Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 We have reviewed the current state of knowledge about the presence, characteristics and arrangement of TCs/CD34+stromal cells in the normal and pathological peripheral nervous system (PNS), including light and electron microscopic studies in nerves, senso + 6175 word(s) 6175 2020-06-23 10:16:21 |
2 update layout and reference -2677 word(s) 3498 2020-07-02 11:41:59 | |
3 Increase the exposure -52 word(s) 3446 2020-10-26 10:12:42 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Díaz-Flores, L.; Gutiérrez, R.; García, M.P.; Gayoso, S.; Gutiérrez, E.; Carrasco, J.L. Telocytes. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 04 December 2023).
Díaz-Flores L, Gutiérrez R, García MP, Gayoso S, Gutiérrez E, Carrasco JL. Telocytes. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed December 04, 2023.
Díaz-Flores, Lucio, Ricardo Gutiérrez, Mª Pino García, Sara Gayoso, Emma Gutiérrez, José Luis Carrasco. "Telocytes" Encyclopedia, (accessed December 04, 2023).
Díaz-Flores, L., Gutiérrez, R., García, M.P., Gayoso, S., Gutiérrez, E., & Carrasco, J.L.(2020, June 29). Telocytes. In Encyclopedia.
Díaz-Flores, Lucio, et al. "Telocytes." Encyclopedia. Web. 29 June, 2020.

Telocytes/CD34+ stromal cells in the normal and pathological peripheral nervous system (PNS). We consider the following aspects: (A) general characteristics of telocytes; (B) the presence, characteristics and arrangement of telocytes in the normal PNS, including i) nerve epi-perineurium and endoneurium (e.g., telopodes extending into the endoneurial space); ii) sensory nerve endings (e.g., Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles, and neuromuscular spindles); iii) ganglia; and iv) the intestinal autonomic nervous system; (C) the telocytes in the pathologic PNS, encompassing (i) hyperplastic neurogenic processes (neurogenic hyperplasia of the appendix and gallbladder), highly demonstrative of telocyte characteristics and relations, (ii) PNS tumours, such as neurofibroma, schwannoma and granular cell tumour. 

telocytes nerves peripheral nervous system tumours neurogenic hyperplasia

1. General Characteristics of Telocytes and Terminological Introduction

Figure 3. TCs/CD34+SCs (brown) around appendiceal hyperplastic nerve fibres (Schwann cells and axons) (red) (AG) and neuronal–glial units (B,H). Sections stained with anti-CD34 (brown) and anti-S-100 (red) (A, C–E and G and H) and anti-CD34 and anti-neurofilaments (B and D). Numerous fusiform or stellate TCs and their telopodes (brown) are observed around the aforementioned structures. The TCs and telopodes follow the path of the nerve fibres and establish contact with TCs of other nerve fibres and smooth muscle cells. It should be noted how thinner telopodes can originate from the somatic region of the TCs (Figure 3E) or from thicker and initial telopodes (Figure 3G). Bar: A, B, 20 µm; C-H, 10 µm

Figure 4. TCs/CD34+SCs around nerve fibres (Schwann cells and axons) and neuronal–glial units growing in the appendiceal adipose and connective tissues, and in the adventitia of blood vessels in the presence of mast cells. Sections double-immunostained with anti-CD34 (brown) and anti-S100 (red) (A), anti-CD34 (brown) and anti-neurofilaments (red) (B) and anti-CD34 (brown) and c-kit (red) (insert in B). A: TCs/CD34+SCs (brown) are observed around neuronal–glial units between adipocytes (ad). It should be noted that the satellite glial cells are stained in red. B: Nerve fibres between the TCs/CD34+SCs of blood vessel adventitia (L: vessel lumen). Insert of B: A c-kit immunostained mast cell (red) associated with a TC/CD34+SC) (brown). Bar: A, 20 µm; B, 40 µm; insert of B, 10 µm.

