutions for URLLC" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21873 (accessed June 24, 2024).
Jabbar, A., Rafi-Ul-Shan, P.M., Abbasi, Q., Anjum, N., Kalsoom, T., Ramzan, N., Ahmed, S., Falade, O.P., Imran, M., & Ur Rehman, M. (2022, April 18). Millimeter-Wave Smart Antenna Solutions for URLLC. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21873
Jabbar, Abdul, et al. "Millimeter-Wave Smart Antenna Solutions for URLLC." Encyclopedia. Web. 18 April, 2022.
Millimeter-Wave Smart Antenna Solutions for URLLC
Edit

Industry 4.0 is a new paradigm of digitalization and automation that demands high data rates and real-time ultra-reliable agile communication. Industrial communication at sub-6 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands has some serious impediments, such as interference, spectral congestion, and limited bandwidth. These limitations hinder the high throughput and reliability requirements of modern industrial applications and mission-critical scenarios. 

5G 60 GHz Industry 4.0 millimeter-wave communication smart antennas

1. Introduction

The fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) is a paradigm of the cyber-physical world whose philosophy is based on fully automated and digitalized smart factories for enhanced production and customized user experience [1][2][3]. Various key enabling technologies are involved in one way or the other to bring the concept of Industry 4.0 to operation, such as cloud computing [4][5], big data [6], Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) [4][5][7], digital twins [8], artificial intelligence [9][10][11][12][13], smart communication [14][15][16][17], additive manufacturing [18][19], advanced robotics [20][21][22], and cyber-physical systems [7][8]. The main objective of Industry 4.0 revolves around automation and mass-productivity without much human intervention. On the other hand, a more human-centric approach has been envisioned to propose a new generation of the industrial revolution, i.e., Industry 5.0 [23][24][25]. Its aim is to leverage human creativity in addition to the intelligence of machines [23][24]. However, it is instructive to mention here that since the philosophy of Industry 5.0 is based on human involvement back in an industrial environment, thus on technological grounds, most of the enabling technologies that serve to visualize Industry 4.0 can equally be employed to pursue Industry 5.0. Therefore, onwards in this entry, the researchers refer to both industrial regimes collectively as Industry 4.0 and beyond.
In the industrial regime, the communication network has already welcomed a shift from wired to wireless communication due to the unblemished benefits of wireless infrastructure, such as mobility, scalability, easy installation, and low cost [15][26][27]. Primarily, the industrial wireless communication infrastructure is based on sub-6 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) bands, such as 2.4 and 5 GHz [28][29][30][31][32][33]. However, under the ambit of Industry 4.0 and beyond, factory automation and smart manufacturing applications require high throughput, ultrahigh reliability with a packet error rate of up to 10–9, low latency of below millisecond level, and agility [34]. This requirement can be linked with one of the use cases of fifth-generation (5G) mobile technology, i.e., ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC), as shown in Figure 1. Out of three vertices of a 5G triangle, i.e., enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), massive machine-type communication (mMTC), and URLLC, the factory automation scenario fits best under URLLC category to ensure millisecond-level delay in smart communication [35][36]. Moreover, with the emergence of ever more sophisticated applications (such as holographic telepresence, virtual reality, augmented reality, visual capabilities for smart robots and automatic guided vehicles, mass customization and personalization of products), the sixth generation of wireless technology (6G) has also emerged as an enabling technology to enhance the efficiency and scalability of the communication system [37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]. As a result, traditional sub-6 GHz wireless communication cannot meet URLLC requirements of Industry 4.0 and beyond because the unlicensed spectral resources in the low-frequency bands (e.g., 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz) are limited. The existing sub-6 GHz IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) standards (e.g., IEEE 802.11n, IEEE 802.11ac, etc.) can only provide a restricted data rate for new emergent applications.
/media/item_content/202204/625e18e530ba1sensors-22-02688-g001.png
Figure 1. Avenues of 5G services in the viewpoint of Industry 4.0 and beyond.
In the context of Industry 4.0 and beyond, the requirements for quality of service (QoS) and quality of data (QoD) are much more stringent [28][41]. QoS mainly includes high reliability, real-time operation, agility, seamless connectivity, security, and privacy. QoD, on the other hand, includes validity, accuracy, and integrity of the data [28]. The 60 GHz mmWave communication carries a promising potential to provide high QoS and QoD. Some of the major key performance indicators in this view are illustrated in Figure 2.
/media/item_content/202204/625e190ae8878sensors-22-02688-g002.png
Figure 2. Key performance indicators for Industry 4.0 and beyond communication.

2. Antennas for mmWave Industry 4.0 and beyond Communication

Antenna design at the 60 GHz mmWave band has been explored to a great extent in recent years. This is due to the advancement in CMOS and IC design technologies that support compact mmWave circuitry and RF frontends. Array antenna systems with beamforming are essential to support robust and reliable communication due to smaller wavelengths at mmWave and high susceptibility to path loss. The beamforming antennas help to improve the coverage, SNR, and effective beam steering [45]. The researchers broadly categorize the 60 GHz smart beamforming antennas into three types: printed circuit board (PCB)-based antennas [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62], on-chip antennas [63][64][65][66][67][68][69], and low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC)-based antennas [70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81]. The researchers discuss these antennas here in detail.

2.1. PCB-Based Antennas

PCB technology is cost-effective and easy to fabricate for antenna designs [82]. For mmWave antenna design, ease of fabrication and integration is of paramount importance. PCB technology is a common choice to fulfill these requirements. Moreover, the radiation properties of a particular antenna element are also an important consideration in the technology selection process. Broadside antennas are typically easier to integrate into array configurations, whereas end-fire radiating elements lend themselves best to edge integration. Microstrip patch antennas are currently among the most used radiating elements for 60 GHz mmWave arrays, despite material losses and performance limitations at this band. Various substrates are used to design such antennas, such as FR4, Rogers, liquid crystal polymers (LCP), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), etc. [46][51][83][84][85]. For industrial communication, some other durable substrates are also reported in the literature, such as Arlon, but at lower frequency bands [86]. However, conductor and dielectric losses are quite high in PCB-based antennas at mmWave frequencies.
Because of the skin effect at 60 GHz, conductor losses increase manifold. A survey on various mmWave antenna designs from 10 to 100 GHz is presented in [82]. Many conventional PCB-based antennas such as microstrip patch, dipole, monopole and slot antennas are reported in the literature [46][50][51][57][60][62][87][88]. Moreover, Vivaldi antennas [89][90][91], dielectric resonator antennas [87][92][93], fractal antennas [94][95][96][97], and substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW)-based leaky wave antennas [61][94][98][99][100] are also implemented on PCB technology.
The key to enhancing antenna gain at the mmWave band is to use array configuration. A detailed overview of various mmWave array antennas, different array geometries, and the challenges in array configuration is presented in [82][101]. Microstrip-based array antennas at 60 GHz may suffer losses. The properties of the substrate and its thickness necessitate extra consideration. At 60 GHz, the substrate thickness is quite high when compared to sub-6 GHz microwave frequencies. This impacts the bandwidth and input impedance of the antenna. Moreover, proper feed structure is essential to be designed for accurate antenna performance [82]. Furthermore, a review of array antennas, including 60 GHz P2P and P2MP communication, is provided in [57].

2.2. LTCC-Based Antennas

LTCC technology has emerged in recent years for the miniaturization of portable electronics devices. It is a multilayer technology and eludes many disadvantages of PCB-based designs. LTCC is a multilayer technology that has been used for packaging ICs and has been applied to sensors, actuators, and integrated microsystems with relatively low cost and high productivity [72][75][102]. LTCC-based antennas can be employed with efficient characteristics in industrial environments as well. Various circularly polarized (CP) and linearly polarized (LP) LTCC-based antennas are reported [70][73][76][77][78]. Since the electric field of the wave only changes direction in a circular fashion in circularly polarized antennas, the signal strength remains constant. Thus, high gain CP antennas can be more useful for effective short-range communication in a rich scattering industrial environment. An LTCC-based phased array antenna at 60 GHz integrated with a 28 nm CMOS transceiver at 60 GHz was reported in [103].
In order to mitigate the high cost of large arrays at the 60 GHz band for beamforming or MIMO, a metamaterial-based LTCC compressed Luneburg lens antenna is reported at the 60 GHz band [79]. An assembly of stacked multilayer PCB was used to realize a high gain LTCC-based Luneburg lens antenna. A comprehensive review of various LTCC-based antenna designs at 60 GHz is presented in [72]. In the future, LTTC-based antenna designs can be employed in Industry 4.0 and beyond at 60 GHz as a low-cost and compact solution.

