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Architecture and Challenges of Industrial Internet of Things
The inherent complexities of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) architecture make its security and privacy issues becoming critically challenging. Numerous surveys have been published to review IoT security issues and challenges. The studies gave a general overview of IIoT security threats or a detailed analysis that explicitly focuses on specific technologies. However, recent studies fail to analyze the gap between security requirements of these technologies and their deployed countermeasure in the industry recently. Whether recent industry countermeasure is still adequate to address the security challenges of IIoT environment are questionable.
|2010||Atzori et al. ||√||√||√||Data integrity and privacy issues specifically on wireless technologies: RFID and WSN|
|Weber ||√||Limited to address data and privacy legislation of the IoT and RFID|
|2012||Miorandi et al. ||√||√||√||A general overview of data confidentiality, privacy and trust specifically on distributed intelligence, communication and identification technologies|
|2013||Zhao and Ge ||√||√||A brief discussion of security attacks and measurements based on three-layer IoT architecture (perception layer, transport layer and application layer)|
|2014||Ziegeldorf et al. ||√||A general overview of IoT privacy threats and challenges|
|Jing et al. ||√||√||√||Analyze the cross-layer heterogenous and security issues of three-layer IoT architecture (Perception layer, transport layer and application layer) and focuses specifically on WSN and RFID|
|2015||Fremantle and Scott ||√||√||√||Middleware systems and their security properties, as well as a very brief discussion on future works|
|Granjal et al. ||√||√||IoT communication protocols and technologies specifically on MAC and Physical layers|
|Nguyen et al. ||√||√||IoT security protocols and key distribution specifically on WSN|
|2016||Airehrour et al. ||√||√||√||Secure routing protocols and trust models|
|Qin et al. ||√||√||Review IoT from a data-centric perspective, specifically on RFID|
|2017||Loi et al. ||√||√||√||Comprehensive security analysis on consumer IoT Devices|
|2018||Fernández-Caramés et al. ||√||√||Blockchain-based IoT application|
|2019||Hassija et al. ||√||√||Studies on the relationship between IoT application and related technologies: blockchain, machine learning, fog and cloud computing|
|Berkay et al. ||√||√||Security analysis of IoT programming platforms|
|Tabrizi and Pattabiraman ||√||√||Design-level and code-level security analysis on IoT devices|
|2020||Amanullah et al. ||√||√||√||Comparative analysis on the relationship of IoT security, deep learning and big data technologies|
|Lao et al. ||√||√||√||A review on blockchain-based IoT architecture|
|Joao et al. ||√||√||A general review on threat models and attack path of IoT|
|2021||Polychronou et al. ||√||√||Software attacks targeting hardware vulnerabilities and deep learning detection mechanisms in IIoT|
|Gaspar et al. ||√||√||A general IoT technologies review on Portugal’s Agro-Industry|
|Wu et al. ||√||√||Relations between machine learning and blockchain in IIoT|
|Latif et al. ||√||√||A general review on blockchain-based decentralized IIoT security|
The difference between conventional systems and IIoT security concerns are summarized. Decentralized security approaches with high scalability, high interoperability, lightweight, and secure data processing have urged to address the high heterogeneity of “things,” high volume, and variety of collected sensor data, as opposed to conventional security systems focused on a centralized approach.
Unlike recent IIoT architectures  that (i) focused on specific industries: aviation industry  and smart manufacturing , and (ii) targeted on particular technologies: M2M communication , green-aware multi-task scheduling  and 5G technology , we generalized the IIoT architecture into a four-layer architecture to cope with a wide of industry technologies and standards.
Subsequently, we classify the recent IIoT technologies and standards into the proposed four-layer IIoT architecture
The IIoT security requirements are further defined with the CIA+ model, includes confidentially(C), integrity(I), authentication(A), authorization and access control (A) and availability (A).
A comprehensive end-to-end security analysis was conducted based on the defined IIoT CIA+ model. Subsequently, a fine-grained review on recent industry technologies and standards in each layer of the proposed IIoT architecture. The identified security risks and threats of these industry technologies, their deployed security countermeasures and future research works are summarized
Lastly, we enumerate the open security challenges of IIoT and future research opportunities.
2. IIoT Security Challenges and Concerns
|Connected Nodes/Devices||Small to medium volume within the local networks||Billions of sensor nodes, actuators and automation devices connected|
|System Scalability||Optional||High scalability
The design of IIoT security systems should consider the identification and authentication of an enormous scale of “things”, scalability of communication networks and security key distribution and revocation issues in future
|System Interoperability||Optional||High interoperability Diverse security mechanisms and defence systems over the distributed networks must be standardized and compatible with each other to communicate, exchange and process data securely|
|Collected Data Types||Unified encoding scheme and data format, structured data||Confluent with the terms of “big data” characteristic:
|Data Processing Model||Moving data to process, moderate speed||Moving processing to data. In most industrial cases, high velocity necessitates real-time analytical processing|
|Security and Privacy Concerns||Data-at-rest
|Authentication and Access Control Mechanisms||Centralized Approach||Distributed, decentralized approach
3. IIoT Architecture
3.1. Overview of IoT and IIoT Architecture
3.2. The Proposed IIoT Security Architecture
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