Figure 5. TCs in the neurogenic hyperplasia of gallbladder. (A) Presence of TCs/CD34+SCs (brown) around and within a thick nerve in the gallbladder wall. Schwann cells expressing S-100 (red) are seen. (B,C) TCs/CD34+SCs (brown) between fascicles and independent nerve fibres arranged in different directions within the nerves. (D) Nerve fibres (expressing neurofilaments, red) between TCs/CD34+SCs (brown) in the blood vessel adventitia. (E) Nerve fibres in the chorion of the mucosa. The absence of TCs/CD34+SCs is noted. A and E: Sections double-immunostained with anti-CD34 (brown) and anti-S100 (red). B and C: Sections immunostained with anti-CD34 (brown). D: Section double-immunostained with anti-CD34 (brown) and anti-neurofilaments (red). Bar: A, C, 80 µm; B, 100 µm; D, 20 µm; F, 30 µm.

Figure 6. TCs/CD34+SCs in neurofibromas. (AC) Using double-immunostaining (anti-CD34 and anti-S100), numerous TCs/CD34+SCs (brown), intermixed with Schwann cells (red) are observed forming bundles with parallel, arciform or irregular arrangement. (D) TCs/CD34+SCs are also seen in the adventitia of blood vessels in the tumour. (E) CD34+ cells (ameboid dendritic cells) in a myxoid area of a plexiform neurofibroma. D and E: Immunostained with anti-CD34. Bar: A, 80 µm; B, D, 60 µm; C, 20 µm; E, 40 µm.

Figure 7. Multi-vacuolated cells (ameboid dendritic cells) in myxoid areas of plexiform neurofibromas. (AE) CD34 expression in the vacuolated cells, which partially retain their primitive fusiform or stellate morphology (A–C) or acquire a globe-like aspect, sometimes with a piriform appearance (D and E). (F) Alcian blue positivity in the extracellular matrix and in the vacuolated cells (G,H) Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells in the myxoid areas. Note the intracytoplasmic vacuoles and how one cell retains some processes (G), while the other acquires a globoid-like aspect (H). A–E: Anti-CD34 immunostaining. F: Alcian blue staining. G and H: Ultrathin sections. Uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Bar: A–E, 5 µm; F, 10 µm; G, H, 0.5 µm.

Figure 8. TCs/CD34+SCs in schwannomas and granular cell tumours. (AC) A schwannoma in which numerous TCs/CD34+SCs (brown) (A and B) are arranged around groups of Schwann cells, which form Verocay bodies (A and B) and express S100 (brown) (C). D and E: Granular cell tumour, in which TCs/CD34+SCs) (brown) (D) surround granular cells (granular S100-positive Schwann cells) (brown) (E). (F,G) Ultrastructural characteristics of the granular cells in whose environment some telopodes are observed (arrows). A to E: Sections immunostained with anti-CD34 (brown) (A, B, D) and anti S-100 (brown) (C and E). F and G: Ultrathin sections, Uranyl Acetate and Lead citrate. Bar: A, B, C, E, 80 µm; D, 60 µm; F, G, 0.5 µm.


  1. Popescu, L.M.; Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S. Telocytes—A case of serendipity: The winding way from Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC), via Interstitial Cajal-Like Cells (ICLC) to telocytes. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2010, 14, 729–740.
  2. Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S.; Popescu, L.M. Telocytes. BioMol. Concepts 2011, 2, 481–489.
  3. Popescu, L.M. Telocytes—A novel type of interstitial cells. In Recent researches in modern medicine— HISTEM, Braisant, O., Wakamatsu, H., Kang, I., Allegaert, K., Lenbury, Y., Wacholtz, A., Eds.; WSEAS Press: Cambridge, UK, 2011; pp 424–432.
  4. Cretoiu, D.; Radu, B.M.; Banciu, A.; Banciu, D.D.; Cretoiu, S.M. Telocytes heterogeneity: From cellular morphology to functional evidence. Semin Cell Dev. Biol. 2017, 64, 26–39.
  5. Vannucchi, M.G.; Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S. The telocyte subtypes. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2016, 913, 115–126.
  6. Cretoiu, D.; Xu, J.; Xiao, J.; Cretoiu, S.M. Telocytes and Their Extracellular Vesicles-Evidence and Hypotheses. Int J Mol Sci. 2016, 17, 1322.
  7. Cretoiu, D.; Roatesi, S.; Bica, I.; Plesca, C.; Stefan, A.; Bajenaru, O.; Condrat, C.E.; Cretoiu, S.M. Simulation and modeling of telocytes behavior in signaling and intercellular communication processes. Int J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2615.