2.3. On-Chip Antennas

As a result of unprecedented development in integrated circuit (IC) design due to the unmatched level of integration and aggressive scaling of transistors in the last few decades, on-chip antennas have become part of the chip. Earlier, the system-in-package (SiP) approach was mainly used to include antenna design along with the chip. However, with this approach, the antennas, which have diameters on the order of wavelengths, are still outside the package and are still the bottleneck for true on-chip system realization [68]. More advancements and improvements in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and silicon germanium (SiGe) technologies have paved the way for the design of small-scale packaged antennas on silicon wafers using the system-on-chip (SoC) approach [63][68]. Moreover, for PCB-based antennas, the bond wires are used to connect antennas to ICs because they are typically implemented on PCBs. As a result, because these bond wires are not well characterized, matching can suffer greatly, especially at higher frequencies GHz band. In this way, on-chip antennas helped to alleviate this problem [68].
On-chip antenna configuration is governed by foundry-specific constraints, whereas on-chip antenna characterization necessitates the use of particular text fixtures. In recent years, the majority of on-chip antennas have been implemented in bulk silicon-based technologies such as CMOS and SiGe (with low resistivity of 10 ohm-cm), as opposed to other semiconductor technologies (with high resistivity) such as gallium arsenide (GaAa) [63][68].
Owing to smart manufacturing and integration techniques, these on-chip antennas can be integrated with moving objects, smart robots, moving machines, unreachable points in a factory scenario, and/or human head-mounts to provide indoor seamless connectivity at 60 GHz. Various on-chip antennas have been reported in the literature [63][67][68], among which monopole, dipole, loop, and Yagi-Uda antennas are fundamental types. An insightful demonstration of on-chip antennas, their design rules, characterization, limitations, challenges, and solutions are presented in [68]. The 60 GHz on-chip antennas, as well as the complete RF front end, are reviewed in [63].

3. Research Opportunities and Future Directions

Where there are challenges, there are opportunities. Millimeter-wave communication has opened many research opportunities in wide areas of communication systems. Some key opportunities and open research questions are discussed in this section.

3.1. RF Frontend Design

First, there exists a huge room for improvement and advancements to design efficient RF frontend components. For instance, mmWave power amplifiers are usually less efficient due to the very high frequency of operation. Similarly, the design of wideband PAs and low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) at 60 GHz mmWave is also a challenge [104]. Particularly high PA efficiency will help to extend communication range and enhance battery life. The phase shifters (e.g., to be used for phased array antennas) at mmWave frequencies are quite lossy, and thus, accurate phase shifts are difficult to achieve with low insertion loss. Lossy phase shifters also reduce antenna gain at high frequencies. Thus, research should be carried out to design efficient phase shifters at mmWave bands to reduce antenna losses. In the same way, other RF components, such as mixers and voltage-controlled oscillators, must have a very large tuning range at the 60 GHz band. Likewise, the design of high-speed digital to analog converters (DAC) and analog-to-digital converts (ADC) is also a challenge. ADC is a crucial component of the 60 GHz communication system as it determines the achievable data rates.

3.2. System-on-Chip Design

The advancement in CMOS, SiGe, and IC design has led to the design of on-chip antennas (AoC) and antennas-in-package (AiP). AoC has always remained a bottleneck for the realization of true system-on-chip (SoC) RF solutions. Efficiency is the main issue in AoC due to the low resistivity and high permittivity of a silicon substrate [68]. However, some solutions, such as CMOS-MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), to suspend the antenna structure in air and keep a gap from the silicon substrate, may increase the efficiency and gain of AoC [64][68]. Moreover, the characterization and measurements of AoC are also different than those of conventional PCB-based antennas. This is because on-chip antennas are fed using small wafer probes, which are fragile and prone to damage. Any mishandling may affect the measurement results. A microscope is required to accurately place the probes on the miniature on-chip antennas or the lines feeding the antenna. Microscopes are not standard anechoic chamber equipment, so they must be carefully placed so that they do not interfere with the antenna radiation or obstruct its movement [68].

3.3. mmWave Antenna Array Design Challenges

At mmWave frequencies, array antennas are crucial for high gain and directional communication. Array designs at mmWave frequencies face additional challenges compared to low-frequency arrays [105]. The antenna element is an important part of the phased array antenna design. It has to be chosen according to the requirements of the antenna array, such as operating bandwidth, gain, sidelobe levels (SLL), polarization, etc. [106]. Extra emphasis needs to be placed on array antenna gain (to compensate for high attenuation and path loss of mmWave), size, and interoperability with other radio frequency modules in mmWave communication systems [82][106]. The high directivity of mmWave beams should ensure that interference is minimized. The substrate materials used in mmWave array antennas also affect their performance. The thermal capacity of the substrate material also limits the power. Radiation pattern, bandwidth, input impedance, and efficiency are all influenced by conductor characteristics, substrate thickness, and relative permittivity values of the substrate [82][101].
Due to closely placed antenna elements in array configuration, the mutual coupling in proximity becomes an issue for antenna design engineers and needs special attention [82]. Mutual coupling between array elements causes grating lobes and power transfer from one element to another via direct radiation and surface waves. Careful selection of the gap between the antenna elements is necessary to avoid grating lobes [107]. In some cases, grating lobes are deliberately introduced to combat the sparsity of mmWave channels with an analog beamformer [108]. These intentionally created grating lobes are employed in an analog beamformer to increase the scattering intensity in NLOS settings and therefore increase the scattering in the received signal power delay profile. Mutual coupling at mmWave frequencies rises as the substrate becomes thicker, resulting in a greater number of surface wave modes. As a result, the array sidelobe levels and main beam shape are degraded and may also cause scan blindness [57]. Various methods to reduce the mutual coupling between array elements are reported in [109][110][111][112][113][114].
The polarization of the array antenna is also an important factor. Polarization is defined by the time-varying electric field vector at a given observation point. To overcome the polarization mismatch, multi-polarized antenna arrays are used with the improvement in diversity gain [115][116][117]. Polarization is also affected by mutual coupling. As the scan angle increases, the mutual coupling causes cross-polarization isolation to deteriorate [118]. To maintain polarization purity, polarization compensation techniques are sometimes used, which increase the cost and complexity of mmWave array design [119][120][121][122].
Appropriate feeding mechanisms and power division networks should be designed, and their effects should be included in the antenna design process. The performance of an array is degraded by the radiation from the feed network. Mitigating the feed connector losses in mmWave PCB-based antennas is a challenging task and demands special attention. Particularly, in an industrial environment, electromagnetic interference from other machines and electrical appliances may affect the antenna performance severely. In this way, complete electromagnetic modeling of the antenna system with respect to the industrial ambiance is necessary to achieve accurate performance of the antennas. Extra care should be given to the selection of antenna element type and material properties for industrial communication.
The development challenges in mmWave antenna beamforming networks are presented in [123] that need to be addressed in future research. The review of mmWave penetration, coverage, security, scalability, attenuation, and antenna array architecture is presented in [124][125]. In order to make a robust and efficient smart antenna system, the smart antenna systems should entail rigorous RF measurements in real industrial environments. This will help to fully characterize the propagation channels of industrial wireless systems over the mmWave band.

3.4. mmWave MIMO

Since 60 GHz IEEE 802.11ay standard supports MIMO configuration [126]; thus, more advanced MIMO techniques should be designed and experimentally analyzed for different antenna directivities and single-polarized or dual-polarized transmissions. Moreover, suitable research opportunities exist for the design and implementation of dynamic adaptive dual-polarized antenna arrays for millimeter-wave, as well as low-power and low-complexity MIMO systems [127][128] that allow for flexible analog and digital beamforming and advanced signal processing techniques. MIMO, massive MIMO, and multiple antenna techniques at mmWave bands are hot cake topics for researchers [129].
Furthermore, for the wideband properties of 60 GHz channels, severe hurdles for MIMO communications may be created, particularly in multi-user scenarios. A detailed survey of MIMO channel models in wireless communication is presented in [130]. It is worthwhile to investigate adaptable systems that adjust to changing channel circumstances to attain the required performance. Additional beamforming gain might be obtained by using a denser array. Directivity and spatial multiplexing gain are provided by a mmWave MIMO architecture with a series of sub-arrays [131]. As a result, the diversity in the spatial domain is fully used, enhancing communication resilience and resulting in exceptionally high SNR channel links that are practically fading-proof in an industrial environment. Furthermore, MIMO with beamforming has been reported to enhance PHY security at 60 GHz [132], which is an active area of research for Industry 4.0 and beyond.

