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Nikolaou, P. Plant Secondary Metabolites as Biopesticides. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/15762 (accessed on 20 April 2024).
Nikolaou P. Plant Secondary Metabolites as Biopesticides. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/15762. Accessed April 20, 2024.
Nikolaou, Polyxeni. "Plant Secondary Metabolites as Biopesticides" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/15762 (accessed April 20, 2024).
Nikolaou, P. (2021, November 05). Plant Secondary Metabolites as Biopesticides. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/15762
Nikolaou, Polyxeni. "Plant Secondary Metabolites as Biopesticides." Encyclopedia. Web. 05 November, 2021.
Plant Secondary Metabolites as Biopesticides
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Plant extracts and pure plant-derived substances with promising biological activity and the potential to be used as biopesticides for stored products. The main aim of biopesticides is to be effective against target pests, without harming humans and the environment. 

biopesticides plant extracts stored grain pests insects mites grains commodities

1. Introduction

Natural molecules of botanical origin have attracted international research interest in recent years as ecofriendly alternatives to their synthetic pesticidal ancestors (in commercial terms) [1]. Recent reviews on the use of the secondary metabolites of plants against stored product insects are those of Rajendran and co-workers, reporting the fumigant toxicity results conducted with essential oils of plants (mainly belonging to Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae and Myrtaceae) and their components (cyanohydrins, monoterpenoids, sulphur compounds, thiocyanates and others) [2], as well as that of Stejskal and co-workers, reporting on gas, liquid, gel and solid formulations of natural pesticides for stored-product applications [3].

2. Using Plant Secondary Metabolites to Control Stored Products Pests

Plant extracts have been tested mainly in the form of essential oils against stored grain pests and, in some cases, the research has extended as far as including the main components of these oils.
Regarding mites, studies have addressed the effects on pests, as well as predatory species. There are three substances that have shown the best results when tested in the lowest of concentrations, even lower than benzyl-benzoate (an already industrially available product). These substances are components of the clove bud (E. caryophyllata) essential oil, methyleugenol, forget-me-not (M. arvensis) essential oil and benzaldehyde of P. persica. Furthermore, cinnamon (naturally containing benzyl-benzoate) has been proven to be effective against T. putrescentiae, T. molitor, S. oryzae, R. dominica, P. interpunctella and E. kuhniella as a contact toxicant to larvae or adults, as a repellant or as a fumigant. However, detailed knowledge of the lethal or non-lethal effects of botanical pesticides on beneficial insects is important for integrated pest management (IPM).
Regarding the impact of pesticides on Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, many plant species have been studied for their pesticidal properties. C. copticum was found to be active against T. confusum, S. granarius, P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, whereas basil was effective as a fumigant for S. zeamais, O. surinamensis and E. kuehniella. Most interestingly various Citrus species were effective as fumigants, contact toxicants and as repellants, for both Coleopterans (T. castaneum, S. oryzae and C. ferrugineus) and Lepidoptera (P. interpunctella, S. cerealella and E. kuehniella). In addition, in regard to Lepidoptera, many substances have been evaluated for sublethal effects (C. cincta lowered the percentage of adult emergence, and A. sativum reduced adult longevity and inhibited oviposition), whereas for Coleoptera only a few studies of sublethal effects are available.
T. minuta and T. patula extracts were very effective fumigants against T. castaneum Herbst, whereas Eucalyptus spp. extracts were very effective fumigants against the adults of R. dominica, T. castaneum and O. surinamensis, but were also very effective against Lepidoptera (E. kuehniella, E. cautella, C. cephalonica and P. interpunctella) as fumigants or repellents. C. reticulata and C. sinensis essential oils were among the few substances found to be effective against Coleoptera (T. castaneum) larvae, as was the garlic essential oil, causing necrosis to the larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor L. The fumigant properties of C. citratus and Z. officinale were the most effective fumigants against the rice weevil. Furthermore, A. judaica and C. viminals had two of the lowest LC50 values observed in this entire review. L. salicifolia, L. nobilis and E. floribundi were significantly effective repellents, whereas O. acutidens and C. reticulata were effective fumigants against L. serricorne and C. ferrugineus.