  8. Cretoiu, S.M.; Popescu, L.M. Telocytes revisited. Biomol. Concepts 2014, 5, 353–369.
  9. Díaz-Flores, L.; Gutiérrez, R.; García, M.P.; Sáez, F.J.; Aparicio, F.; Díaz-Flores, L.; Jr; Madrid, J.F. Uptake and intracytoplasmic storage of pigmented particles by human CD34+ stromal cells/telocytes: Endocytic property of telocytes. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2014, 18, 2478–2487.
  10. Mandache, E.; Popescu, L.M.; Gherghiceanu, M. Myocardial interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC) and their nanostructural relationships with intercalated discs: Shed vesicles as intermediates. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2007, 11, 1175–1184.
  11. Nicolescu, M.I.; Popescu, L.M. Telocytes in the interstitium of human exocrine pancreas: Ultrastructural evidence. Pancreas 2012, 41, 949–956.
  12. Nicolescu, M.I.; Bucur, A.; Dinca, O.; Rusu, M.C.; Popescu, L.M. Telocytes in parotid glands. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2012, 295, 378–385.
  13. Popescu, L.M.; Gherghiceanu, M.; Cretoiu, D.; Radu, E. The connective connection: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and ICC-like cells establish synapses with immunoreactive cells. Electron microscope study in situ. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2005, 9, 714–730.
  14. Popescu, L.M.; Nicolescu, M.I. Telocytes and stem cells. In: Resident Stem Cells and Regenerative Therapy, Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg, R., Campos de Carvalho, A.C., Eds.; Academic Press/Elsevier, Oxford, U.K. 2013. pp. 205–31.
  15. Richter, M.; Kostin, S. The failing human heart is characterized by decreased numbers of telocytes as result of apoptosis and altered extracellular matrix composition. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2015, 19, 2597–2606.
  16. Smythies, J. Intercellular Signaling in Cancer-the SMT and TOFT Hypotheses, Exosomes, Telocytes and Metastases: Is the Messenger in the Message? J. Cancer. 2015, 6, 604–609.
  17. Díaz-Flores, L.; Gutiérrez, R.; Sáez, F.J.; Díaz-Flores, L. Jr; Madrid, J.F. Telocytes in neuromuscular spindles. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2013, 17, 457–465.
  18. Díaz-Flores, L.; Gutiérrez, R.; Díaz-Flores, L. Jr.; Goméz, M.G.; Sáez, F.J.; Madrid, J.F. Behaviour of telocytes during physiopathological activation. Semin Cell Dev. Biol. 2016c, 55, 50–61.
  19. Suciu, L.; Popescu, L.M.; Gherghiceanu, M.; Regalia, T.; Nicolescu, M.I.; Hinescu, M.E.; Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S. Telocytes in human term placenta: Morphology and phenotype. Cells Tissues Organs. 2010, 192, 325–339.
  20. Bani, D.; Formigli, L.; Gherghiceanu, M.; Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S. Telocytes as supporting cells for myocardial tissue organization in developing and adult heart. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2010, 14, 2531–2538.
  21. Popescu, LM. The tandem: Telocytes-stem cells. Int. J. Biol. Biomed. Eng. 2011, 5, 83–92.
  22. Popescu, L.M.; Gherghiceanu, M.; Suciu, L.C.; Manole, C.G.; Hinescu, M.E. Telocytes and putative stem cells in the lungs: Electron microscopy, electron tomography and laser scanning microscopy. Cell Tissue Res. 2011, 345, 391–403.
  23. Popescu, L.M.; Manole, E.; Serboiu, C.S.; Manole, C.G.; Suciu, L.C.; Gherghiceanu, M.; Popescu, B.O. Identification of telocytes in skeletal muscle interstitium: Implication for muscle regeneration. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2011, 15, 1379–1392.
  24. Hinescu, M.E.; Popescu, L.M.; Gherghiceanu, M.; Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S. Interstitial Cajal-like cells in rat mesentery: An ultrastructural and immunohistochemical approach. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2008, 12, 260–270.
  25. Pieri, L.; Vannucchi, M.G.; Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S. Histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of an interstitial cell type different from ICC and resident in the muscle coat of human gut. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2008; 12, 1944–1955.
