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Stationary Fuel Cell System
Fuel cell technologies have several applications in stationary power production, such as units for primary power generation, grid stabilization, systems adopted to generate backup power, and combined-heat-and-power configurations (CHP). The main sectors where stationary fuel cells have been employed are (a) micro-CHP, (b) large stationary applications, (c) UPS, and IPS. The fuel cell size for stationary applications is strongly related to the power needed from the load. Since this sector ranges from simple backup systems to large facilities, the stationary fuel cell market includes few kWs and less (micro-generation) to larger sizes of MWs. The design parameters for the stationary fuel cell system differ for fuel cell technology (PEM, AFC, PAFC, MCFC, and SOFC), as well as the fuel type and supply.
Among the several options that the scientific community is recognizing as key elements to address climate changes  and fossil fuel dependence , fuel cell (FC) technologies are worldwide recognized as the best options to decarbonize the stationary power production sectors , including primary power generation units, backup power systems, and combined-heat-and-power configurations (CHP) .
Fuel cell technologies are capable of providing very high efficiency, minimum pollution, and high reliability . The technology is applied in industries ranging from a distributed generation for power companies , to residential and industrial co-generation , portable generation , and vehicles . The fuel cells are receiving considerable attention as they constitute, thanks to their ability to optimally use hydrogen , the key technology for the development of this energy carrier . The design parameters for the stationary fuel cell system differ for fuel cell technology (PEM, AFC, PAFC, MCFC, and SOFC), as well as the fuel choice and supply .
The main sectors where stationary fuel cells have been employed are (a) micro-CHP, (b) large stationary applications, (c) uninterruptible power supply (UPS), and integrated power supply (IPS). The fuel cell size for stationary applications is strongly related to the power needed from the load. Since this sector ranges from simple backup systems to large facilities, the stationary fuel cell market includes few kWs and even fewer (micro-generation) and larger sizes of MWs.
2. The Key Role of Fuel Cell Technology
Hydrogen injection and burned via direct combustion;
Hydrogen oxidation via catalytic combustion, with no-flame production;
Production of water as steam, when pure hydrogen is combined with oxygen at high temperature;
Hydrogen as reactant gas in a fuel cell operation.
3. Fuel Cell Installations
4. Niche Applications
5. Breakdown of the Current Costs
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/en14164963
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