Finally, regarding Lepidoptera, the essential oil of C. anisata was found to be completely toxic to the larval stages, and also inhibited the emergence of adults. M. piperita and S. officinalis incorporated into polylactic acid solution showed significant contact toxicity on P. interpunctella, whereas M. piperita showed higher toxicity than S. officinalis. The essential oils exhibiting contact toxicity showed higher toxic effects when they were loaded on polymeric nanoparticles, as in the case of palmarosa (C. martinii), geranium (G. maculatum), and peppermint (M. piperita) against P. interpunctella. Eucalyptus spp. was the most tested substance in Lepidoptera, achieving 100% mortality, and it was effective as a fumigant and exhibited contact toxicity. Additionally, purslane essential oil was very effective against E. cautella in terms of fumigant toxicity, oviposition deterrence and persistence against larvae and adults. M. tennuifolia achieved 100% E. cautella moth mortality and reduced the hatchability of the eggs, whereas adult emergence was prevented, making it a very useful tool against E. cautella; as was birch essential oil, which displayed high fumigant toxicity on the eggs of E. kuehniella. Furthermore, A. graveolens oil was found to be the most active against E. kuehniella larvae, the life stage of the Lepidoptera species that causes the most damage. Finally, the essential oil of O. vulgaris was found to affect pupal development and disrupt the reproduction of exuviated adults by extending the preoviposition period and reducing the period of egg-laying and fecundity.
In general, there is a shortage of tools for combatting stored-product pests, as an alternative to the use of synthetics. With this review, we refer to the botanical substances reported in the literature of recent years to exhibit pesticidal properties of potential utility in the management of stored products (Table 1).
Table 1. Plant species reported to exhibit significant activity against stored-product pests in recent years.
Mites
Plant Species Formulation Pest Species Reference
Allium sativum essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [4][5]
essential oil Cheyletus malaccensis [6]
Azadirachta indica Commercial product of neem Tyrophagus putrescentiae [7][8]
(Fortune AZA) Acarus siro
  Lepidoglyphus destructor
Carum carvi essential oil Gohieria fusca [9]
Lepidoglyphus destructor
Acarus siro
Tyrophagus putrescentiae
Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [10]
Eucaliptus globulus essential oil Tyrophagus longior [11]
Eugenia caryophyllata essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [12]
Eugenia uniflora essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [10]
Eugenia uvalha essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [10]
Juniperus chinensis essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [13]
Lavandula angustifolia essential oil Tyrophagus longior [11]
Lavandula stoechas essential oil Tyrophagus longior [11]
Ligustrum japonicum essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [14]
Melaleuca leucadendra essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [10]
Mentha piperita essential oil Tyrophagus longior [11]
Myosotis arvensis essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [15]
Ocimum basilicum essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [4]
Petroselinum sativum active constituents Tyrophagus putrescentiae [16]
Pinus pinea essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [17]
Pinus halepensis essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [17]
Pinus pinaster essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [17]
Pinus nigra essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [17]
Piper marginatum essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [10]
Prunus persica essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [18]
Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [19]
Schinus terebinthifolius essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [10]
Trigonella foenum-graecum essential oil Tyrophagus putrescentiae [4]
Coleoptera
Plant Species Formulation Pest Species Reference
Achillea wilhelmsii essential oil Tribolium castaneum [20]
Achyranthus aspera essential oil Cryptolestes ferrugineus [21]
Acisanthera. ethanolic extract Tenebrio molitor [22]
Acorus calamus essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [23]
Tribolium castaneum
Adenocalymma nodosum ethanolic extract Tenebrio molitor [22]
Agastache rugosa plant extract Tribolium castaneum [24]
Allium sativum powder Oryzaephilus surinamensis [25]
essential oil Tenebrio molitor [26]
essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [27]
Tribolium castaneum
Alpinia blepharocalyx essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [28]
Amomum maximum essential oil Tribolium castaneum [29]
Amomum tsaoko essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [30]
Tribolium castaneum
Anethum graveolens essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [31]