  26. Zheng, Y.; Zhang, M.; Qian, M.; Wang, L.; Cismasiu, V.B.; Bai, C.; Popescu, L.M.; Wang, X. Genetic comparison of mouse lung telocytes with mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2013, 17, 567–577.
  27. Jiang, X.J.; Cretoiu, D.; Shen, Z.J.; Yang, X.J. An in vitro investigation of telocytes-educated macrophages: Morphology, heterocellular junctions, apoptosis and invasion analysis. J. Transl. Med. 2018, 16, 85.
  28. Bani, D.; Nistri, S. New insights into the morphogenic role of stromal cells and their relevance for regenerative medicine. Lessons from the heart. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2014, 18, 363–370.
  29. Gherghiceanu, M.; Popescu, L.M. Heterocellular communication in the heart: Electron tomography of telocyte-myocyte junctions. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2011, 15, 1005–1011.
  30. Zhou, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, P.; Sun, H.; Mou, Y.; Duan, C.; Yao, A.; Lv, S.; Wang, C. Distribution and characteristics of telocytes as nurse cells in the architectural organization of engineered heart tissues. Sci. China Life Sci. 2014, 57, 241–247.
  31. Zhao, B.; Chen, S.; Liu, J.; Yuan, Z.; Qi, X.; Qin, J.; Zheng, X.; Shen, X.; Yu, Y.; Qnin, T.J.; Chan, J.Y.; Cai, D. Cardiac telocytes were decreased during myocardial infarction and their therapeutic effects for ischaemic heart in rat. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2013, 17, 123–133.
  32. Zheng Y.; Cretoiu, D.; Yan, G.; Cretoiu, S.M.; Popescu, L.M.; Fang, H.; Wang, X. Protein profiling of human lung telocytes and microvascular endothelial cells using iTRAQ quantitative proteomics. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2014, 18, 1035–1059.
  33. Vannucchi, M.G.; Traini, C.; Manetti, M.; Ibba-Manneschi, L.; Faussone-Pellegrini MS. Telocytes express PDGFRα in the human gastrointestinal tract. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2013, 17, 1099–1108.
  34. Vannucchi, M.G.; Evangelista, S. Neurokinin receptors in the gastrointestinal muscle wall: Cell distribution and possible roles. BioMol. Concepts. 2013, 4, 221–231.
  35. Vannucchi, M.G.; Traini, C.; Guasti, D.; Del Popolo, G.; Faussone-Pellegrini, MS. Telocytes subtypes in human urinary bladder. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2014, 18, 2000–2008.
  36. Ceafalan, L.; Gherghiceanu, M.; Popescu, L.M.; Simionescu, O. Telocytes in human skin--are they involved in skin regeneration? J. Cell Mol. Med. 2012, 16, 1405–1420.
  37. Díaz-Flores, L.; Gutiérrez, R.; Lizartza, K.; Goméz, M.G.; García, M.P.; Sáez, F.J.; Díaz-Flores, L. Jr.; Madrid, J.F. Behavior of in situ human native adipose tissue CD34+ stromal/progenitor cells during different stages of repair. Tissue-resident CD34+ stromal cells as a source of myofibroblasts. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2015, 298, 917–930.
  38. Díaz-Flores, L.; Gutiérrez, R.; García, M.P.; González, M.; Sáez, F.J.; Aparicio, F.; Díaz-Flores, L. Jr; Madrid, J.F. Human resident CD34+ stromal cells/telocytes have progenitor capacity and are a source of αSMA+ cells during repair. Histol. Histopathol. 2015, 30, 615–627.
  39. Díaz-Flores, L.; Gutiérrez, R.; García, M.P.; González, M.; Díaz-Flores, L. Jr.; Madrid, J.F. Telocytes as a source of progenitor cells in regeneration and repair through granulation tissue. Curr. Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2016, 11, 395–403.
  40. Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S.; Bani, D. Relationships between telocytes and cardiomyocytes during pre- and post-natal life. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2010, 14, 1061–1063.
  41. Gherghiceanu, M.; Popescu, L.M. Cardiac telocytes-their junctions and functional implications. Cell Tissue Res. 2012, 348, 265–279.
  42. Vannucchi, M.G.; Bani, D.; Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S. Telocytes contribute as cell progenitors and differentiation inductors in tissue regeneration. Curr. Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2016; 11, 383–389.