3.5. Beamforming

Beamforming techniques created specifically for NLOS and LOS radio channels will be required for next-generation wireless communication systems. As the size of antenna elements is much reduced at mmWave bands and a large number of antenna elements are involved in an array configuration, thus mmWave beamforming requires more RF components and RF chains, which increases the complexity of the antenna system [133]. In this view, the huge room is available to perform research to devise efficient, less complex, and low-cost analog/digital hybrid architectures for smart antenna systems. In a factory environment, multiple antenna systems with numerous radiating elements at the access point are particularly interesting options for obtaining very high data rates (mGbps) for users sharing the same spectrum at the same time [123].
Furthermore, for an effective hardware implementation of a beamformer system operating in the mmWave band, a realistic understanding of hardware impairments, wave propagation, and antenna characteristics is required in industrial communication. Contemporary research challenges in mmWave beamforming include solving complicated challenges linked to analog/digital hybrid beamforming, polarization diversity, optimization of the beam search process, concurrent beamforming protocols, resilient adaptive beamforming, exploiting channel sparsity, and 3D beamforming. These systems must achieve the goals of lowering beamforming calculation costs, delays, and power consumption while maintaining acceptable QoS to provide mGbps throughput [134].

3.6. Terahertz Communication

Terahertz (THz) communication is considered an enabling technology to envisage beyond-5G and 6G systems [135][136][137]. Industry 4.0 and beyond can also benefit from THz communication for future mission-critical applications with the high demand for massive URLLC [138][139][140][141][142]. However, more difficult propagation conditions exist at THz frequencies, such as increased path loss, higher penetration loss, and more severe shadowing. Besides other challenges such as standardization, design of THz sources, THz integrated circuits, and advanced THz antenna fabrication techniques [143][144][145][146].
THz antennas are the key devices for THz communication because of their tiny size, wide frequency bandwidth, and high data rate [147][148]. A plethora of THz antenna designs are reported in the literature for THz communication [147][149][150][151][152][153][154][155][156][157], to list but a few. Graphene is extensively used in THz antennas due to its exceptional optical properties [151][158]. THz communication is believed to be an emerging and enabling technology in future Industry 4.0 and beyond to provide extremely high data rates, with open research challenges [138].

3.7. Distributed Antenna System

The relatively harsh environment in industries (as compared to homes, offices, etc.) demands robust communication solutions. Traditional co-located multi-antenna systems reduce path loss, but they are insufficient in demanding real-world industrial applications where NLOS conditions occur often [37][159][160]. URLLC in Industry 4.0 and beyond for cyber-physical systems is a crucial challenge that is anticipated to be served by distributed antenna systems at mmWave bands [161][162][163][164]. The potential of mmWave-over-fiber distributed antenna systems for high-data wireless communication was demonstrated in [161]. Measurements in a controlled anechoic chamber and a realistic environment resembling an Industry 4.0 setting revealed the potential of distributed antenna system for establishing and maintaining mGbps wireless communication while overcoming self-blocking and LOS blockage issues [161][165].
The link blockage problem must be carefully addressed in order to transmit mmWave signals through LOS pathways to the required users. This will result in effective coverage and smooth network connectivity for mmWave communication systems [106]. Distributed antenna systems can serve as a potential solution by adding the properties of mmWave communication systems [162][166].

3.8. Machine Learning for Antennas in Industry 4.0 and Beyond

The potential of exploiting machine learning (ML) is imminent in 5G and beyond-enabled Industry 4.0 and beyond. At each abstraction layer, ML is anticipated to be used to predict service demands of Industry 4.0 and beyond as well as the evolution of the wireless channel in order to design self-optimizing and self-updating networks [167][168][169][170]. It is unveiled in [161] that the traditional multi-antenna signal processing approaches are no longer sufficient for broadband mmWave massive MIMO systems due to a large number of radiating elements involved, high data rates, and a high number of mobile users. Unlike traditional communication systems, which demand many computing resources and result in unacceptable latency, deep-learning-based approaches take advantage of natural channel sparsity to efficiently precode and modulate data into several streams and send it to the distributed system [161][171][172][173]. Moreover, a physics-inspired neural network is used in [174] to design a reconfigurable coded metasurface for dynamic beam steering. Such type of ML-based reconfigurable antennas possess huge potential for Industry 4.0 and beyond applications, where the smart antennas system is required to reconfigure its radiation pattern in real-time based on blockage, jamming, and NLOS scenarios.

3.9. Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces

Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is a groundbreaking technique for reconfiguring the wireless propagation environment through software-controlled reflections to achieve enhanced spectral and energy efficiency in a cost-effective manner [175][176][177][178][179][180]. Some alternative terms are also used for RIS, such as intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) or software-controlled metasurfaces [181][182]. By changing the phase and/or amplitude, the elements of RIS can separately reflect the incident signal. In this way, beamforming for directional signal augmentation or null placement is performed. Radiating elements, control circuitry using PIN diodes or varactors, and a controller or field-programmable gate array (FPGA) [183][184]. RIS technology is still in its infancy; however, most of the development aspects of RIS are presented in detail in [185][186]. Furthermore, beamforming development with RIS is studied in [187][188][189].
RIS provides a unique and cost-effective method for proactively combating wireless channel impairments. In this view, RIS-aided industrial communication is an emerging research area with huge potential [178][190]. RIS-aided wireless communication carries the promising potential to be an enabling technology to assist smart communication in Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0 [25]. Due to densely distributed industrial equipment (such as metal machinery, unpredictable movement of things (robots and trucks), wooden structures, and thick pillars), wireless signals are easily blocked and reduce performance reliability. When the direct communication link is impeded, RIS is a viable choice to provide an alternate transmission link [21][25][191][192]. The communication link can be created using a RIS mounted on the factory ceiling or the wall, delivering mission-critical industrial communication with seamless, reliable connectivity. A vision of RIS-enabled communication in Industry 4.0 and beyond seems to become a reality in the near future.