Armoracia rusticana essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [32]
Artemisia absinthium powder Oryzaephilus surinamensis [25]
Artemisia anethoides essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [33]
Tribolium castaneum
Artemisia herba-alba essential oil Oryzaephilus surinamensis [34]
Tribolium castaneum
Artemisia judaica essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Artemisia monosperma
Artemisia vulgaris essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [36]
Artemisia stolonifera essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [37]
Tribolium castaneum
Aster ageratoides essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [38]
Tribolium confusum
Astoma seselifolium essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Atalantia guillauminii essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [39]
Tribolium castaneum
Azadirachta indica essential oil Tribolium castaneum [40]
seed oil
Bauhinia purpurea methanol extract Trogoderma granarium [41]
Bidens sulphurea ethanolic extract Tenebrio molitor [22]
Caesalpinia gilliesii methanol extract Trogoderma granarium [41]
Carum carvi essential oil Tribolium castaneum [42]
Sitophilus oryzae
Rhizopertha dominica
Carum copticum essential oil Sitophilus granarius [43]
Tribolium confusum
Caryopteris incana essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [44]
Calendula officinalis essential oil Sitophilus granarius [45]
Callistemon viminals essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Capsicum annuum plant extract Tribolium castaneum [24]
Cassia fistula methanol extract Trogoderma granarium [41]
Cassia occidentalis water extract Oryzaephilus surinamensis [46]
ethanol extract
acetone extract
Cassia senna methanol extract Trogoderma granarium [41]
Cayratia japonica essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [47]
Tribolium castaneum
Chenopodium album ether extract Oryzaephilus surinamensis [48]
Chrysanthemum frutescens methanol extract Trogoderma granarium [41]
Cinnamomum verum essential oil Tenebrio molitor [49]
Tribolium castaneum [42]
Sitophilus oryzae
Rhizopertha dominica
Citrus aurantifolia essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Citrus lemon essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Citrus medica essential oil Tribolium castaneum [50]
Citrus paradisi essential oil Rhizopertha dominica [51]
Citrus reticulata essential oil Tribolium confusum [52]
powder Tribolium castaneum [24][53]
ethanol extract
essential oil [54]
essential oil Cryptolestes ferrugineus [55]
essential oil Rhyzopertha dominica [51]
Citrus sinensis essential oil Tribolium castaneum [54]
essential oil Rhizopertha dominica [56]
essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [57]
Calamintha glandulosa essential oil Tribolium castaneum [58]
Clausena anisum-olens essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [59]
Cleome viscosa water extract Oryzaephilus surinamensis [46]
ethanol extract
acetone extract
Coriandrum sativum essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [60]
Crithmum maritimum essential oil Oryzaephilus surinamensis [61]
Sitophilus granarius
Sitophilus oryzae
Tribolium castaneum
Tribolium confusum
Cuminum cyminum essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [31]
Cupressus lusitanica essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [62]
Tribolium castaneum
Cupressus macrocarpa essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Cupressus sempervirens essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Cymbopogon citratus essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [63]
essential oil Tribolium castaneum [64]
Cymbopogon giganteus essential oil Tribolium castaneum [64]
Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil Tribolium castaneum [64]
Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil Tribolium castaneum [42]
Sitophilus oryzae
Rhizopertha dominica
Dahlia pinnata essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [28]
Sitophilus zeamais
Dennettia tripetala essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [65]
Dimorphandra mollis ethanolic extract Tenebrio molitor [22]
Dracocephalum moldavica essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [66]
Tribolium confusum
Drimys winteri essential oil Tribolium castaneum [67]
Dictamnus dasycarpus essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [68]
Eruca sativa essential oil Tribolium confusum [52]
Etlingera yunnanensis essential oil Tribolium castaneum [69]
Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [70][71]
Tribolium castaneum
Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil Tribolium castaneum [64]
Eucalyptus floribundi essential oil Oryzaephilus surinamensis [72]
Rhizopertha dominica
Eucalyptus globulus essential oil Tribolium confusum [52]
essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [73]
Rhizopertha dominica
Eucalyptus intertexta essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [71]
Tribolium castaneum
Eucalyptus leucoxylon essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [74]
Tribolium castaneum