  43. Manetti, M.; Tani, A.; Rosa, I.; Chellini, F.; Squecco, R.; Idrizaj, E.; Zecchi-Orlandini, S.; Ibba-Manneschi, L.; Sassoli, C. Morphological evidence for telocytes as stromal cells supporting satellite cell activation in eccentric contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury. Sci. Rep. 2019, 9, 14515.
  44. Carr, M.J.; Toma, J.S.; Johnston, A.P.W.; Steadman, P.E.; Yuzwa, S.A.; Mahmud, N.; Frankland, P.W.; Kaplan, D.R.; Miller, F.D. Mesenchymal Precursor Cells in Adult Nerves Contribute to Mammalian Tissue Repair and Regeneration. Cell Stem Cell. 2019, 24, 240–256.
  45. Richard, L.; Védrenne, N.; Vallat, J.M.; Funalot, B. Characterization of Endoneurial Fibroblast-like Cells from Human and Rat Peripheral Nerves. J. Histochem Cytochem. 2014, 62, 424–435.
  46. Hirose, T.; Tani, T.; Shimada, T.; Ishizawa, K.; Shimada, S.; Sano, T. Immunohistochemical demostration of EMA/Glut1-positive perineurial cells and CD34-positive fibroblastic cells in peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Mod. Pathol. 2003, 16, 293–298.
  47. Khalifa, M.A.; Montgomery, E.A.; Ismiil, N.; Azumi, N. What are the CD34+ cells in benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors? Double immunostaining study of CD34 and S-100 protein. Am. J. Clin. Pathol 2000, 114, 123–126.
  48. Weiss, S.W.; Nickoloff, B.J. CD-34 is expressed by a distinctive cell population in peripheral nerve, nerve sheath tumors, and related lesions. Am. J. Surg. Pathol 1993, 17, 1039–1045.
  49. Mirancea, N. Telocyte-a particular cell phenotype. Infrastructure, relationships and putative functions. Rom. J. Morphol Embryol. 2016, 57, 7–21.
  50. Richard, L.; Topilko, P.; Magy, L.; Decouvelaere, A.V.; Charnay, P.; Funalot, B.; Vallat, J.M. Endoneurial fibroblast-like cells. J. Neuropathol Exp. Neurol. 2012, 71, 938–947.
  51. Schubert, T.; Friede, R.L. The role of endoneurial fibroblasts in myelin degradation. J. Neuropathol Exp. Neurol. 1981, 40, 134–154.
  52. Joseph, N.M.; Mukouyama, Y.S.; Mosher, J.T.; Jaegle, M.; Crone, S.A.; Dormand, E.L.; Lee, K.F.; Meijer, D.; Anderson, D.J.; Morrison, S.J. Neural crest stem cells undergo multilineage differentiation in developing peripheral nerves to generate endoneurial fibroblasts in addition to Schwann cells. Development. 2004, 131, 5599–5612.
  53. Bosco, C.; Díaz, E.; Gutiérrez, R.; González, J.; Pérez, J. Ganglionar nervous cells and telocytes in the pancreas of Octodon degus: Extra and intrapancreatic ganglionar cells and telocytes in the degus. Auton Neurosci. 2013, 177, 224–230.
  54. Cantarero Carmona, I.; Luesma Bartolomé, M.J.; Junquera Escribano, C. Identification of telocytes in the lamina propria of rat duodenum: Transmission electron microscopy. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2011, 15, 26–30.
  55. Faussone-Pellegrini, MS.; Gherghiceanu, M. Telocyte's contacts. Semin Cell Dev. Biol. 2016, 55:3-8.
  56. Gevaert, T.; De Vos, R.; Van Der Aa, F.; Joniau, S.; van den Oord, J.; Roskams, T.; De Ridder, D. Identification of telocytes in the upper lamina propria of the human urinary tract. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2012, 16, 2085–2093.
  57. Gherghiceanu, M.; Manole, C.G.; Popescu, L.M. Telocytes in endocardium: Electron microscope evidence. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2010, 14, 2330–2334.
  58. Luesma, M.J.; Gherghiceanu, M.; Popescu, L.M. Telocytes and stem cells in limbus and uvea of mouse eye. Version 2. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2013,17, 1016–1024.