References

  1. Xu, X.; Lu, Y.; Vogel-Heuser, B.; Wang, L. Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0—Inception, conception and perception. J. Manuf. Syst. 2021, 61, 530–535.
  2. Meindl, B.; Ayala, N.F.; Mendonça, J.; Frank, A.G. The four smarts of Industry 4.0: Evolution of ten years of research and future perspectives. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2021, 168, 120784.
  3. Kalsoom, T.; Ramzan, N.; Ahmed, S.; Ur-Rehman, M. Advances in sensor technologies in the era of smart factory and industry 4.0. Sensors 2020, 20, 6783.
  4. Aceto, G.; Persico, V.; Pescapé, A. Industry 4.0 and health: Internet of things, big data, and cloud computing for healthcare 4.0. J. Ind. Inf. Integr. 2020, 18, 100129.
  5. Kalsoom, T.; Ahmed, S.; Rafi-Ul-Shan, P.M.; Azmat, M.; Akhtar, P.; Pervez, Z.; Imran, M.A.; Ur-Rehman, M. Impact of IoT on Manufacturing Industry 4.0: A new triangular systematic review. Sustainability 2021, 13, 12506.
  6. Singh, H. Big data, industry 4.0 and cyber-physical systems integration: A smart industry context. Mater. Today Proc. 2021, 46, 157–162.
  7. Pivoto, D.G.S.; de Almeida, L.F.F.; da Rosa Righi, R.; Rodrigues, J.J.P.C.; Lugli, A.B.; Alberti, A.M. Cyber-physical systems architectures for industrial internet of things applications in Industry 4.0: A literature review. J. Manuf. Syst. 2021, 58, 176–192.
  8. Tao, F.; Qi, Q.; Wang, L.; Nee, A.Y.C. Digital twins and cyber–physical systems toward smart manufacturing and industry 4.0: Correlation and comparison. Engineering 2019, 5, 653–661.
  9. Peres, R.S.; Jia, X.; Lee, J.; Sun, K.; Colombo, A.W.; Barata, J. Industrial artificial intelligence in industry 4.0-systematic review, challenges and outlook. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 220121–220139.
  10. Javaid, M.; Haleem, A.; Singh, R.P.; Suman, R. Artificial intelligence applications for industry 4.0: A literature-based study. J. Ind. Integr. Manag. 2021, 1–29.
  11. Mhlanga, D. Artificial intelligence in the industry 4.0, and its impact on poverty, innovation, infrastructure development, and the sustainable development goals: Lessons from emerging economies? Sustainability 2021, 13, 5788.
  12. Dopico, M.; Gómez, A.; De la Fuente, D.; García, N.; Rosillo, R.; Puche, J. A vision of industry 4.0 from an artificial intelligence point of view. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ICAI), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 26–29 June 2006; p. 407.
  13. Alhayani, B.; Kwekha-Rashid, A.S.; Mahajan, H.B.; Ilhan, H.; Uke, N.; Alkhayyat, A.; Mohammed, H.J. 5G standards for the Industry 4.0 enabled communication systems using artificial intelligence: Perspective of smart healthcare system. Appl. Nanosci. 2022, 1–11.
  14. Schwab, K. The Fourth Industrial Revolution; Penguin Random House; LLC: New York, NY, USA, 2017.
  15. Wollschlaeger, M.; Sauter, T.; Jasperneite, J. The future of industrial communication: Automation networks in the era of the internet of things and industry 4.0. IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag. 2017, 11, 17–27.
  16. Vaidya, S.; Ambad, P.; Bhosle, S. Industry 4.0—A glimpse. Procedia Manuf. 2018, 20, 233–238.
  17. Xu, L.D.; Xu, E.L.; Li, L. Industry 4.0: State of the art and future trends. Int. J. Prod. Res. 2018, 56, 2941–2962.
  18. Haghnegahdar, L.; Joshi, S.S.; Dahotre, N.B. From IoT-based cloud manufacturing approach to intelligent additive manufacturing: Industrial Internet of Things—An overview. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 2022, 119, 1461–1478.
  19. Dilberoglu, U.M.; Gharehpapagh, B.; Yaman, U.; Dolen, M. The role of additive manufacturing in the era of industry 4.0. Procedia Manuf. 2017, 11, 545–554.
  20. Pfeiffer, S. Robots, Industry 4.0 and humans, or why assembly work is more than routine work. Societies 2016, 6, 16.
  21. Van Huynh, D.; Khosravirad, S.R.; Nguyen, L.D.; Duong, T.Q. Multiple relay robots-assisted URLLC for industrial automation with deep neural networks. In Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), Madrid, Spain, 7–11 December 2021; pp. 1–5.
  22. Ranjha, A.; Kaddoum, G.; Dev, K. Facilitating URLLC in UAV-assisted relay systems with multiple-mobile robots for 6G Networks: A prospective of agriculture 4.0. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2021.
  23. Østergaard, E.H. Welcome to industry 5.0. Retrieved Febr. 2018, 5, 2020.
  24. Maddikunta, P.K.R.; Pham, Q.-V.; Prabadevi, B.; Deepa, N.; Dev, K.; Gadekallu, T.R.; Ruby, R.; Liyanage, M. Industry 5.0: A survey on enabling technologies and potential applications. J. Ind. Inf. Integr. 2021, 26, 100257.
  25. Firyaguna, F.; John, J.; Khyam, M.O.; Pesch, D.; Armstrong, E.; Claussen, H.; Poor, H.V. Towards Industry 5.0: Intelligent Reflecting Surface (IRS) in Smart Manufacturing. arXiv 2022, arXiv:2201.02214.
  26. Aceto, G.; Persico, V.; Pescapé, A. A survey on information and communication technologies for industry 4.0: State-of-the-art, taxonomies, perspectives, and challenges. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2019, 21, 3467–3501.
  27. Luvisotto, M.; Pang, Z.; Dzung, D. High-performance wireless networks for industrial control applications: New targets and feasibility. Proc. IEEE. 2019, 107, 1074–1093.
  28. Li, X.; Li, D.; Wan, J.; Vasilakos, A.V.; Lai, C.F.; Wang, S. A review of industrial wireless networks in the context of industry 4.0. Wirel. Netw. 2017, 23, 23–41.
  29. Wang, Q.; Jiang, J. Comparative examination on architecture and protocol of industrial wireless sensor network standards. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2016, 18, 2197–2219.
  30. Christin, D.; Mogre, P.S.; Hollick, M. Survey on wireless sensor network technologies for industrial automation: The security and quality of service perspectives. Future Internet 2010, 2, 96–125.
  31. Holfeld, B.; Wieruch, D.; Wirth, T.; Thiele, L.; Ashraf, S.A.; Huschke, J.; Aktas, I.; Ansari, J. Wireless communication for factory automation: An opportunity for LTE and 5G systems. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2016, 54, 36–43.
  32. Yu, H.; Zeng, P.; Xu, C. Industrial wireless control networks: From WIA to the future. Engineering 2021, 8, 18–24.
  33. Galloway, B.; Hancke, G.P. Introduction to industrial control networks. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2012, 15, 860–880.
  34. Ho, T.M.; Tran, T.D.; Nguyen, T.T.; Kazmi, S.M.A.; Le, L.B.; Hong, C.S.; Hanzo, L. Next-generation wireless solutions for the smart factory, smart vehicles, the smart grid and smart cities. arXiv 2019, arXiv:1907.10102.
  35. Rao, S.K.; Prasad, R. Impact of 5G technologies on industry 4.0. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 2018, 100, 145–159.
  36. Brown, G.; Analyst, P.; Reading, H. Ultra-reliable low-latency 5G for industrial automation. Technol. Rep. Qualcomm. 2018, 2, 52065394.
  37. Giordani, M.; Polese, M.; Mezzavilla, M.; Rangan, S.; Zorzi, M. Toward 6G networks: Use cases and technologies. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2020, 58, 55–61.
  38. Saad, W.; Bennis, M.; Chen, M. A vision of 6G wireless systems: Applications, trends, technologies, and open research problems. IEEE Netw. 2019, 34, 134–142.
  39. De Alwis, C.; Kalla, A.; Pham, Q.V.; Kumar, P.; Dev, K.; Hwang, W.-J.; Liyan, M. Survey on 6G frontiers: Trends, applications, requirements, technologies and future research. IEEE Open J. Commun. Soc. 2021, 2, 836–886.
  40. Zhao, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhai, W.; Sun, S.; Niyato, D.; Lam, K.Y. A survey of 6G wireless communications: Emerging technologies. In Proceedings of the Future of Information and Communication Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 29–30 April 2021; pp. 150–170.
  41. Tambare, P.; Meshram, C.; Lee, C.C.; Ramteke, R.J.; Imoize, A.L. Performance Measurement System and Quality Management in Data-Driven Industry 4.0: A Review. Sensors 2021, 22, 224.
  42. Imoize, A.L.; Adedeji, O.; Tandiya, N.; Shetty, S. 6G enabled smart infrastructure for sustainable society: Opportunities, challenges, and research roadmap. Sensors 2021, 21, 1709.