Eucalyptus obliqua essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [60]
Eucalyptus procera essential oil Tribolium castaneum [75]
Eucalyptus saligna essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [62]
Tribolium castaneum
Eucalyptus sargentii essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [71]
Tribolium castaneum
Euonymus japonicus methanol extract Trogoderma granarium [41]
Ferula narthex essential oil Cryptolestes ferrugineus [21]
Foeniculum vulgare essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [31]
essential oil Tribolium castaneum [42]
Sitophilus oryzae
Rhizopertha dominica
Ginkgo biloba plant extract Tribolium castaneum [24]
Hyptis suaveolens essential oil Rhizopertha dominica [76]
Sitophilus oryzae
Tribolium castaneum
Juniperus formosana essential oil Tribolium castaneum [77]
Juniperus polycarpus essential oil Tribolium confusum [78]
Juniperus sabina essential oil Tribolium confusum
Kadsura heteroclita essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [79]
Laurelia sempervirens essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [80]
essential oil Tribolium castaneum [67]
Laurus nobilis essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [81]
Rhizopertha dominica [82]
Tribolium castaneum
Laggera pterodonta essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [83]
Lavandula angustifolia essential oil Sitophilus granarius [84]
Lavandula officinalis essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [70]
Tribolium castaneum
Lavandula stoechas essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [73]
Rhizopertha dominica
Tribolium castaneum
Lepidoploa aurea ethanolic extract Tenebrio molitor [22]
Litsea cubeba essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [85]
Litsea salicifolia essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [86]
Tribolium castaneum
Linium usitatissium essential oil Cryptolestes ferrugineus [21]
Lippia javanica essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [87]
Lippia sidoides essential oil Tenebrio molitor [88]
Liriope muscari essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [89]
Tribolium castaneum
Maytenus emarginata ether extract Oryzaephilus surinamensis [48]
Melia azedarach essential oil Cryptolestes ferrugineus [21]
Mentha piperita powder Oryzaephilus surinamensis [25]
essential oil Tribolium castaneum [90]
Lasioderma serricorne
essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [91]
Mentha longifolia essential oil Tribolium castaneum [20]
essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [92]
Mentha pulegium essential oil Sitophilus granarius [93]
essential oil Tribolium castaneum [94]
Lasioderma serricorne
Mentha . essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [63]
Mesua ferrea water extract Oryzaephilus surinamensis [46]
ethanol extract
acetone extract
Micromeria fruticosa essential oil Sitophilus granarius [95]
Minthostachys verticillata essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [96]
Mosla soochowensis essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [97]
Tribolium confusum
Myristica fragrans essential oil Tribolium castaneum [42]
Sitophilus oryzae
Rhizopertha dominica
Myrtus communis essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Nardostachys chinensis essential oil Tribolium castaneum Lasioderma serricorne [98]
supercritical CO2 fluid extract
Nigella sativa essential oil Tribolium castaneum [42]
Sitophilus oryzae
Rhizopertha dominica
Ocimum basilicum essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [99]
essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [57]
Tribolium castaneum [100]
Tribolium confusum  
Trogoderma granarium  
Ocimum gratissimum essential oil Oryzaephilus surinamensis [101]
Rhizopertha dominica
Sitophilus oryzae
Tribolium castaneum
Origanum acutidens essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [102]
Sitophilus granarius
Origanum majorana essential oil Tribolium confusum [103]
Origanum minutiflorum essential oil Tribolium confusum
Origanum onites essential oil Tribolium confusum
Origanum syriacum essential oil Tribolium confusum
Origanum vulgare essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
essential oil Tribolium castaneum [24][103]
Ostericum viridiflorum essential oil Tribolium castaneum [104]
Petroselinum crispum essential oil Sitophilus zeamais [31]
Perilla frutescens essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [105]
Pimenta dioica powder Oryzaephilus surinamensis [25]
Pimpinella anisum essential oil Tribolium castaneum [24]
Pinus longifolia essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [60]
Pituranthos tortuosus essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Platycladus orientalis essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [106]
Tribolium castaneum
Pongamia pinnata water extract Oryzaephilus surinamensis [46]
ethanol extract
acetone extract
Psidium guajava powder Tribolium castaneum [53]
ethanol extract
Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil Tribolium castaneum [20]
Punica gronatum ether extract Oryzaephilus surinamensis [48]