  59. Marini, M.; Ibba-Manneschi, L.; Manetti, M. Cardiac telocyte-derived exosomes and their possible implications in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2017, 998, 237–254.
  60. Ullah, S.; Yang, P.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, Y.; Chen, W.; Waqas, Y.; Le, Y.; Chen, B.; Chen, Q. Identification and characterization of telocytes in the uterus of the oviduct in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis: TEM evidence. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2014, 18, 2385–2392.
  61. Yang, P.; Ahmad, N.; Hunag, Y.; Ullah, S.; Zhang, Q.; Waqas, Y.; Liu, Y.; Li, Q.; Hu, L.; Chen, Q. Telocytes: Novel interstitial cells present in the testis parenchyma of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2015, 19, 2888–2899.
  62. García-Piqueras, J.; Cobo, R.; Cárcaba, L.; García-Mesa, Y.; Feito, J.; Cobo, J.; García-Suárez, O.; Vega, J.A. The capsule of human Meissner corpuscles: Immunohistochemical evidence. J Anat. 2020, 236, 854–861.
  63. García-Piqueras, J.; García-Suárez, O.; Rodríguez-González, M.C.; Cobo, J.L.; Cabo, R.; Vega, J.A.; Feito, J. Endoneurial-CD34 positive cells define an intermediate layer in human digital Pacinian corpuscles. Ann. Anat. 2017, 211, 55–60.
  64. Rusu, M.C.; Cretoiu, D.; Vrapciu, A.D.; Hostiuc, S.; Dermengiu, D.; Manoiu, V.S.; Cretoiu, S.M.; Mirancea, N. Telocytes of the human adult trigeminal ganglion. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2016, 32, 199–207.
  65. Rusu, M.C.; Mănoiu, V.S.; Creţoiu, D.; Creţoiu, S.M.; Vrapciu, A.D. Stromal cells/telocytes and endothelial progenitors in the perivascular niches of the trigeminal ganglion. Ann. Anat. 2018, 218, 141–155.
  66. Cretoiu, D.; Cretoiu, S.M.; Simionescu, A.A.; Popescu, L.M. Telocytes, a distinct type of cell among the stromal cells present in the lamina propria of jejunum. Histol. Histopathol. 2012, 27, 1067–1078.
  67. Hagger, R.; Gharaie, S.; Finlayson, C.; Kumar, D. Distribution of the interstitial cells of Cajal in the human anorectum. J. Auton Nerv. Syst. 1998, 73, 75–79.
  68. Milia, A.F.; Ruffo, M.; Manetti, M.; Rosa, I.; Conte, D.; Fazi, M.; Messerini, L.; Ibba-Manneschi, L. Telocytes in Crohn's disease. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2013, 17, 1525–1536.
  69. Vanderwinden, J.M.; Rumessen, J.J.; De Laet, M.H.; Vanderhaeghen, J.J.; Schiffmann, S.N. CD34+ cells in human intestine are fibroblasts adjacent to, but distinct from, interstitial cells of Cajal. Lab. Invest. 1999, 79, 59–65.
  70. Vanderwinden, J.M.; Rumessen, J.J.; De Laet, M.H.; Vanderhaeghen, J.J.; Schiffmann, SN. CD34 immunoreactivity and interstitial cells of Cajal in the human and mouse gastrointestinal tract. Cell Tissue Res. 2000, 302, 145–153.
  71. Veress, B.; Ohlsson, B. Spatial relationship between telocytes, interstitial cells of Cajal and the enteric nervous system in the human ileum and colon. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2020, 24, 3399–3406.
  72. Zani, B.C.; Sanches, B.D.A.; Maldarine, J.S.; Biancardi, M.F.; Santos, F.C.A.; Barquilha, C.N.; Zucão, M.I.; Baraldi, C.M.B.; Felisbino, S.L.; Góes, R.M.; Vilamaior, P.S.L.; Taboga, S.R. Telocytes role during the postnatal development of the Mongolian gerbil jejunum. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 2018, 105, 130–138.
  73. Rømert, P.; Mikkelsen, H.B. c-kit immunoreactive interstitial cells of Cajal in the human small and large intestine. Histochem. Cell Biol. 1998, 109, 195–202.