  43. Ranjha, A.; Kaddoum, G.; Rahim, M.; Dev, K. URLLC in UAV-enabled multicasting systems: A dual time and energy minimization problem using UAV speed, altitude and beamwidth. Comput. Commun. 2022, 187, 125–133.
  44. She, C.; Sun, C.; Gu, Z.; Li, Y.; Yang, C.; Poor, H.V.; Vucetic, B. A tutorial on ultrareliable and low-latency communications in 6G: Integrating domain knowledge into deep learning. Proc. IEEE 2021, 109, 204–246.
  45. Celik, N.; Iskander, M.F.; Emrick, R.; Franson, S.J.; Holmes, J. Implementation and experimental verification of a smart antenna system operating at 60 GHz band. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2008, 56, 2790–2800.
  46. Liu, H.; He, Y.; Wong, H. Printed U-slot patch antenna for 60GHz applications. In Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE International Workshop on Electromagnetics, Applications and Student Innovation Competition, Kowloon, China, 1–3 August 2013; pp. 153–155.
  47. Phalak, K.; Sebak, A. Surface Integrated waveguide based triangular cavity backed T slot planar antenna at 60 GHz. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI), Memphis, TN, USA, 6–11 July 2014; pp. 1495–1496.
  48. Raj, C.; Suganthi, S. Performance analysis of antenna with different substrate materials at 60 GHz. In Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET), Chennai, India, 22–24 March 2017; pp. 2537–2539.
  49. Zhu, J.; Liao, S.; Li, S.; Xue, Q. 60 GHz wideband high-gain circularly polarized antenna array with substrate integrated cavity excitation. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 2018, 17, 751–755.
  50. Mneesy, T.S.; Hamad, R.K.; Zaki, A.I.; Ali, W.A.E. A novel high gain monopole antenna array for 60 GHz millimeter-wave communications. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 4546.
  51. Chen, Z.N.; Qing, X.; Sun, M.; Gong, K.; Hong, W. 60-GHz antennas on PCB. In Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2014), The Hague, The Netherlands, 6–11 April 2014; pp. 533–536.
  52. Baniya, P.; Melde, K.L. 360° Switched Beam SIW Horn Arrays at 60 GHz, Phase Centers, and Friis Equation. In Proceedings of the 2021 United States National Committee of URSI National Radio Science Meeting (USNC-URSI NRSM), Boulder, CO, USA, 4–9 January 2021; pp. 113–114.
  53. Ur Rehman, M.; Safdar, G.A. LTE Communications and Networks: Femtocells and Antenna Design Challenges; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2018.
  54. Ur-Rehman, M.; Malik, N.A.; Yang, X.; Abbasi, Q.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, N. A low profile antenna for millimeter-wave body-centric applications. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2017, 65, 6329–6337.
  55. Pan, B.; Li, Y.; Ponchak, G.E.; Papapolymerou, J.; Tentzeris, M.M. A 60-GHz CPW-fed high-gain and broadband integrated horn antenna. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2009, 57, 1050–1056.
  56. Baniya, P.; Melde, K.L. Switched beam SIW horn arrays at 60 GHz for 360° reconfigurable chip-to-chip communications with interference considerations. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 100460–100471.
  57. Federico, G.; Caratelli, D.; Theis, G.; Smolders, A.B. A Review of Antenna Array Technologies for Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint Wireless Communications at Millimeter-Wave Frequencies. Int. J. Antennas Propag. 2021, 2021, 5559765.
  58. Hussain, M.; Naqvi, S.I.; Awan, W.A.; Ali, W.A.E.; Ali, E.M.; Khan, S.; Alibakhshikenari, M. Simple wideband extended aperture antenna-inspired circular patch for V-band communication systems. AEU-Int. J. Electron. Commun. 2022, 144, 154061.
  59. Haider, M.F.; Alam, S.; Sagor, M.H. V-shaped patch antenna for 60 GHz mmWave communications. In Proceedings of the 2018 3rd International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT), Pune, India, 6–8 April 2018; pp. 1–4.
  60. Saini, J.; Agarwal, S.K. Design a single band microstrip patch antenna at 60 GHz millimeter wave for 5G application. In Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Computer, Communications and Electronics (Comptelix), Jaipur, India, 1–2 July 2017; pp. 227–230.
  61. Vettikalladi, H.; Sethi, W.T.; Himdi, M.; Alkanhal, M. 60 GHz beam-tilting coplanar slotted SIW antenna array. Frequenz 2022, 76, 29–36.
  62. Li, M.; Luk, K.M. Low-cost wideband microstrip antenna array for 60-GHz applications. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2014, 62, 3012–3018.
  63. Rappaport, T.S.; Murdock, J.N.; Gutierrez, F. State of the art in 60-GHz integrated circuits and systems for wireless communications. Proc. IEEE 2011, 99, 1390–1436.
  64. Li, J.; Matos, C.; Chen, S.; Ghalichechian, N. Fundamental improvement to the efficiency of on-chip mmWave phased arrays using MEMS suspension. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 2021, 20, 473–477.
  65. Pilard, R.; Gianesello, F.; Gloria, D.; Titz, D.; Ferrero, F.; Luxey, C. 60 GHz HR SOI CMOS antenna for a system-on-chip integration scheme targeting high data-rate kiosk applications. In Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI), Spokane, WA, USA, 3–8 July 2011; pp. 895–898.
  66. Bijumon, P.V.; Antar, Y.M.M.; Freundorfer, A.P.; Sayer, M. Integrated dielectric resonator antennas for system on-chip applications. In Proceedings of the 2007 Internatonal Conference on Microelectronics, Cairo, Egypt, 29–31 December 2007; pp. 275–278.
  67. Rappaport, T.S.; Gutierrez, F., Jr.; Al-Attar, T. Millimeter-wave and terahertz wireless RFIC and on-chip antenna design: Tools and layout techniques. In Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Globecom Workshops, Honolulu, HI, USA, 30 November–4 December 2009; pp. 1–7.
  68. Cheema, H.M.; Shamim, A. The last barrier: On-chip antennas. IEEE Microw. Mag. 2013, 14, 79–91.
  69. Hsu, S.S.; Wei, K.C.; Hsu, C.Y.; Ru-Chuang, H. A 60-GHz millimeter-wave CPW-fed Yagi antenna fabricated by using 0.18-μ CMOS technology. IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 2008, 29, 625–627.
  70. Li, P.F.; Liao, S.; Xue, Q.; Qu, S.W. 60 GHz dual-polarized high-gain planar aperture antenna array based on LTCC. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2019, 68, 2883–2894.
  71. Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.P.; Sun, M.; Luxey, C.; Titz, D.; Ferrero, F. A 60-GHz circularly-polarized array antenna-in-package in LTCC technology. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2013, 61, 6228–6232.
  72. Ullah, U.; Mahyuddin, N.; Arifin, Z.; Abdullah, M.Z.; Marzuki, A. Antenna in LTCC technologies: A review and the current state of the art. IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 2015, 57, 241–260.
  73. Lee, H.J.; Li, E.S.; Jin, H.; Li, C.Y.; Chin, K.S. 60 GHz wideband LTCC microstrip patch antenna array with parasitic surrounding stacked patches. IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 2019, 13, 35–41.
  74. Emami, M. A Reconfigurable, LTCC-Based, Ultra-Wideband Periodic Leaky-Wave Antenna with Circular Polarization at 60 GHz. Master’s Dissertation, École de Technologie Supérieure, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2022. Available online: https://espace.etsmtl.ca/id/eprint/2815 (accessed on 27 February 2022).
  75. Kam, D.G.; Liu, D.; Natarajan, A.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, H.C.; Floyd, B.A. LTCC packages with embedded phased-array antennas for 60 GHz communications. IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 2011, 21, 142–144.
  76. Lamminen, A.E.I.; Saily, J.; Vimpari, A.R. 60-GHz patch antennas and arrays on LTCC with embedded-cavity substrates. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2008, 56, 2865–2874.
  77. Zhu, J.; Yang, Y.; Chu, C.; Li, S.; Liao, S.; Xue, Q. Low-profile wideband and high-gain LTCC patch antenna array for 60 GHz applications. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2019, 68, 3237–3242.
  78. Li, Y. Circularly Polarized SIW Slot LTCC Antennas at 60 GHz. In Substrate-Integrated Millimeter-Wave Antennas for Next-Generation Communication and Radar Systems; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2021; pp. 177–195.