Ricinus communis essential oil Tribolium castaneum [94]
Lasioderma serricorne
essential oil Tribolium confusum [52]
Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil Tribolium confusum [52]
Salvia officinalis powder Oryzaephilus surinamensis [25]
Salvertia convallariaeodora ether extract Oryzaephilus surinamensis [48]
Sasurrea costus essential oil Cryptolestes ferrugineus [21]
Satureja hortensis essential oil Tribolium castaneum [107]
Schinus molle essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Schinus terebinthifolius
Solanum nigrum glycoalkaloid extract Tenebrio molitor [108]
Syzygium aromaticum essential oil Tenebrio molitor [49]
Sitophilus oryzae [70]
Tribolium castaneum
Syzygium cumini essential oil Tribolium confusum [52]
essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Tanacetum cinerariifolium essential oil Tribolium castaneum [24]
Tagetes erecta essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [109]
Tribolium castaneum
Tagetes minuta essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [109]
Tribolium castaneum
Tagetes patula essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [109]
Tribolium castaneum
Teucrium polium essential oil Tribolium castaneum [110]
Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba methanol extract Trogoderma granarium [41]
Thuja occidentalis essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [35]
Trewia nudiflora water extract Oryzaephilus surinamensis [46]
ethanol extract
acetone extract
Typhonium trilobatum water extract Oryzaephilus surinamensis [46]
ethanol extract
acetone extract
Valeriana jatamansi essential oil Tribolium castaneum [98]
supercritical CO2 fluid extract Lasioderma serricorne
Valeriana officinalis essential oil Tribolium castaneum Lasioderma serricorne [98]
supercritical CO2 fluid extract
Vepris heterophylla essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [111]
Verbascum cheiranthifolium ethanol extract Sitophilus oryzae [112]
Verbascum speciosum ethanol extract Sitophilus oryzae [112]
Viola odorata essential oil Cryptolestes ferrugineus [21]
Vitex negundo ether extract Oryzaephilus surinamensis [48]
Xylopia aethiopica essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [65]
Zanthoxylum armatum essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [113]
Tribolium castaneum
Zanthoxylum dissitum essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [113]
Tribolium castaneum
Zanthoxylum planispinum var. dintanensis essential oil Tribolium castaneum Lasioderma serricorne [114]
Zingiber officinale essential oil Sitophilus oryzae [63]
Zingiber purpureum essential oil Lasioderma serricorne [115]
essential oil Tribolium castaneum
Lepidoptera
Plant Species Formulation Pest Species Reference
Acacia nilotica acetone and pet ether extracts Corcyra cephalonica [116]
Acorus calamus petroleum ether extract Sitotroga cerealella [117]
acetone extract
Aframomum melegueta powder Sitotroga cerealella [118]
extract
Agastache rugosa plant extract Plodia interpunctella [24]
Ajuga iva methanol extract Plodia interpunctella [119]
Allium cepa essential oil Plodia interpunctella [120]
Allium sativum essential oil Sitotroga cerealella [121]
major component: diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide Sitotroga cerealella [121]
major component: diallyl trisulfide Sitotroga cerealella [122][123][124]
essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [125][126][127]
essential oil Ephestia cautella [127]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [125]
Anacardium occidentale essential oil Ephestia cautella [128]
ethanolic oil extract and petroleum ether extract Ephestia cautella [129]
Anethum graveolens essential oil Plodia interpunctella [130]
oils applied as a 30% aqueous solution Ephestia kuehniella [131]
Arachis hypogaea acetone extract Corcyra cephalonica [132]
Armoracia rusticana essential oil Plodia interpunctella [32]
Artemisia haussknechtii essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [133]
Artemisia herba alba essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [134]
Artemisia khorassanica essential oil Sitotroga cerealella [135]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [136]
Artemisia sieberi Bess essential oil Sitotroga cerealella [135]
Artemisia vulgaris essential oil Cadra cautella [137]
essential oil Sitotroga cerealella [36]
Azadirachta indica essential oil Ephestia cautella [138]
Azadirachta indica + Bacilus thuringiensis   Ephestia cautella [138]
Betula lenta essential oil Plodia interpunctella [125]
Ephestia kuehniella
Brassica alba essential oil Ephestia cautella [126]
Callistemon viminalis essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [139]
Calotripis procera roots extract Cadra cautella [140]
Capsicum annuum plant extract Plodia interpunctella [24]
Capsicum frutescens essential oil Ephestia cautella [128]
ethanolic oil extract and petroleum ether extract Ephestia cautella [129]
Carum copticum essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [141]
Plodia interpunctella
