Thermomechanical Controlled Processing (TMCP), the initial microstructure and mechanical properties of rolled products made of high-strength steels, have a significant influence on the properties and reliability of welded structures for low temperature and cryogenic service.
High-strength cold-resistant and cryogenic steels are widely used for icebreakers, gas carriers, hydrogen storage, hydrocarbon production and transportation, wind turbines, offshore platforms, railroads, and the automotive industry. The history of traditional high-strength steel (HSS) metallurgy began with the creation of low-alloy Si-Mn ferritic–pearlitic steels with a carbon content of <0.2% 
. The micro-alloying of V, Nb, Ti, and Thermomechanical Controlled Processing (TMCP) allowed the achievement of a fine-grained microstructure, increasing strength and impact toughness with a decrease in carbon content < 0.15% 
Subsequent development of TMCP and the application of accelerated cooling with tempering allowed for obtaining ferritic–bainitic and ferritic–martensitic microstructures of steels with reduced carbon content <0.1%. This microstructure has a fine-dispersed morphology with distributed and dispersed carbides and carbonitrides, and has a high impact toughness. Micro-alloying, optimization of TMCP, microstructure refinement, dispersion hardening, refining, and reduction of the anisotropy of rolled steel are used to improve plasticity and impact toughness of high-strength steels. Modern HSS have bainitic, bainitic–martensitic, martensitic–bainitic, and martensitic microstructures with low carbon content up to 0.05–0.02%. The production and development of high-strength steels are closely related to welding metallurgy and weldability, as arc and laser welding are used to make structures.
Research on the metallurgy and weldability of high-strength steels is actively developing all over the world. The main trends are increasing strength and impact toughness of steels, improving quality, and reducing the cost of alloying in steelmaking 
. Among traditional and advanced high-strength steels for low-temperature and cryogenic service, about 15 groups of low- and high-alloy steels should be distinguished, as shown in Figure 1