- Please check and comment entries here.
Antibodies against EEEV or WEEV
The three encephalitic alphaviruses, namely, the Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV), are classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as biothreat agents.
2. The First Approach to Develop Anti-WEEV or Anti-EEEV NAbs
3. The Second Approach to Develop Anti-WEEV and Anti-EEEV NAbs
4. Titration of NAbs against Various Strains of EEEV or WEEV
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/v13112231
- Zacks, M.A.; Paessler, S. Encephalitic alphaviruses. Vet. Microbiol. 2010, 140, 281–286.
- Johnston, R.E.; Peters, C.J. Alphavirus. In Fields Virology, 3rd ed.; Fields, B.N., Knipe, D.M., Howley, P.M., Eds.; Raven Publishers: Philadelphia, PA, USA, 1996; pp. 843–898.
- Strauss, J.H.; Strauss, E.G. The alphaviruses: Gene expression, replication, and evolution. Microbiol. Rev. 1994, 58, 491–562.
- Zhang, R.; Hryc, C.F.; Cong, Y.; Liu, X.; Jakana, J.; Gorchakov, R.; Baker, M.L.; Weaver, S.C.; Chiu, W. 4.4 A cryo-EM structure of an enveloped alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. EMBO J. 2011, 30, 3854–3863.
- France, J.K.; Wyrick, B.C.; Trent, D.W. Biochemical and antigenic comparison of the envelope glycoproteins of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus strains. J. Gen. Virol. 1979, 44, 725–740.
- Roehrig, J.T.; Day, J.W.; Kinney, R.M. Antigenic analysis of the surface glycoproteins of a Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (TC-83) using monoclonal antibodies. Virology 1982, 118, 269–278.
- Arrigo, N.C.; Adams, A.P.; Weaver, S.C. Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North versus South America suggest ecological differences and taxonomic revision. J. Virol. 2010, 84, 1014–1025.
- Schafer, A.; Brooke, C.B.; Whitmore, A.C.; Johnston, R.E. The role of the blood-brain barrier during Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection. J. Virol. 2011, 85, 10682–10690.
- Breaking Down the 2019 Eastern Equine Encephalitis Outbreak in the US. Available online: https://www.contagionlive.com/news/breaking-down-the-2019-eastern-equine-encephalitis-outbreak-in-the-us (accessed on 20 January 2020).
- Steele, K.E.; Twenhafel, N.A. Review paper: Pathology of animal models of alphavirus encephalitis. Vet. Pathol. 2010, 47, 790–805.
- Hanson, R.P.; Sulkin, S.E.; Beuscher, E.L.; Hammon, W.M.; McKinney, R.W.; Work, T.H. Arbovirus infections of laboratory workers. Extent of problem emphasizes the need for more effective measures to reduce hazards. Science 1967, 158, 1283–1286.
- Moran, G.J. Threats in bioterrorism. II: CDC category B and C agents. Emerg. Med. Clin. N. Am. 2002, 20, 311–330.
- Sidwell, R.W.; Smee, D.F. Viruses of the Bunya-and Togaviridae families: Potential as bioterrorism agents and means of control. Antivir. Res. 2003, 57, 101–111.
- Nagata, L.P.; Wong, J.P.; Hu, W.G.; Wu, J.Q. Vaccines and therapeutics for the encephalitic alphaviruses. Future Virol. 2013, 8, 661–674.
- Casadevall, A. Antibody-based therapies for emerging infectious diseases. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1996, 2, 200–208.
- Casadevall, A.; Scharff, M.D. Return to the past: The case for antibody-based therapies in infectious diseases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1995, 21, 150–161.
- Zeitlin, L.; Cone, R.A.; Moench, T.R.; Whaley, K.J. Preventing infectious disease with passive immunization. Microbes Infect. 2000, 2, 701–708.
- Zeitlin, L.; Cone, R.A.; Whaley, K.J. Using monoclonal antibodies to prevent mucosal transmission of epidemic infectious diseases. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1999, 5, 54–64.
- Pollard, E. Mother, Daughter Taking Experimental Hendra virus Drugs. ABC News. 28 May 2010. Available online: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2010-05-27/mother-daughter-taking-experimental-hendravirus/844358 (accessed on 14 August 2012).
- The PREVAIL II Writing Group; for the Multi-National PREVAIL II Study Team; Davey, R.T., Jr.; Dodd, L.; Proschan, M.A.; Neaton, J.; Neuhaus Nordwall, J.; Koopmeiners, J.S.; Beigel, J.; Tierney, J.; et al. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of ZMapp for Ebola Virus Infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 2016, 375, 1448–1456.
- Tsai, C.W.; Morris, S. Approval of Raxibacumab for the Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration “Animal Rule”. Front. Microbiol. 2015, 6, 1320.
- IMpact-RSV Study Group. Palivizumab, a humanized respiratory syncytial virus monoclonal antibody, reduces hospitalization from respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. Pediatrics 1998, 102 Pt 1, 531–537.
- Hu, W.G.; Nagata, L.P. Opportunities and Challenges of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies as Medical Countermeasures for Biodefense. J. Bioterrorism Biodefense 2016, 7, 1000149.
- Hu, W.G.; Nagata, L.P.; Vallerand, A. Novel Technology Platform of Therapeutic Antibody Development against Biothreat Agents: Cutting Edge Innovation for National Defence and Public Security. DRDC Scientific Letter 2015, DRDC-RDDC-2015-L189.
- Hu, W.G.; Yin, J.; Jager, S.; Wong, C.; Fulton, C.; Rayner, G.A.; Aw, C.; Fisher, G.R.; Dai, X.; Nagata, L.P. A novel approach to development of monoclonal antibodies using native antigen for immunization and recombinant antigen for screening. Hybridoma 2008, 27, 307–311.