Cassia angustifolia protease inhibitor Plodia interpunctella [142]
Centaurium erythraea methanol extract Plodia interpunctella [119]
Cinnamomum camphora essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [143]
Cinnamomum. oil encapsulated with different types of alcohol Plodia interpunctella [144]
polyethylene-laminated polypropylene films Plodia interpunctella [145]
Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil Plodia interpunctella [146][147]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [125]
essential oil Ephestia kuehniella
Cistus ladanifer methanol extract Plodia interpunctella [119]
Cistus monspeliensis methanol extract Plodia interpunctella
Cistus salviaefolius methanol extract Plodia interpunctella
Citrus aurantium essential oil Sitotroga cerealella [148]
Citrus bergamia essential oil Plodia interpunctella [149]
Citrus limon essential oil Plodia interpunctella [150]
Ephestia kuehniella
essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [151]
Citrus reticulata plant extract Plodia interpunctella [24]
Citrus vulgaris essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [133]
Clausena anisata essential oil Sitotroga cerealella [152]
Cleisthopholis patens root bark powder Plodia interpunctella [153]
stem bark powder Plodia interpunctella
leaf powder Plodia interpunctella
Conocarpus lancifolius (leaves) aqueous and ethanolic extract Ephestia cautella [154]
Coriandrum sativum essential oil Sitotroga cerealella [155]
essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [156][157]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [156]
essential oil Corcyra cephalonica [60]
Cuminum cyminum essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [158]
Cupressus lusitanica leaf essential oils Sitotroga cerealella [159]
Cupressus sempervirens essential oil Cadra cautella [137]
Cupressus sempervirens L. horizontalis resin essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [160]
Cymbopogon martinii essential oil Plodia interpunctella [149]
Cyrtocymura cincta sesquiterpene lactones isolated from leaves and flowers Sitotroga cerealella [161]
Dalbergia sissoo acetone extract Corcyra cephalonica [116]
Dimorphandra mollis flowers Sitotroga cerealella [162]
Dryopteris filix (mas root and rhizome) ethanolic extract Corcyra cephalonica [163]
Elaeagnus angustifolia ethyl acetate Ephestia cautella [164]
aqueous Ephestia cautella
Elettaria cardamomum essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [165][166]
Eucalyptus astringens essential oil Ephestia cautella [167]
Ephestia kuehniella
Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [158]
essential oil Ephestia cautella [167]
Ephestia kuehniella
Cadra cautella
Eucalyptus dives oil and constituents Plodia interpunctella [168]
Eucalyptus globulus essential oil Ephestia cautella [127]
Ephestia kuehniella
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [149]
Eucalyptus lehmannii essential oil Ephestia cautella [167]
Ephestia kuehniella
Eucalyptus leucoxylon essential oil Ephestia cautella [167]
Ephestia kuehniella
Eucalyptus obliqua essential oil Corcyra cephalonica [60]
Eucalyptus platyphylla essential oil Ephestia cautella [169]
Eucalyptus rudis essential oil Ephestia cautella [167]
Ephestia kuehniella
Eucalyptus saligna leaf essential oils Sitotroga cerealella [159]
Ferula galbaniflua essential oil Cadra cautella [137]
Ferula gummosa essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [139][166]
Geranium maculatum essential oil Plodia interpunctella [149][170]
Ginkgo biloba plant extract Plodia interpunctella [24]
Glossocardia bosvallia hexane extracts Corcyra cephalonica [171]
Hyossopus officinalis essential oil Plodia interpunctella [130]
Hypericum scabrum essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [95]
Hyssoppus officinalis essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [95]
Lantana camara essential oil Cadra cautella [172]
Launaea arborescens methanol extract Plodia interpunctella [119]
Laurus nobilis essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [173]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [150]
Ephestia kuehniella
Lavandula angustifolia essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [174]
Lavandula angustifolia extract Ephestia kuehniella [175]
Lavandula angustifolia essential oil Plodia interpunctella [149]
Lavandula dentata methanol extract Plodia interpunctella [119]
Lawsonia inermis pet ether extract Corcyra cephalonica [116]
Lippia turbinata essential oil Plodia interpunctella [176]
Maxillaria tenuifolia ethanolic oil extract and petroleum ether extract Ephestia cautella [129]
Melaleuca viridiflora essential oil Cadra cautella [137]
Mentha longifolia essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [177]
Mentha piperita essential oil Corcyra cephalonica [91]
polylactic acid solution Plodia interpunctella [178]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [149][170]
essential oil Ephestia cautella [169]
Mentha pulegium essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [179]
Mentha spicata essential oil Plodia interpunctella [180]