  79. Zelenchuk, D.; Kärnfelt, C.; Gallee, F.; Munina, I. Metamaterial-based LTCC Compressed Luneburg Lens Antenna at 60 GHz for Wireless Communications. In Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Antennas, Communications and Electronic Systems (COMCAS), Tel Aviv, Israel, 1–3 November 2021; pp. 513–515.
  80. Sun, H.; Guo, Y.X.; Wang, Z. 60-GHz circularly polarized U-slot patch antenna array on LTCC. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2012, 61, 430–435.
  81. Liu, C.; Guo, Y.X.; Bao, X.; Xiao, S.Q. 60-GHz LTCC integrated circularly polarized helical antenna array. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2011, 60, 1329–1335.
  82. Ghosh, S.; Sen, D. An inclusive survey on array antenna design for millimeter-wave communications. IEEE Access 2019, 7, 83137–83161.
  83. Cabrol, P.; Pietraski, P. 60 GHz patch antenna array on low cost Liquid-Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate. In Proceedings of the IEEE Long Island Systems, Applications and Technology (LISAT) Conference 2014, Farmingdale, NY, USA, 2 May 2014; pp. 1–6.
  84. Adane, A.; Person, C.; Gallee, F. A broadband U-shaped patch antenna on PTFE/Cu substrate for 60 GHz wireless communications. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 2018, 60, 265–271.
  85. Bondarik, A.; Sjöberg, D. 60 GHz microstrip antenna array on PTFE substrate. In Proceedings of the 2012 6th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), Prague, Czech Republic, 26–30 March 2012; pp. 1016–1018.
  86. Parthiban, P. IoT Antennas for Industry 4.0--Design and Manufacturing with an Example. In Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE International IOT, Electronics and Mechatronics Conference (IEMTRONICS), Vancouver, BC, Canada, 9–12 September 2020; pp. 1–5.
  87. Sun, Y.X.; Leung, K.W. Circularly polarized substrate-integrated cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna array for 60 GHz applications. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 2018, 17, 1401–1405.
  88. Jabbar, A.; Kazim, J.U.; Imran, M.A.; Abbasi, Q.H.; Ur Rehman, M. Design of a Compact Ultra-Wideband Microstrip Antenna for Millimeter-Wave Communication. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting (APS/URSI), Singapore, 4–10 December 2021; pp. 837–838.
  89. Dixit, A.S.; Kumar, S.; Urooj, S.; Malibari, A. A highly compact antipodal Vivaldi Antenna array for 5G millimeter wave applications. Sensors 2021, 21, 2360.
  90. Plettemeier, D.; Jenning, M.; Liang, T.J. Multilayer vivaldi antenna for 60 GHz applications. In Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Barcelona, Spain, 12–16 April 2010; pp. 1–5.
  91. Hahnel, R.; Benedix, W.S.; Plettemeier, D. Broadside radiating vivaldi antenna for the 60 GHz band. In Proceedings of the 2013 International Workshop on Antenna Technology (IWAT), Karlsruhe, Germany, 4–6 March 2013; pp. 83–86.
  92. Antar, Y.M.M. Antennas for wireless communication: Recent advances using dielectric resonators. IET Circuits Devices Syst. 2008, 2, 133–138.
  93. Petosa, A.; Thirakoune, S. Design of a 60 GHz dielectric resonator antenna with enhanced gain. In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Toronto, ON, Canada, 11–17 July 2010; pp. 1–4.
  94. Nandakumar, M.; Shanmuganantham, T. SIW flower shaped fractal antenna backed with cavity for 60GHz frequency applications. In Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Computer, Communication, and Signal Processing (ICCCSP), Chennai, India, 22–23 February 2018; pp. 1–4.
  95. Palanisamy, S.; Thangaraju, B.; Khalaf, O.I.; Alotaibi, Y.; Alghamdi, S.; Alassery, F. A Novel Approach of Design and Analysis of a Hexagonal Fractal Antenna Array (HFAA) for Next-Generation Wireless Communication. Energies 2021, 14, 6204.
  96. Rahim, A.; Malik, P.K.; Sankar Ponnapalli, V.A. State of the art: A review on vehicular communications, impact of 5G, fractal antennas for future communication. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Computing, Communications, and Cyber-Security (IC4S 2019), Singapore, 28 April 2020; pp. 3–15.
  97. Jawad, M.M.; Abd Malik, N.N.N.; Murad, N.A.; Ahmad, M.R.; Esa, M.R.M.; Hussein, Y.M. Design of substrate integrated waveguide withMinkowski-Sierpinski fractal antenna for WBAN applications. Bull. Electr. Eng. Inform. 2020, 9, 2455–2461.
  98. Li, Y.; Luk, K.M. 60-GHz substrate integrated waveguide fed cavity-backed aperture-coupled microstrip patch antenna arrays. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2015, 63, 1075–1085.
  99. Sarkar, A.; Lim, S. 60 GHz compact larger beam scanning range PCB leaky-wave antenna using HMSIW for millimeter-wave applications. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2020, 68, 5816–5826.
  100. Nanda Kumar, M.; Shanmuganantham, T. SIW-based slot antenna fed by microstrip for 60/79 GHz applications. In Microelectronics, Electromagnetics and Telecommunications; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2019; pp. 741–748.
  101. Kumar, S.; Dixit, A.S.; Malekar, R.R.; Raut, H.D.; Shevada, L.K. Fifth generation antennas: A comprehensive review of design and performance enhancement techniques. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 163568–163593.
  102. Kam, D.G.; Liu, D.; Natarajan, A.; Reynolds, S.; Floyd, B.A. Low-cost antenna-in-package solutions for 60-GHz phased-array systems. In Proceedings of the 19th Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging and Systems, Austin, TX, USA, 25–27 October 2010; pp. 93–96.
  103. Sowlati, T.; Sarkar, S.; Perumana, B.G.; Chan, W.L.; Toda, A.P.; Afshar, B.; Boers, M.; Shin, D.; Mercer, T.R.; Chen, W.-H.; et al. A 60-GHz 144-element phased-array transceiver for backhaul application. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 2018, 53, 3640–3659.
  104. Daniels, R.C.; Heath, R.W. 60 GHz wireless communications: Emerging requirements and design recommendations. IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 2007, 2, 41–50.
  105. Haupt, R.L.; Rahmat-Samii, Y. Antenna array developments: A perspective on the past, present and future. IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 2015, 57, 86–96.
  106. Zhang, J.; Ge, X.; Li, Q.; Guizani, M.; Zhang, Y. 5G millimeter-wave antenna array: Design and challenges. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 2016, 24, 106–112.
  107. Mizutani, A.; Sakakibara, K.; Kikuma, N.; Hirayama, H. Grating lobe suppression of narrow-wall slotted hollow waveguide millimeter-wave planar antenna for arbitrarily linear polarization. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2007, 55, 313–320.
  108. Aldalbahi, A.; Siasi, N.; Ababneh, M.; Jasim, M. Grating Lobes for Enhanced Scattering Intensity in Millimeter Wave Sparse Channels. In Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 9th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 7–9 January 2019; pp. 1010–1014.
  109. Farahani, M.; Pourahmadazar, J.; Akbari, M.; Nedil, M.; Sebak, A.R.; Denidni, T.A. Mutual coupling reduction in millimeter-wave MIMO antenna array using a metamaterial polarization-rotator wall. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 2017, 16, 2324–2327.
  110. Farahbakhsh, A.; Mohanna, S.; Tavakoli, S.; Sadegh, M.O. New patch configurations to reduce the mutual coupling in microstrip array antenna. In Proceedings of the 2009 Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference, Loughborough, UK, 6–17 November 2009; pp. 469–472.
  111. Hafezifard, R.; Naser-Moghadasi, M.; Mohassel, J.R.; Sadeghzadeh, R.A. Mutual coupling reduction for two closely spaced meander line antennas using metamaterial substrate. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 2015, 15, 40–43.
  112. Mandal, S.; Ghosh, C.K. Mutual coupling reduction in a patch antenna array based on planar frequency selective surface structure. Radio Sci. 2022, 57, e2021RS007392.
  113. Sadiq, M.S.; Ruan, C.; Nawaz, H.; Abbasi, M.A.B.; Nikolaou, S. Mutual coupling reduction between finite spaced planar antenna elements using modified ground structure. Electronics 2020, 10, 19.
  114. Mandal, S.; Ghosh, C.K. Low mutual coupling of microstrip antenna array integrated with dollar shaped resonator. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 2021, 119, 777–789.
  115. Naqvi, A.H.; Lim, S. Review of recent phased arrays for millimeter-wave wireless communication. Sensors 2018, 18, 3194.