  74. Esterson, Y.B.; Esterson, A.Y.; Grimaldi, G.M.; Pellerito, J.S.; Warshawsky, R.J. Appendiceal ganglioneuroma in neurofibromatosis type 2. Clin. Imaging. 2017, 45, 22–25.
  75. Güller, U.; Oertli, D.; Terracciano, L.; Harder, F. Neurogene Appendicopathie: Ein häufiges, fast unbekanntes Krankheitsbild. Auswertung von 816 Appendices und Literaturübersicht. Chirurg. 2001, 72, 684–689.
  76. Masson, P. Carcinoids (Argentaffin-Cell Tumors) and Nerve Hyperplasia of the Appendicular Mucosa. Am. J. Pathol. 1928, 4, 181–212.
  77. Michalany, J.; Galindo, W. Classification of neuromas of the appendix. Beitr. Pathol. 1973, 150, 213–28.
  78. Merck, C.; Kindblom, L.G. Neurofibromatosis of the appendix in von Recklinghausen's disease. A report of a case. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A. 1975, 83, 623–627.
  79. Olsen, B.S.; Holck, S. Neurogenous hyperplasia leading to appendiceal obliteration: An immunohistochemical study of 237 cases. Histopathology. 1987, 11, 843–849.
  80. Sesia, S.B.; Mayr, J.; Bruder, E.; Haecker, F.M. Neurogenic appendicopathy: Clinical, macroscopic, and histopathological presentation in pediatric patients. Eur J. Pediatr Surg. 2013, 23, 238–242.
  81. van Eeden, S.; Offerhaus, G.J.; Peterse, H.L.; Dingemans, K.P.; Blaauwgeers, H.L. Gangliocytic paraganglioma of the appendix. Histopathology. 2000, 36, 47–49.
  82. Hennig, R.; Zanli, J.; Osman, T.; Esposito, I.; Berhane, T.; Vetrhus, M.; Søndenaa, K.; Büchler, M.W.; Friess, H. Association between gallstone-evoked pain, inflammation and proliferation of nerves in the gallbladder: A possible explanation for clinical differences. Scand J. Gastroenterol. 2007, 42, 878–884.
  83. Albores-Saavedra, J.; Henson, D.E. Adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the gallbladder with perineural invasion. Arch. Pathol Lab. Med. 1995, 119, 1173–1176.
  84. Albores-Saavedra, J.; Keenportz, B.; Bejarano, P.A.; Alexander, A.A.; Henson, D.E. Adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the gallbladder with perineural invasion: Revisited. Am. J. Surg Pathol. 2007, 31, 1598–1604.
  85. Picón-Coronel, G.; Chablé-Montero, F.; Angeles-Ángeles, A.; Albores-Saavedra, J. Multiple venous and arterial thromboses of the gallbladder causing acute cholecystitis. A previously undescribed complication of essential thrombocythemia. Ann. Hepatol. 2011, 10, 365–369.
  86. Magro, G.; Amico, P.; Vecchio, G.M.; Caltabiano, R.; Castaing, M.; Kacerovska, D.; Kazakov, D.V.; Michal, M. Multinucleated floret-like giant cells in sporadic and NF1-associated neurofibromas: A clinicopathologic study of 94 cases. Virchows Arch. 2010, 456, 71–76.
  87. Miettinen, M.M.; Antonescu, C.R.; Fletcher, C.D.M.; Kim, A.; Lazar, A.J.; Quezado, M.M.; Reilly, K.M.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, A.; Stewart, D.R.; Viskochil, D.; Widemann, B.; Perry, A. Histopathologic evaluation of atypical neurofibromatous tumors and their transformation into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in patients with neurofibromatosis 1-a consensus overview. Hum. Pathol. 2017, 67, 1–10.
  88. Ide, F.; Muramatsu, T.; Kikuchi, K.; Saito, I.; Kusama, K. Oral plexiform schwannoma with unusual epithelial induction. J. Cutan Pathol. 2015, 42, 978–982.
  89. Sergheraert, J.; Zachar, D.; Furon, V.; Khonsari, R.H.; Ortonne, N.; Mauprivez, C. Oral plexiform schwannoma: A case report and relevant immunohistochemical investigation. SAGE Open Med. Case Rep. 2019, 7:2050313 × 19838184.
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , , , , ,
View Times: 819
Revisions: 3 times (View History)
Update Date: 26 Oct 2020