Ephestia kuehniella
Micromere fruticosa essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [95][181]
Monodora tenuifolia essential oil Ephestia cautella [128]
Myristica fragrans essential oil Cadra cautella [137]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [182]
Myrtus commonis essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [173][183]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [150]
Ephestia kuehniella
Nepata racemosa essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [181]
Neroli birgard essential oil Sitotroga cerealella [148]
Ocimum basilicum oils applied as a 30% aqueous solution Ephestia kuehniella [131]
essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [156][179][180]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [156][180]
Ocimum kilimandscharicum ground leaves Sitotroga cerealella [184]
essential oil Sitotroga cerealella
Ocimum suave essential oil Sitotroga cerealella [185]
dry or ground leaves Sitotroga cerealella
Origanum acutidens essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [95][102]
Origanum majorana essential oil Corcyra cephalonica [186]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [150]
Ephestia kuehniella
essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [151]
Origanum onites essential oil Plodia interpunctella [183]
Ephestia kuehniella
Origanum syriacum var. bevanii essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [158]
Origanum vulgare essential oil Plodia interpunctella [24]
essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [134][181]
Origanum vulgaris essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [187]
Parthenium hysterophorus acetone extract Corcyra cephalonica [116]
Peganum harmala methanol extract Plodia interpunctella [119]
Petroselinum crispum essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [157]
Petroselinum sativum essential oil Plodia interpunctella [130]
Pimpinella anisum essential oil Ephestia cautella [127]
essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [125][127][158]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [24][125]
Pinus brutia essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [188]
Pinus densiflora diterpene resin acids (DRAs) Plodia interpunctella [189]
Pinus longifolia essential oil Corcyra cephalonica [60]
Pinus pinea essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [188]
Piper nigrum essential oil Corcyra cephalonica [91]
Piper sarmentosum hexane extracts Plodia interpunctella [190]
Pistacia lentiscus essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [191]
Polyalthia longifolia essential oil Sitotroga cerealella [152]
Portulaca oleracea essential oil Ephestia cautella [192]
essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [193]
Prunus grain coating with amygdalin Plodia interpunctella [194]
Psychotria prunifolia leaves Sitotroga cerealella [162]
Ricinus communis essential oil Ephestia cautella [128][192]
ethanolic oil extract and petroleum ether extract Ephestia cautella [129]
Rosemarinus officinalis essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [127][158][174]
essential oil Ephestia cautella [127]
essential oil Cadra cautella [137]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [130]
methanol extract Plodia interpunctella [119]
Ruta graveolens essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [179]
Ruta montana essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [134]
Salvia limbata essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [95]
Salvia nemorosa essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [95]
Salvia officinalis essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [166]
polylactic acid solution Plodia interpunctella [178]
Satureja hortensis essential oil Plodia interpunctella [107]
Ephestia kuehniella [107]
essential oil Cadra cautella [137]
Satureja thymbra essential oil Plodia interpunctella [183]
Ephestia kuehniella [150][183]
Satureje hortensis essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [95]
Syzygium aromaticum essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [143]
Tanacetum cinerariifolium essential oil Plodia interpunctella [24]
Thymus daenensis essential oil Plodia interpunctella [195]
Ephestia kuehniella
Thymus vulgaris essential oil Plodia interpunctella [130]
essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [95]
Tithonia diversifolia leaves Sitotroga cerealella [162]
Trachyspermum ammi essential oil Plodia interpunctella [182]
Trigonella foenum-graecum protease inhibitor Plodia interpunctella [142]
Vitex pseudo-negundo essential oil Plodia interpunctella [136]
Xylopia aethiopica essential oil Ephestia cautella [128]
ethanolic oil extract and petroleum ether extract Ephestia cautella [129]
Zingiber officinale essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [131]
essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [196]
essential oil Plodia interpunctella [196]
Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. essential oil Ephestia kuehniella [197]

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