  116. Chuang, N.C.; Lin, H.S.; Lin, Y.C. Compact cavity-backed dual-polarized aperture antennas for millimeter wave MIMO applications. In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility (ICMIM), Nagoya, Japan, 19–21 March 2017; pp. 131–134.
  117. Hsu, Y.W.; Huang, T.C.; Lin, H.S.; Lin, Y.C. Dual-polarized quasi Yagi--Uda antennas with endfire radiation for millimeter-wave MIMO terminals. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2017, 65, 6282–6289.
  118. Wójcik, D.; Surma, M.; Noga, A.; Magnuski, M. On the Design of Dual-Polarised Linear Antenna Arrays with Enhanced Port-to-Port Isolation. Sensors 2020, 20, 6105.
  119. Mirmozafari, M.; Zhang, G.; Fulton, C.; Doviak, R.J. Dual-polarization antennas with high isolation and polarization purity: A review and comparison of cross-coupling mechanisms. IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 2018, 61, 50–63.
  120. Da, Y.; Chen, X.; Li, M.; Zhang, Z.; Al-Hadi, A.A.; Zhang, A.; Kishk, A.A. Enhanced cross-polarization isolation of loop-dipole antenna array backed by dielectric cavities for 5G base stations. J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 2021, 35, 2034–2050.
  121. Shi, J.; Zhai, H.; Li, H. A low-profile dual-polarized antenna with crosspolarization enhancement. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 2020, 62, 1997–2003.
  122. Le, A.T.; Huang, X.; Guo, Y.J. Analog Self-Interference Cancellation in Dual-Polarization Full-Duplex MIMO Systems. IEEE Commun. Lett. 2021, 25, 3075–3079.
  123. Abbasi, M.A.B.; Fusco, V. Beamformer development challenges for 5G and beyond. In Antennas and Propagation for 5G and Beyond; IET, 2020; pp. 265–299.
  124. Jijo, B.T.; Zeebaree, S.R.; Zebari, R.R.; Sadeeq, M.A.; Sallow, A.B.; Mohsin, S.; Ageed, Z.S. A comprehensive survey of 5G mm-wave technology design challenges. Asian J. Res. Comput. Sci. 2021, 8, 1–20.
  125. Wang, X.; Kong, L.; Kong, F.; Qiu, F.; Xia, M.; Arnon, S.; Chen, G. Millimeter wave communication: A comprehensive survey. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2018, 20, 1616–1653.
  126. Zhou, P.; Cheng, K.; Han, X.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; He, R.; Long, Y.; Liu, Y. IEEE 802.11 ay-based mmWave WLANs: Design challenges and solutions. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2018, 20, 1654–1681.
  127. Zhao, L.; Yang, S.; Chi, X.; Chen, W.; Ma, S. Achieving Energy-Efficient Uplink URLLC with MIMO-Aided Grant-Free Access. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 2021.
  128. Ding, J.; Nemati, M.; Pokhrel, S.R.; Park, O.S.; Choi, J.; Adachi, F. Enabling grant-free URLLC: An overview of principle and enhancements by massive MIMO. IEEE Internet. Things J. 2021.
  129. Busari, S.A.; Huq, K.M.S.; Mumtaz, S.; Dai, L.; Rodriguez, J. Millimeter-wave massive MIMO communication for future wireless systems: A survey. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2017, 20, 836–869.
  130. Imoize, A.L.; Ibhaze, A.E.; Atayero, A.A.; Kavitha, K.V.N. Standard propagation channel models for MIMO communication systems. Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput. 2021.
  131. Sun, S.; Rappaport, T.S.; Heath, R.W.; Nix, A.; Rangan, S. MIMO for millimeter-wave wireless communications: Beamforming, spatial multiplexing, or both? IEEE Commun. Mag. 2014, 52, 110–121.
  132. Sulyman, A.I.; Henggeler, C. Physical Layer Security for Military IoT Links Using MIMO-Beamforming at 60 GHz. Information 2022, 13, 100.
  133. Gao, X.; Dai, L.; Sayeed, A.M. Low RF-complexity technologies to enable millimeter-wave MIMO with large antenna array for 5G wireless communications. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2018, 56, 211–217.
  134. Kutty, S.; Sen, D. Beamforming for millimeter wave communications: An inclusive survey. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2015, 18, 949–973.
  135. Rappaport, T.S.; Xing, Y.; Kanhere, O.; Ju, S.; Madanayake, A.; Mandal, S.; Alkhateeb, A.; Trichopoulos, G.C. Wireless communications and applications above 100 GHz: Opportunities and challenges for 6G and beyond. IEEE Access 2019, 7, 78729–78757.
  136. Chaccour, C.; Soorki, M.N.; Saad, W.; Bennis, M.; Popovski, P.; Debbah, M. Seven defining features of terahertz (THz) wireless systems: A fellowship of communication and sensing. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2022.
  137. Pacheco-Peña, V. Terahertz Technologies and Its Applications. Electronics 2021, 10, 268.
  138. Sigov, A.; Ratkin, L.; Ivanov, L.A.; da Xu, L. Emerging Enabling Technologies for Industry 4.0 and Beyond. Inf. Syst. Front. 2022, 1–11.
  139. Angrisani, L.; Arpaia, P.; Bonavolonta, F.; Moriello, R.S.L. Academic fablabs for industry 4.0: Experience at University of naples federico II. IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag. 2018, 21, 6–13.
  140. Hassan, B.; Baig, S.; Asif, M. Key Technologies for Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communication in 6G. IEEE Commun. Stand Mag. 2021, 5, 106–113.
  141. Buratti, C.; Mesini, L.; Verdone, R. Comparing MAC protocols for industrial IoT using Terahertz communications. In Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE 31st Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, London, UK, 31 August–3 September 2020; pp. 1–7.
  142. Popovski, P.; Stefanovic, C.; Nielsen, J.J.; de Carvalho, E.; Angjelichinoski, M.; Trillingsgaard, K.F.; Bana, A.-S. Wireless access in ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC). IEEE Trans. Commun. 2019, 67, 5783–5801.
  143. Sengupta, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Mittleman, D.M. Terahertz integrated electronic and hybrid electronic–photonic systems. Nat. Electron. 2018, 1, 622–635.
  144. Pfeiffer, U.R.; Jain, R.; Grzyb, J.; Malz, S.; Hillger, P.; Rodriguez-Vizquez, P. Current status of terahertz integrated circuits-from components to systems. In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE BiCMOS and Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Technology Symposium (BCICTS), San Diego, CA, USA, 14–17 October 2018; pp. 1–7.
  145. Tekb\iy\ik, K.; Ekti, A.R.; Kurt, G.K.; Görçin, A. Terahertz band communication systems: Challenges, novelties and standardization efforts. Phys. Commun. 2019, 35, 100700.
  146. Withayachumnankul, W.; Fujita, M.; Nagatsuma, T. Integrated silicon photonic crystals toward terahertz communications. Adv. Opt. Mater. 2018, 6, 1800401.
  147. He, Y.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, L.; Wong, S.W.; Chen, Z.N. An overview of terahertz antennas. China Commun. 2020, 17, 124–165.
  148. Abohmra, A.; Khan, Z.U.; Abbas, H.T.; Shoaib, N.; Imran, M.A.; Abbasi, Q.H. Two-Dimensional Materials for Future Terahertz Wireless Communications. IEEE Open J. Antennas Propag. 2022, 3, 217–228.
  149. Zhao, Z.; Bai, B.; Yuan, K.; Tang, R.; Xiong, J.; Wang, K. Effect of Terahertz Antenna Radiation in Hypersonic Plasma Sheaths with Different Vehicle Shapes. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 1811.
  150. Wang, C.; Yao, Y.; Yu, J.; Chen, X. 3d beam reconfigurable THz antenna with graphene-based high-impedance surface. Electronics 2019, 8, 1291.
  151. Correas-Serrano, D.; Gomez-Diaz, J.S. Graphene-based antennas for terahertz systems: A review. arXiv 2017, arXiv:170400371.
  152. Rebeiz, G.M. Millimeter-wave and terahertz integrated circuit antennas. Proc. IEEE 1992, 80, 1748–1770.
  153. Jha, K.R.; Singh, G. Terahertz planar antennas for future wireless communication: A technical review. Infrared Phys. Technol. 2013, 60, 71–80.
  154. Usman, M.; Ansari, S.; Taha, A.; Zahid, A.; Abbasi, Q.H.; Imran, M.A. Terahertz-Based Joint Communication and Sensing for Precision Agriculture: A 6G Use-Case. Front. Commun. Netw. 2022, 3, 836506.
  155. Abohmra, A.; Abbas, H.; Kazim, J.U.R.; Rabbani, M.S.; Li, C.; Alomainy, A.; Imran, M.A.; Abbasi, Q.H. An ultrawideband microfabricated gold-based antenna array for terahertz communication. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 2021, 20, 2156–2160.
  156. Kazim, J.U.R.; Abohmra, A.; Ur Rehman, M.; Imran, M.A.; Abbasi, Q.H. A Corrugated SIW Based Slot Antenna for Terahertz Application. In Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting, Montreal, QC, Canada, 4–11 July 2020; pp. 1407–1408.
  157. Kazim, J.U.R.; Abohmra, A.; Al-Hasan, M.; Mabrouk, I.B.; Ur-Rehman, M.; Sheikh, F.; Kaiser, T.; Imran, M.A.; Abbasi, Q.H. A 1-bit High-Gain Flexible Metasurface Reflectarray for Terahertz Application. In Proceedings of the 2020 Third International Workshop on Mobile Terahertz Systems (IWMTS), Essen, Germany, 1–2 July 2020; pp. 1–4.
  158. Dash, S.; Patnaik, A. Material selection for TH z antennas. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 2018, 60, 1183–1187.
  159. Matthaiou, M.; Yurduseven, O.; Ngo, H.Q.; Morales-Jimenez, D.; Cotton, S.L.; Fusco, V.F. The road to 6G: Ten physical layer challenges for communications engineers. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2021, 59, 64–69.
  160. Khosravirad, S.R.; Viswanathan, H.; Yu, W. Exploiting diversity for ultra-reliable and low-latency wireless control. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 2020, 20, 316–331.
  161. Moerman, A.; Van Kerrebrouck, J.; Caytan, O.; de Paula, I.L.; Bogaert, L.; Torfs, G.; Demeester, P.; Rogier, H.; Lemey, S. Beyond 5G Without Obstacles: mmWaveover-Fiber Distributed Antenna Systems. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2022, 60, 27–33.
  162. Hong, J.P.; Park, J.; Shin, W.; Beak, S. Distributed antenna system design for ultra-reliable low-latency uplink communications. In Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication (ICEIC), Auckland, New Zealand, 22–25 January 2019; pp. 1–3.
  163. Arnold, M.; Baracca, P.; Wild, T.; Schaich, F.; ten Brink, S. Measured Distributed vs Co-located Massive MIMO in Industry 4.0 Environments. In Proceedings of the 2021 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications & 6G Summit (EuCNC/6G Summit), Porto, Portugal, 8–11 June 2021; pp. 306–310.
  164. Battistella Nadas, J.P. The Path towards Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications Via HARQ; University of Glasgow: Glasgow, Scotland, 2021.
  165. Björnson, E.; Sanguinetti, L. Scalable cell-free massive MIMO systems. IEEE Trans. Commun. 2020, 68, 4247–4261.
  166. Sheikh, M.U.; Ruttik, K.; Jäntti, R.; Hämäläinen, J. Distributed Antenna System in 3GPP Specified Industrial Environment. In Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE 93rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Spring), Helsinki, Finland, 25–28 April 2021; pp. 1–6.
  167. Joung, J. Machine learning-based antenna selection in wireless communications. IEEE Commun. Lett. 2016, 20, 2241–2244.
  168. El Misilmani, H.M.; Naous, T.; Al Khatib, S.K. A review on the design and optimization of antennas using machine learning algorithms and techniques. Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Eng. 2020, 30, e22356.
  169. El Misilmani, H.M.; Naous, T. Machine learning in antenna design: An overview on machine learning concept and algorithms. In Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on High Performance Computing & Simulation (HPCS), Dublin, Ireland, 15–19 July 2019; pp. 600–607.
  170. Wu, Q.; Cao, Y.; Wang, H.; Hong, W. Machine-learning-assisted optimization and its application to antenna designs: Opportunities and challenges. China Commun. 2020, 17, 152–164.
  171. Taha, A.; Alrabeiah, M.; Alkhateeb, A. Enabling large intelligent surfaces with compressive sensing and deep learning. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 44304–44321.
  172. Jin, Y.; Zhang, J.; Jin, S.; Ai, B. Channel estimation for cell-free mmWave massive MIMO through deep learning. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 2019, 68, 10325–10329.
  173. Alkhateeb, A.; Alex, S.; Varkey, P.; Li, Y.; Qu, Q.; Tujkovic, D. Deep learning coordinated beamforming for highly-mobile millimeter wave systems. IEEE Access 2018, 6, 37328–37348.
  174. Li, S.; Liu, Z.; Fu, S.; Wang, Y.; Xu, F. Intelligent Beamforming via Physics-Inspired Neural Networks on Programmable Metasurface. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2022.
  175. Kazim, J.U.R.; Abbas, H.T.; Imran, M.A.; Abbasi, Q.H. Intelligent Reflective Surfaces—State of the Art. Backscattering RF Sens. Future Wirel. Commun. 2021, 1–18.
  176. Wu, Q.; Zhang, R. Intelligent reflecting surface enhanced wireless network via joint active and passive beamforming. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 2019, 18, 5394–5409.
  177. Almohamad, A.; Tahir, A.M.; Al-Kababji, A.; Furqan, H.M.; Khattab, T.; Hasna, M.O.; Arslan, H. Smart and secure wireless communications via reflecting intelligent surfaces: A short survey. IEEE Open J. Commun. Soc. 2020, 1, 1442–1456.
  178. Hu, S.; Rusek, F.; Edfors, O. Beyond massive MIMO: The potential of data transmission with large intelligent surfaces. IEEE Trans. Signal. Process. 2018, 66, 2746–2758.
  179. Abeywickrama, S.; Zhang, R.; Wu, Q.; Yuen, C. Intelligent reflecting surface: Practical phase shift model and beamforming optimization. IEEE Trans. Commun. 2020, 68, 5849–5863.
  180. Mu, X.; Liu, Y.; Guo, L.; Lin, J.; Al-Dhahir, N. Exploiting intelligent reflecting surfaces in NOMA networks: Joint beamforming optimization. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 2020, 19, 6884–6898.
  181. Di Renzo, M.; Danufane, F.H.; Tretyakov, S. Communication Models for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces: From Surface Electromagnetics to Wireless Networks Optimization. arXiv 2021, arXiv:211000833.
  182. Björnson, E.; Wymeersch, H.; Matthiesen, B.; Popovski, P.; Sanguinetti, L.; de Carvalho, E. Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces: A signal processing perspective with wireless applications. arXiv 2021, arXiv:210200742.
  183. Özdogan, Ö.; Björnson, E.; Larsson, E.G. Intelligent reflecting surfaces: Physics, propagation, and pathloss modeling. IEEE Wirel. Commun. Lett. 2019, 9, 581–585.
  184. Rains, J.; Kazim, J.u.R.; Zhang, L.; Abbasi, Q.H.; Imran, M.; Tukmanov, A. 2.75-Bit Reflecting Unit Cell Design for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces. In Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting (APS/URSI), Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, 4–10 December 2021; pp. 335–336.
  185. Trichopoulos, G.C.; Theofanopoulos, P.; Kashyap, B.; Modi, A.; Osman, T.; Kumar, S.; Sengar, A.; Chang, A.; Alkhateeb, A. Design and Evaluation of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces in Real-World Environment. arXiv 2021, arXiv:210907763.
  186. Wu, Q.; Zhang, R. Towards smart and reconfigurable environment: Intelligent reflecting surface aided wireless network. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2019, 58, 106–112.
  187. Zheng, B.; You, C.; Mei, W.; Zhang, R. A survey on channel estimation and practical passive beamforming design for intelligent reflecting surface aided wireless communications. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2022.
  188. Ge, L.; Dong, P.; Zhang, H.; Wang, J.B.; You, X. Joint beamforming and trajectory optimization for intelligent reflecting surfaces-assisted UAV communications. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 78702–78712.
  189. Pei, X.; Yin, H.; Tan, L.; Cao, L.; Li, Z.; Wang, K.; Zhang, K.; Bjornson, E. RIS-aided wireless communications: Prototyping, adaptive beamforming, and indoor/outdoor field trials. IEEE Trans. Commun. 2021, 69, 8627–8640.
  190. Di Renzo, M.; Zappone, A.; Debbah, M.; Alouini, M.-S.; Yuen, C.; de Rosny, J.; Tretyakov, S. Smart radio environments empowered by reconfigurable intelligent surfaces: How it works, state of research, and the road ahead. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 2020, 38, 2450–2525.
  191. Ren, H.; Wang, K.; Pan, C. Intelligent Reflecting Surface-aided URLLC in a Factory Automation Scenario. arXiv 2021, arXiv:210309323.
  192. Li, Y.; Yin, C.; Do-Duy, T.; Masaracchia, A.; Duong, T.Q. Aerial reconfigurable intelligent surface-enabled URLLC UAV systems. IEEE Access 2021, 9, 140248–140257.
More
Information
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , , , , , , , , ,
View Times: 545
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 19 Apr 2022
1000/1000
Video Production Service